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William Slim

Field Marshal The Right Honourable
The Viscount Slim
William Slim in 1950
13th Governor-General of Australia
In office
8 May 1953 – 2 February 1960
Monarch Elizabeth II
Preceded by Sir William McKell
Succeeded by The Viscount Dunrossil
Personal details
Born (1891-08-06)6 August 1891
Bishopston, Bristol
United Kingdom
Died 14 December 1970(1970-12-14) (aged 79)
London, United Kingdom
Relations John Slim, 2nd Viscount Slim
Military service
Nickname(s) Uncle Bill
Allegiance  British Empire
Service/branch  British Army
 British Indian Army
Years of service 1914–1948
Rank Field Marshal
Commands Fourteenth Army
Chief of the Imperial General Staff
Battles/wars First World War

Second World War

Awards Knight of the Garter
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George
Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire
Distinguished Service Order
Military Cross
Knight of the Order of St John
Chief Commander of the Legion of Merit (United States)

Field Marshal William Joseph "Bill" Slim, 1st Viscount Slim[1]         (6 August 1891 – 14 December 1970) was a British military commander and the 13th Governor-General of Australia.

He fought in both the First and Second world wars and was wounded in action three times. During World War II he led the 14th Army, the so-called "forgotten army" in the Burma campaign. From 1953 to 1959 he was Governor-General of Australia, regarded by many Australians as an authentic war hero who had fought with the Anzacs at Gallipoli.[2]

Early years

Slim was born in Bishopston, near Bristol to John and Charlotte (née Tucker) Slim, where he was baptised at St. Bonaventure's Roman Catholic church. He was brought up in Birmingham, attending St. Philip's Grammar School (Edgbaston, Birmingham) and King Edward's School (also Birmingham). After leaving school, his father's failure in business as a wholesale ironmonger meant that the family could only afford to send his older brother to Birmingham University,[3] so he taught at a primary school and worked as a clerk in Stewarts & Lloyds, a metal-tube maker, between 1910 and 1914.

Despite having no connection to the university,[3] he joined Birmingham University Officers' Training Corps in 1912, and was thus able to be commissioned as a temporary second lieutenant in the Royal Warwickshire Regiment on 22 August 1914, at the outbreak of the First World War; in later life, as a result of his modest social origins and unpretentious manner, he was sometimes wrongly supposed to have risen from the ranks. He was badly wounded at Gallipoli. On return to England, he was granted a regular commission as a second lieutenant in the West India Regiment. In October 1916, he returned to the Royal Warwickshire Regiment in Mesopotamia. On 4 March 1917, he was promoted to lieutenant (with seniority back-dated to October 1915).[4] He was wounded a second time in 1917. Having been previously given the temporary rank of captain, he was awarded the Military Cross on 7 February 1918 for actions in Mesopotamia.[5]

Evacuated to India, he was given the temporary rank of Major in the 6th Gurkha Rifles on 2 November 1918.[6] He was formally promoted to captain and transferred to the British Indian Army on 22 May 1919.[7] He became adjutant of the battalion in 1921.

Personal life

He married Aileen Robertson in 1926 (died 1993), later Viscountess Slim, by whom he had one son and one daughter.

In 1926, Slim was sent to the Indian Staff College at Quetta. On 5 June 1929, he was appointed a General Staff Officer, Second Grade[8] On 1 January 1930, he was given the brevet rank of major,[9] with formal promotion to this rank made on 19 May 1933.[10] His performance at Staff College resulted in his appointment first to Army Headquarters India in Delhi and then to Staff College, Camberley in England (as a General Staff Officer, Second Grade),[11] where he taught from 1934 to 1937. In 1938, he was promoted to lieutenant-colonel[12] and given command of the 2nd Battalion, 7th Gurkha Rifles. In 1939 he was briefly given the temporary rank of brigadier as commander of his battalion.[13] On 8 June 1939, he was promoted to colonel (again with temporary rank of brigadier)[14] and appointed head of the Senior Officers' School at Belgaum, India.[15]

Second World War

East African Campaign

On the outbreak of the Second World War, Slim was given command of the Indian 10th Brigade of the Indian 5th Infantry Division and was sent to Sudan. He took part in the East African Campaign to liberate Ethiopia from the Italians. Slim was wounded again during the fighting in Eritrea. On 21 January 1941, Slim was hit when his position was strafed during the advance on Agordat.

Middle East

Recovering from his wounds but still unfit for active service, Slim was temporarily employed on the General Staff at GHQ in Delhi. He was involved in the planning for potential operations in Iraq where trouble was expected. By early May 1941 Slim had been appointed Brigadier General Staff (chief staff officer) to Edward Quinan the commander designate for operations in Iraq, arriving in Basra on 7 May.[16] Not long afterwards, Major-General Fraser, commanding Indian 10th Infantry Division, fell ill and was relieved of his command and Slim promoted to take his place on the 15 May 1941[17] in the acting rank of major-general.[18] He led the Indian 10th Infantry Division as part of Iraqforce during the Anglo-Iraqi War, the Syria-Lebanon Campaign (where the division advanced up the river Euphrates to capture Deir ez-Zor), and the invasion of Persia. He was twice mentioned in despatches during 1941.[19]

Burma campaign

See South-East Asian Theatre of World War II and Burma Campaign

In March 1942, Slim was given command of Burma Corps, also known as BurCorps, consisting of the 17th Indian Infantry Division and 1st Burma Division. Slim was made acting lieutenant-general on 8 May 1942.[20] The corps was under attack in Burma by the Japanese and, heavily outclassed by the more mobile and flexible Japanese, he was soon forced to withdraw to India. On 28 October 1942, he was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE).[21]

Slim then took over XV Corps under the command of the Eastern Army. His command covered the coastal approaches from Burma to India, east of Chittagong. He had a series of disputes with Noel Irwin, commander of Eastern Army and, as a result, Irwin (although an army commander) took personal control of the initial advance by XV Corps into the Arakan Peninsula. The operations ended in disaster, during which Slim was restored to command of XV Corps, albeit too late to salvage the situation. General Irwin and Slim blamed each other for the result but in the end Irwin was removed from his command and Slim was promoted to command the new Fourteenth Army—formed from IV Corps (United Kingdom) (Imphal), XV Corps (Arakan) and XXXIII Corps (reserve) – later joined by XXXIV Corps. On 14 January 1943, Slim was awarded the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) for his actions in the Middle East during 1941.[22]

Slim quickly got on with the task of training his new army to take the fight to the enemy. The basic premise was that off-road mobility was paramount: much heavy equipment was exchanged for mule- or air-transported equipment and motor transport was kept to a minimum and restricted to those vehicles that could cope with some of the worst combat terrain on Earth. The new doctrine dictated that if the Japanese had cut the lines of communication, then they too were surrounded. All units were to form defensive 'boxes', to be resupplied by air and assisted by integrated close air support and armour. The boxes were designed as an effective response to the tactics of infiltration practised by the Japanese in the war. Slim also supported increased offensive patrolling and night training, to encourage his soldiers to lose both their fear of the jungle and their belief that Japanese soldiers were better jungle fighters.

At the start of 1944, Slim held the official rank of colonel with a war-time rank of major-general and the temporary rank of lieutenant-general.[23] In January 1944, when the Second Arakan Offensive was met by a Japanese counter-offensive, the Indian 7th Infantry Division was quickly surrounded along with parts of the Indian 5th Infantry Division and the 81st (West Africa) Division. The 7th Indian Division's defence was based largely on the "Admin Box"—formed initially from drivers, cooks, suppliers etc. They were supplied by air, thus negating the importance of their lost supply lines. The Japanese forces were able to halt the offensive into Arakan, but they were unable to decisively defeat the allied forces or advance beyond the surrounded formations.

In early 1944, Slim was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB).[24] Later in 1944 the Japanese launched an invasion of India aimed at Imphal, hundreds of miles to the north. Slim airlifted two entire veteran divisions (5th & 7th Indian) from battle in the Arakan, straight into battle in the north. Desperate defensive actions were fought at places such as Imphal, Sangshak and Kohima, while the RAF and USAAF kept the forces supplied from the air. While the Japanese were able to advance and encircle the formations of 14th Army, they were unable to defeat those same forces or break out of the jungles along the Indian frontier. The Japanese advance stalled. The Japanese, who had a contempt for British and Indian troops based on their performance in 1941–42 refused to give up even after the monsoon started and large parts of their army were wrecked by conducting operations in impossible conditions. The initial Japanese plan was to capture Allied stocks of food, medicine and fuel to sustain their advance; but they failed to capture any stockpiles. As a result their units took unsupportable casualties and were finally forced to retreat in total disorder in July 1944, leaving behind many dead from hunger and disease as well as their injured. On 8 August 1944, Slim was promoted to lieutenant-general,[25] and, on 28 September 1944, he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB).[26] In December 1944, during a ceremony at Imphal in front of the Scottish, Gurkha and Punjabi regiments, Slim and three of his corps commanders (Christison, Scoones and Stopford) were knighted by the viceroy Lord Wavell and invested with their honours: Slim was presented with his insignia as KCB, the others with their KBEs. Slim was also mentioned in despatches.[27]

In 1945, Slim launched an offensive into Burma, with lines of supply stretching almost to breaking point across hundreds of miles of trackless jungle. He faced the same problems that the Japanese had faced in their failed 1944 offensive in the opposite direction. He made the supply of his armies the central issue in the plan of the campaign. The Chindwin River was spanned with the longest Bailey bridge in the world at the time. After crossing the Irrawaddy the town of Meiktila was taken, followed by Burma's second city, Mandalay. Slim's plan was a masterpiece of operational art, and the capture of Meiktila left stranded most of Japan's troops in Burma without supplies. The Allies had reached the open plains of central Burma, sallying out and breaking Japanese attacking forces in isolation, maintaining the initiative at all times, backed up by air-land co-operation including resupply by air and close air support, performed by both RAF and USAAF units.

In combination with these attacks, Force 136 helped initiate a countrywide uprising of the Burmese people against the Japanese. In addition to fighting the allied advance south, the Japanese were faced with heavy attacks from behind their own lines. Toward the end of the campaign, the army raced south to capture Rangoon before the start of the monsoon. It was considered necessary to capture the port because of the length of the supply lines overland from India and the impossibility of supply by air or land during the monsoon. Rangoon was eventually taken by a combined attack from the land (Slim's army), the air (parachute operations south of the city) and a seaborne invasion. Also assisting in the capture of Rangoon was the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League led by Thakin Soe with Aung San (the future Prime Minister of Burma and father of Aung San Suu Kyi) as one of its military commanders.

As the Burma campaign came to an end Slim was informed in May by Oliver Leese, the commander of Allied Land Forces South-East Asia (ALFSEA) that he would not be commanding Fourteenth Army in the forthcoming invasion planned for Malaya but would take command of the new Twelfth Army being formed to mop up in Burma.[28] Slim refused the appointment, saying he would prefer to retire. As the news spread Fourteenth Army fell into turmoil and Alan Brooke, the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, furious at not having been consulted by Leese, and Claude Auchinleck, the C-in-C India who was at the time in London, brought pressure to bear.[29] The Supreme Allied Commander of the Southeast Asia Theatre, Louis Mountbatten was obliged to order Leese to undo the damage. On 1 July 1945, Slim was promoted to general[30] and was informed that he was to succeed Leese as C-in-C ALFSEA. However, by the time he took up the post, having taken some leave, the war was at an end.[28]

After the Second World War

Retirement from the army

At the end of 1945 Slim returned to the UK. On 1 January 1946, he was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE).[31] and took the post of Commandant of the Imperial Defence College for its first course since 1939. On 7 February 1947 he was made an Aide-de-camp (ADC) to the King.[32] At the end of his two-year appointment at the Imperial Defence College Slim retired as ADC and from the army on 11 May 1948.[33] He had been approached by both India and Pakistan to become C-in-C of their respective armies post independence but refused and instead became Deputy Chairman of the Railway Executive.[34]

Return to the army

However, in November 1948 the British Prime Minister Clement Attlee rejected the proposal by Viscount Montgomery that he should be succeeded as Chief of the Imperial General Staff (CIGS) by John Crocker and instead brought back Slim from retirement in the rank of field marshal in January 1949[35] with formal appointment to the Army Council from 1 January 1949.[36] Slim thus became the first Indian Army officer to be become CIGS.[34]

On 2 January 1950, he was promoted to Knight Grand Cross in the Order of the Bath (GCB)[37] and later that year was made a Chief Commander of the Legion of Merit by the United States[38] having previously, in 1948, been awarded the lower ranking Commander of the Legion of Merit.[39] On 1 November 1952, he relinquished the position of Chief of the Imperial General Staff.[40]

Governor-General of Australia

On 10 December 1952 Slim was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) on his appointment as Governor-General of Australia[41] which post he took up on 8 May 1953. On 2 January 1953, he was appointed a Knight of the Order of St. John (KStJ).[42]

Slim was a popular choice for Governor-General since he was an authentic war hero who had fought alongside Australians at Gallipoli and in the Middle East. In 1954 he was able to welcome Queen Elizabeth II on the first visit by a reigning monarch to Australia. For his services to the Queen during the tour, he was appointed a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO) on 27 April 1954.[43] Liberal leader Robert Menzies held office throughout Slim's time in Australia. His Official Secretary throughout his term was Murray Tyrrell.

Slim's duties as Governor-General were entirely ceremonial and there were no controversies during his term. However, during his tenure he was patron of the Fairbridge Farms child migration homes in Australia. In 2007 allegations were made by three former residents that as young boys Slim had sexually assaulted them during visits to the farms.[44] These unproven allegations were dismissed out of hand at that time by those who had served under Slim in the army and by his son John Slim, 2nd Viscount Slim.[45] The allegations were aired again on ABC television in the programme The Long Journey Home, broadcast on 17 November 2009, the day after the parliamentary apology to the Forgotten Australians.[46]


In 1959, Slim retired and returned to Britain, where he published his memoirs, Unofficial History. He had already published his personal narrative of the Burma Campaign, Defeat into Victory, in 1956. On 24 April 1959, he was appointed a Knight Companion of the Order of the Garter (KG).[47] On 15 July 1960, he was created "Viscount Slim of Yarralumla in the Capital Territory of Australia and of Bishopston in the City and County of Bristol".[48] After a successful further career on the boards of major UK companies, he was appointed Constable and Governor of Windsor Castle on 18 June 1964.[49] He died in London on 14 December 1970, aged 79.


  • The road William Slim Drive, in the district of Belconnen, Canberra is named after him.
  • On 7 September 2008, a plaque in Slim's memory, and those who served with him, was unveiled at the Cenotaph in his native Bristol. Fr Robert King of the Diocese of Clifton was joined by faith leaders from the Hindu, Muslim and Sikh communities at the ceremony, which was led by the Lord Mayor of Bristol's chaplain, the Rev. Prebendary Harold Clarke.[51]
  • The road Viscount Slim Avenue, in Whyalla, South Australia is named after him.

Relations with troops

Slim had a unique relationship with his troops – the "Forgotten Army", as they called themselves. In his book, Defeat into Victory, he tells of the malaria rates among his units being 70%, largely due to noncompliance by his soldiers with the foul-tasting quinine medication they refused to take. Slim did not blame his medics for this problem, but placed the responsibility on his officers. "Good doctors are no use without good discipline. More than half the battle against disease is fought not by the doctors, but by the regimental officers."[52]

After Slim dismissed a few officers for high unit malaria rates, the others realised he was serious and malaria treatment was enforced, dropping the rate to less than 5%. The combat effectiveness of his army was thus greatly enhanced. It was this physical and mental turnaround in the army under him that was a contributing factor to the eventual defeat of the Japanese in Burma.

Of all the memorials to Slim the one that he would perhaps have cherished most was the impact he made on those he commanded. A half-century later, one of them (George MacDonald Fraser, later author of the Flashman novels, then a nineteen-year-old lance corporal) recalled:

But the biggest boost to morale was the burly man who came to talk to the assembled battalion … it was unforgettable. Slim was like that: the only man I've ever seen who had a force that came out of him[53]...British soldiers don't love their commanders much less worship them; Fourteenth Army trusted Slim and thought of him as one of themselves, and perhaps his real secret was that the feeling was mutual.[54]

Slim's place in history

Lieutenant General Sir John Kiszely has recommended Slim's memoirs (Defeat into Victory) describing Slim as "perhaps the Greatest Commander of the 20th Century" and commenting on Slim's "self-deprecating style"[55] Slim discussed his mistakes during the war in detail and lessons learned, which may help explain why his memoirs have never been out of print. Slim's 14th Army was composed of an amalgam of Indian (Hindu, Sikh and Muslim troops), British, African, and other troops; he was on the far end of a long logistical pipeline and generally had the oldest equipment of any Allied army.

As a British commander on the Asian mainland, Slim (and his contribution to the U.S. war effort in the Pacific) has often been ignored in U.S. history books. For three years, Slim's soldiers tied down tens of thousands of Japanese troops in Burma that could have been otherwise redeployed against U.S. forces in New Guinea, the Philippines, Iwo Jima and Okinawa.

Military historian Max Hastings:

In contrast to almost every other outstanding commander of the war, Slim was a disarmingly normal human being, possessed of notable self-knowledge. He was without pretension, devoted to his wife, Aileen, their family and the Indian Army. His calm, robust style of leadership and concern for the interests of his men won the admiration of all who served under him ... His blunt honesty, lack of bombast and unwillingness to play courtier did him few favours in the corridors of power. Only his soldiers never wavered in their devotion.[56]

The spirit of comradeship Slim created within 14th Army lived on after the war in the Burma Star Association, of which Slim was a co-founder and first President.[57]

A statue of Slim on Whitehall, outside the Ministry of Defence, was unveiled by Queen Elizabeth II in 1990. Designed by Ivor Roberts-Jones, the statue is one of three of British Second World War military leaders (the others being Alan Brooke and Montgomery).[58]

Slim's papers were collected by his biographer, Ronald Lewin, and given to the Churchill Archives Centre by Slim's wife, Aileen, Viscountess Slim, and son, John Slim, 2nd Viscount Slim, and other donors, 1977–2001.[59] Lewin's biography, Slim: The Standardbearer, was awarded the 1977 WH Smith Literary Award.

List of honours

Knight of the Order of the Garter (KG) 24 April 1959
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) 2 January 1950
Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) 28 September 1944
Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) 1944
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) 10 December 1952
Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO) 16 February 1954
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE) 1 January 1946
Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) 28 October 1942
Knight of the Order of St John (KStJ) 2 January 1953
Companion of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) 14 January 1943
Military Cross (MC) 7 February 1918
1914–15 Star
British War Medal
Victory Medal
1939-45 Star
Africa Star
Burma Star
80px War Medal 1939–1945 With Oakleaf for Mentioned in Despatches (Two MIDs 1941)
Chief Commander of the Legion of Merit (United States)


1891–1914: William Slim
1914–1916: Temp. Second Lieutenant William Slim
1916–1917: Second Lieutenant William Slim
1917 – 7 February 1918: Lieutenant (Temp. Captain) William Slim
7 February – 2 November 1918: Lieutenant (Temp. Captain) William Slim, MC
2 November 1918 – 22 May 1919: Lieutenant (Temp. Major) William Slim, MC
22 May 1919 – 1 January 1930: Captain (Temp. Major) William Slim, MC
1 January 1930 – 1933: Captain (Brevet Major) William Slim, MC
1933–1938: Major William Slim, MC
1938 – 12 May 1939: Lieutenant-Colonel William Slim, MC
12 May – 8 June 1939: Lieutenant-Colonel (Temp. Brigadier) William Slim, MC
8 June 1939 – 14 May 1941: Colonel (Temp. Brigadier) William Slim, MC
15 May 1941 – 18 March 1942: Colonel (Actg. Major-General) William Slim, MC
19 March 1942 – 27 October 1942: Colonel (Actg. Lieutenant-General) William Slim, MC
28 October 1942 – 13 January 1943: Colonel (Actg. Lieutenant-General) William Slim, CBE, MC
14 January 1943 – 18 March 1943: Colonel (Actg. Lieutenant-General) William Slim, CBE, DSO, MC
19 March 1943 – 15 November 1943: Colonel (Temp. Lieutenant-General) William Slim, CBE, DSO, MC
16 November 1943 – January 1944: Major-General (Temp. Lieutenant-General) William Slim, CBE, DSO, MC
January – 2 April 1944: Major-General (Temp. Lieutenant-General) William Slim, CB, CBE, DSO, MC
3 April 1944 – 27 September 1944: Lieutenant-General William Slim, CB, CBE, DSO, MC
28 September 1944 – 30 June 1945: Lieutenant-General Sir William Slim, KCB, CBE, DSO, MC
1 July 1945 – 31 December 1945: General Sir William Slim, KCB, CBE, DSO, MC
1 January 1946 – 6 February 1947: General Sir William Slim, GBE, KCB, DSO, MC
7 February 1947 – 11 May 1948: General Sir William Slim, GBE, KCB, DSO, MC, ADC
11 May 1948 – 3 January 1949: General Sir William Slim, GBE, KCB, DSO, MC
4 January 1949 – 1 January 1950: Field Marshal Sir William Slim, GBE, KCB, DSO, MC
2 January 1950 – 9 December 1952: Field Marshal Sir William Slim, GCB, GBE, DSO, MC
10 December 1952 – 1 January 1953: Field Marshal Sir William Slim, GCB, GCMG, GBE, DSO, MC
2 January 1953 – 7 May 1953: Field Marshal Sir William Slim, GCB, GCMG, GBE, KStJ, DSO, MC
8 May 1953 – 15 February 1954: His Excellency Field Marshal Sir William Slim, GCB, GCMG, GBE, KStJ, DSO, MC
16 February 1954 – 23 April 1959: His Excellency Field Marshal Sir William Slim, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, GBE, KStJ, DSO, MC
24 April 1959 – 2 February 1960: His Excellency Field Marshal Sir William Slim, KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, GBE, KStJ, DSO, MC
3 February 1960 – 14 July 1960: Field Marshal Sir William Slim, KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, GBE, KStJ, DSO, MC
15 July 1960 – 14 December 1970: Field Marshal The Right Honourable The Viscount Slim, KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, GBE, KStJ, DSO, MC




  • (Stone & Stone, 1 August 1997. NOTE: The original edition contains more detailed description of operations than does the 1961 edition.)

Further reading

External links

  • Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by
  • : "The joint winners of Britain's Greatest General, as decided by the audience at [the National Army Museum] celebrity speaker event on Saturday 9 April 2011, were William Slim and The Duke of Wellington".
Military offices
Preceded by
H. R. C. Lane
Commander, 10th Brigade of the Indian 5th Infantry Division
September 1939 – January 1941
Succeeded by
Bernard Campbell Fletcher
Preceded by
William Archibald Kenneth Fraser
Commander, Indian 10th Infantry Division
May 1941 – March 1942
Succeeded by
Thomas Wynford Rees
Preceded by
Lieutenant-General Noel Beresford-Peirse
Commander, XV Corps
June 1942 – October 1943
Succeeded by
Lieutenant-General Philip Christison
New title Commander, Fourteenth Army
October 1943 – August 1945
Succeeded by
Lieutenant-General Miles Dempsey
Title last held by
Vice Admiral Hugh Binney
Commandant of the Imperial Defence College
1 January 1946 – 11 May 1948
Succeeded by
Air Chief Marshal Sir John Slessor
Preceded by
The Viscount Montgomery of Alamein
Chief of the Imperial General Staff
Succeeded by
Sir John Harding
Government offices
Preceded by
Sir William McKell
Governor-General of Australia
Succeeded by
The Viscount Dunrossil
Honorary titles
Title last held by
The Earl of Athlone
Constable and Governor of Windsor Castle
Succeeded by
The Lord Elworthy
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Viscount Slim
Succeeded by
John Douglas Slim

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