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Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in the Uinta Basin, Utah: Point Sources Compared to Ambient Air Composition : Volume 14, Issue 8 (13/05/2014)

By Warneke, C.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003996841
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 33
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in the Uinta Basin, Utah: Point Sources Compared to Ambient Air Composition : Volume 14, Issue 8 (13/05/2014)  
Author: Warneke, C.
Volume: Vol. 14, Issue 8
Language: English
Subject: Science, Atmospheric, Chemistry
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2014
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

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Edwards, P. M., Ryerson, T. B., Dube, W., Geiger, F., Roberts, J. M., Gilman, J.,...Graus, M. (2014). Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in the Uinta Basin, Utah: Point Sources Compared to Ambient Air Composition : Volume 14, Issue 8 (13/05/2014). Retrieved from http://www.worldlibrary.in/


Description
Description: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA. The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aromatics, alkanes, cycloalkanes and methanol were observed for extended periods of time and short-term spikes caused by local point sources. The mixing ratios during the time the mobile laboratory spent on the well pads were averaged. High mixing ratios were found close to all point sources, but gas wells using dry-gas collection, which means dehydration happens at the well, were clearly associated with higher mixing ratios than other wells. Another large source was the flowback pond near a recently hydraulically re-fractured gas well. The comparison of the VOC composition of the emissions from the oil and natural gas wells showed that wet gas collection wells compared well with the majority of the data at Horse Pool and that oil wells compared well with the rest of the ground site data. Oil wells on average emit heavier compounds than gas wells. The mobile laboratory measurements confirm the results from an emissions inventory: the main VOC source categories from individual point sources are dehydrators, oil and condensate tank flashing and pneumatic devices and pumps. Raw natural gas is emitted from the pneumatic devices and pumps and heavier VOC mixes from the tank flashings.

Summary
Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uinta Basin, Utah: point sources compared to ambient air composition

Excerpt
Allen, D. T., Torres, V. M., Thomas, J., Sullivan, D. W., Harrison, M., Hendler, A., Herndon, S. C., Kolb, C. E., Fraser, M. P., Hill, A. D., Lamb, B. K., Miskimins, J., Sawyer, R. F., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Measurements of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in the United States, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110, 17768–17773, 2013.; de Gouw, J. A. and Warneke, C.: Measurements of volatile organic compounds in the earths atmosphere using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry, Mass Spectrom. Rev., 26, 223–257, 2007.; Edwards, P. M., Young, C. J., Aikin, K., deGouw, J., Dubé, W. P., Geiger, F., Gilman, J., Helmig, D., Holloway, J. S., Kercher, J., Lerner, B., Martin, R., McLaren, R., Parrish, D. D., Peischl, J., Roberts, J. M., Ryerson, T. B., Thornton, J., Warneke, C., Williams, E. J., and Brown, S. S.: Ozone photochemistry in an oil and natural gas extraction region during winter: simulations of a snow-free season in the Uintah Basin, Utah, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8955–8971, doi:10.5194/acp-13-8955-2013, 2013.; Francis, G. J., Wilson, P. F., Milligan, D. B., Langford, V. S., and McEwan, M. T.: GeoVOC: a SIFT-MS method for the analysis of small linear hydrocarbons of relevance to oil exploration, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 268, 38–46, 2007.; Fuchs, H., Dube, W. P., Lerner, B. M., Wagner, N. L., Williams, E. J., and Brown, S. S.: A sensitive and versatile detector for atmospheric NO2 and NOx based on blue diode laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 7831–7836, 2009.; Gilman, J. B., Burkhart, J. F., Lerner, B. M., Williams, E. J., Kuster, W. C., Goldan, P. D., Murphy, P. C., Warneke, C., Fowler, C., Montzka, S. A., Miller, B. R., Miller, L., Oltmans, S. J., Ryerson, T. B., Cooper, O. R., Stohl, A., and de Gouw, J. A.: Ozone variability and halogen oxidation within the Arctic and sub-Arctic springtime boundary layer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10223–10236, doi:10.5194/acp-10-10223-2010, 2010.; Gilman, J. B., Lerner, B. M., Kuster, W. C., and de Gouw, J. A.: Source signature of volatile organic compounds from oil and natural gas operations in Northeastern Colorado, Environ. Sci. Technol., 47, 1297–1305, 2013.; Howarth, R. W., Santoro, R., and Ingraffea, A.: Methane and the greenhouse-gas footprint of natural gas from shale formations, Climatic Change, 106, 679–690, 2011.; Karion, A., Sweeney, C., Petron, G., Frost, G., Hardesty, R. M., Kofler, J., Miller, B. R., Newberger, T., Wolter, S., Banta, R., Brewer, A., Dlugokencky, E., Lang, P., Montzka, S. A., Schnell, R., Tans, P., Trainer, M., Zamora, R., and Conley, S.: Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 4393–4397, 2013.; Katzenstein, A. S., Doezema, L. A., Simpson, I. J., Blake, D. R., and Rowland, F. S.: Extensive regional atmospheric hydrocarbon pollution in the southwestern United States, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 100, 11975–11979, 2003.; Kemball-Cook, S., Bar-Ilan, A., Grant, J., Parker, L., Jung, J. G., Santamaria, W., Mathews, J., and Yarwood, G.: Ozone Impacts of Natural Gas Development in the Haynesville Shale, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 9357–9363, 2010.; Litovitz, A., Curtright, A., Abramzon, S., Burger, N., and Samaras, C.: Estimation of regional air-quality damages from Marcellus Shale natural gas extraction in Pennsylvania, Environ. Res. Lett., 8, 014017, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/014017, 2013.; McKenzie, L. M., Witter, R. Z., Newman, L. S., and Adgate, J. L.: Human health risk assessment of air emissions from development of unconventional natural gas resources, Sci. Total Environ., 424, 79–87, 2012.; Peischl, J., Ryerson, T. B., Holloway, J. S., Trainer, M., Andrews, A. E., Atlas, E. L., Blake, D. R.


 

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