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Volatiles

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Volatiles

This cut-away illustrates a model of the interior of Jupiter, with a rocky core overlaid by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen.

In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet's or moon's crust and/or atmosphere. Examples include nitrogen, water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen, methane and sulfur dioxide. In astrogeology, these compounds, in their solid state, often comprise large proportions of the crusts of moons and dwarf planets.

In contrast with volatiles, elements and compounds with high boiling points are known as refractory substances.[1]

Planetary scientists often classifly volatiles with exceptionally low melting points, such as hydrogen and helium, as gases (as in gas giant), while those volatiles with melting points above about 100 K are referred to as ices. The terms "gas" and "ice" in this context can apply to compounds that may be solids, liquids or gases. Thus, Jupiter and Saturn are referred to as "gas giants", and Uranus and Neptune are referred to as "ice giants", even though the vast majority of the "gas" and "ice" in their interiors is a hot, highly dense fluid that gets denser as the center of the planet is approached.

The Moon is very low in volatiles: its crust contains oxygen chemically bound into the rocks (in, for example, silicates), but negligible amounts of hydrogen, nitrogen or carbon.

Igneous petrology

In igneous petrology the term more specifically refers to the volatile components of magma (mostly water vapor and carbon dioxide) that affect the appearance and explosivity of volcanoes. Volatiles in a magma with a high viscosity, generally felsic with a higher silica (SiO2) content, tend to produce eruptions that are explosive. Volatiles in a magma with a low viscosity, generally mafic with a lower silica content, tend to vent and can give rise to a lava fountain.

Volatiles in magma

Some volcanic eruptions are explosive because the mixing between water and magma reaching the surface, releases energy suddenly. Moreover, in some cases, the eruption is caused by volatiles dissolved in the magma.[2] Approaching the surface, pressure decreases and the volatiles evolve creating bubbles which circulate in the liquid. The bubbles are connected together forming a network. This especially increments the fragmentation into small drops or spray or coagulate clots in gas.[2]

Generally, 95-99% of magma is liquid rock. However, the small percentage of gas present, represents a very large volume when it expands on reaching atmospheric pressure. Gas is a preponderant part in a volcano system because it generates explosive eruptions.[2] Magma in the mantle and lower crust have a lot of volatiles within and water and carbon dioxide are not the only volatiles that volcanoes release. Also they leak hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide is usually possible to find in basaltic and rhyolite rocks. Volcanoes also release a high amount of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride as volatiles.[2]

Solubility of volatiles

There are three main factors which effect the dispersion of volatiles in magma: confining pressure, composition of magma, temperature of magma. Pressure and composition are the most important parameters.[2] Before understand how the magma behaves rising the surface, we have to know what is the role of solubility within the magma. There is an empirical law that scientists have found. It has been used for different magma-volatiles combination. For instance, for water in magma the equation is n=0.1078 P where n is the amount of dissolved gas respect of the weight percentage (w%), P is the pressure in megapascal (MPa) that acts on the magma. The value changes for example for water in rhyolite where n=0.4111 P and for the carbon dioxide is n=0.0023 P. These are simple equations when there is only one volatile in magma. However, in reality, the situation is not so simple because there are more than one volatile into the magma. It is a complex chemical interaction between different volatiles.[2]

Simplifying, the solubility of water in rhyolite and basalt is function of pressure and depth below the surface in absence of other volatiles. Both basalt and rhyolite lose water decreasing the pressure, basically when the magma rises to the surface. The solubility of water is higher in rhyolite than basaltic magma. Thank to the solubility it is possible to observe how the maximum amount of water might dissolve in relation with pressure.[2] Actually the magma could not contain the amount of water dissolved within it. If the magma contains less water that it could, it is undersaturated in water. Usually there are not enough water and carbon dioxide in deep crust and mantle, so magma is often undersaturated in these conditions. Magma becomes saturated when reaches the maximum amount water that can be dissolved in it. If the magma continues to rise up to the surface and more water is dissolved in it becomes supersaturated. At this moment of the process, if other water is dissolved in magma, it can be ejected as bubbles or vapor water. This happens because pressure decreases in the process and velocity increases and the process has to balance also between decrease of solubility and pressure.[2] Making a comparison with the solubility of carbon dioxide in magma, this is considerably less than water and it tends to exolve at greater depth. In this case water and carbon dioxide are considered independent but in reality they are not.[2] What affects the behavior of the magmatic system is the depth on which carbon dioxide and water are released. Low solubility of carbon dioxide means that it starts to release bubbles before reaching the magma chamber. The magma is at this point already supersaturated. The magma reached in carbon dioxide bubbles, rises up to the roof of the camber and carbon dioxide tends to leak through cracks to the caldera.[2] Basically, when there is an eruption the magma looses more carbon dioxide than water, that in the chamber is already supersaturated. Overall, water is the main volatile during an eruption.[2]

Nucleation of bubbles

Bubble nucleation happens when the last volatile becomes saturated. Actually the bubbles are composed of molecules which tend to aggregate spontaneously in a process called homogeneous nucleation. The surface tension acts on the bubbles shrinking the surface and forces them back to the liquid.[2] The nucleation process its greater when the space to fit is irregular and the volatile molecules can ease the effect of surface tension.[2] The nucleation can occur thanks to the presence of solid crystals, which are stored in the magma chamber. They are perfect potential nucleation sites for bubbles . If there is no nucleation in the magma the bubbles formation might appear really late and magma becomes significantly supersaturated. The balance between supersaturation pressure and bubble's radiuses expressed by this equation: ∆P=2σ/r, where ∆P is 100MPa and σ is the surface tension.[2] If the nucleation starts later when the magma is very supersaturated, the distance between bubbles becomes smaller.[2] Essentially if the magma rises rapidly to the surface, the system will be more out of equilibrium and supersaturated. When the magma rises there is competition between adding new molecules to the existing ones and create new ones. The distance between molecules characterizes the efficiency of volatiles to aggregate to aggregate to the new or existing site. Crystals inside magma can determine how bubbles grow and nucleate.[2]

Approaching the surface, pressure decreases and the volatiles evolves creating bubbles which circulate in the liquid. The bubbles are connected together forming a network. This especially increments the fragmentation into small drops or spray or coagulate clots in gas.[2] Generally, 95-99% of magma is liquid rock. However, the few percentage of gas present, represents a very large volume when it expand as atmospheric pressure is reached. Gas is an important part in a volcano system because it generates explosive eruptions.[2] Magma in mantle and the lower crust contain a lot of volatiles within in and water and carbon dioxide are not the only volatiles that volcanoes release. Also they leak hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide.[2] Sulfur dioxide is usually found in basaltic and rhyolite rocks.[2] Volcanoes release a high amount of volatiles, e.g. hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.[2]

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Parfitt E A, Wilson L, (2008): Fundamentals of Physical Volcanology. Blackwell Publishing, Malden USA

External links

  • Glossary of planetary astronomy terms
  • Volatiles of Costa Rican volcanoes.
  • Volatile Planetary Science Research Discoveries
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