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Tzipi Livni

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Title: Tzipi Livni  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: Benjamin Netanyahu, List of female cabinet ministers of Israel, Kadima, Kadima leadership election, 2008, Shaul Mofaz
Collection: 1958 Births, Ashkenazi Jews, Bar-Ilan University Alumni, Female Foreign Ministers, Hatnuah Politicians, Israeli Jews, Israeli Lawyers, Israeli Party Leaders, Israeli People of Belarusian Descent, Israeli People of Belarusian-Jewish Descent, Israeli People of Polish Descent, Israeli People of Polish-Jewish Descent, Israeli Spies, Israeli Women in Politics, Israeli Women's Rights Activists, Jewish Israeli Politicians, Jewish Politicians, Kadima Politicians, Lgbt Rights Activists from Israel, Likud Politicians, Living People, Members of the 15Th Knesset (1999–2003), Members of the 16Th Knesset (2003–06), Members of the 17Th Knesset (2006–09), Members of the 18Th Knesset (2009–13), Members of the 19Th Knesset (2013–15), Members of the 20Th Knesset (2015–), Members of the Knesset, Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Israel, Ministers of Justice of Israel, People from Tel Aviv, Women Lawyers
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Tzipi Livni

Tzipi Livni
Date of birth (1958-07-08) 8 July 1958
Place of birth Tel Aviv, Israel
Knessets 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20
Faction represented in Knesset
1999–2005 Likud
2005–2012 Kadima
2013–2015 Hatnuah
2015– Zionist Union
Ministerial roles
2001 Minister of Regional Cooperation
2001–2002 Minister without Portfolio
2002–2003 Minister of Agriculture
2003–2006 Minister of Immigrant Absorption
2004–2005 Minister of Housing and Construction
2006–2007 Minister of Justice
2006–2009 Minister of Foreign Affairs
2013–2014 Minister of Justice
Other roles
2006–2009 Vice Prime Minister
2009–2012 Leader of the Opposition
U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney meets with Israeli Minister of Foreign Affairs Tzipi Livni at the White House.
Livni with Palestinian National Authority prime minister Salam Fayyad at the World Economic Forum in Davos, 2008

Tziporah Malka "Tzipi" Livni (Hebrew: ציפורה מלכה "ציפי" לבני‎, pronounced ; born 8 July 1958) is a prominent Israeli politician.

Livni served as a minister in the cabinets of Ariel Sharon and Ehud Olmert from 2001 to 2009, most notably as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2009, during which time she also led peace talks with the Palestinians. She then served as Leader of the Opposition until 2012.[1] Between 18 March 2013 and 2 December 2014, as leader of the liberal Hatnuah party she founded,[2] Livni served as Minister of Justice in Benjamin Netanyahu's third government. She also led the Ministerial Committee on Legislation, was charged with overseeing Israel's diplomatic initiatives with the United States and Europe, and was chief negotiator in peace negotiations with the Palestinians. In December 2014, she teamed up with Labor Party and opposition leader Isaac Herzog and together formed a joint list, the Zionist Union, to contest Israel's 2015 elections.

Born to a prominent right-wing, revisionist Zionist family, Tzipi Livni has become one of Israel's leading voices for the two-state solution.[3][4] In Israel, she has earned a reputation as an honest politician who sticks to her principles.[5][6][7][8][9][10] In 2011 Livni was named one of "150 Women Who Shake the World" by Newsweek and The Daily Beast.[11]


  • Early life 1
  • Military service 2
  • Education, family, and early career 3
  • Early political career 4
  • As a member of the Knesset 5
  • Early cabinet positions 6
  • Kadima 7
    • Foreign minister 7.1
    • Vice prime minister 7.2
  • Kadima leadership and Prime minister designation 8
  • 2009 Knesset elections 9
  • Leader of the opposition 10
    • Criticism 10.1
    • UK arrest warrant 10.2
    • Kadima leadership loss and resignation 10.3
  • Founding Hatnuah 11
  • The Zionist Union and Opposition 12
  • References 13
  • External links 14

Early life

Born in Tel Aviv,[12] Livni is the daughter of Eitan Livni (born in Poland) and Sara (Rosenberg), both prominent former Irgun members.[13] After Israel's independence, Eitan and Sara Livni became the first couple to marry in the new state.[14] Her father served as the chief operations officer of the Irgun.

As a child, Livni was a member of the Betar youth movement and played basketball for Elitzur Tel Aviv.[15] Growing up in an Israel dominated by the Labour Party, Livni says she felt marginalized, believing that the establishment had minimized her parents’ contribution to Israel’s founding.[16] Despite the hard-line image of the Irgun, she says her parents had respect for the Arabs[16] and acted only against the British army, not civilians.[17] During the 1984 Likud primaries, her father, who had served in the Knesset for Herut and Likud as a moderate,[2] did not campaign for a seat in the Knesset, and urged party members to support a Druze candidate instead because he thought it important for Likud to have Arab representation.[16]

Military service

Livni served in the IDF, gaining rank of lieutenant.[18] Livni later served in the Mossad during 1980 and 1984, between the ages of 22 and 26. According to an interview in Yediot Aharonot, described in The Sunday Times, she served in the elite unit responsible for Operation Wrath of God.[19] She resigned from the IDF in August 1983 to marry and finish her law studies.[20]

Education, family, and early career

A graduate of Bar-Ilan University's Faculty of Law, she has practiced public and commercial law for over 10 years.[21] Livni resides in Tel Aviv. She is married to advertising executive Naftali Spitzer, and the couple have two children, Omri and Yuval. Livni has been a vegetarian since the age of 12.[22] Besides her native language, Hebrew, Livni also speaks English and fluent French (having lived in Paris for a number of years).[21]

Livni's father, a Likud member, died in 1991. Her mother, who died in 2007, stood by Livni's decision to leave Likud and also accepted the two-state solution.[14][16]

Early political career

Livni entered politics in 1996 when she tried unsuccessfully to win a spot on Likud's list to the Knesset. She was appointed as head of the government-owned corporations authority in Netanyahu's government, and oversaw the privatization of a number of companies. While in this capacity, in 1998 she was considered a prominent candidate to become director general of the Finance Ministry."[15]

Livni would later rue the decision to privatize certain companies and natural resources. As Hatnuah chairwoman in 2013, she wrote: "I am not sure that today I would once again privatize Israel Chemicals and the natural resources at the Dead Sea."[23]

As a member of the Knesset

Livni was first elected to the Knesset as a member of the Likud party in 1999. In Sharon's Cabinet, Livni was an avid supporter of the prime minister's disengagement plan, and was generally considered to be among the key dovish or moderate members of the Likud party. She often mediated between various elements inside the party, and made efforts to achieve a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, including successful efforts to have the pullout from the Gaza Strip ratified by the Knesset. On 12 November 2005, she spoke at the official annual commemoration of Yitzhak Rabin's assassination.[24]

Early cabinet positions

When Likud leader Ariel Sharon became prime minister in March 2001, Livni was appointed to her first ministerial position, and thereafter held various Cabinet positions in subsequent governments.[25] Livni received the Abirat Ha-Shilton ("Quality of Governance") award in 2004.

Livni's first ministerial position was Minister of Regional Co-operation which she held from 7 March 2001 until 29 August 2001. In December 2002 Ariel Sharon appointed Livni to serve as Minister of Agriculture. She held this position until February 2003. In 2003, Livni was appointed Minister of Immigrant Absorption. She held this position until 2006. In 2004, Livni was appointed Minister of Housing and Construction. She held this position until 2005. In 2006, Livni was appointed Minister of Justice and served in this position until 2007.[26] In 2013, Livni was appointed for a second term as Minister of Justice, and served until being fired in 2014.


On 20 November 2005, Livni, a member of Likud's dovish wing,[2] followed Sharon and Ehud Olmert into the new Kadima Party. Ahead of the 28 March elections, Livni was appointed to be the new Foreign Minister, while continuing to serve as Justice Minister, as a result of the mass resignation of Likud Party members from the government.[27]

Livni visiting the site of a kindergarten classroom in Beersheba destroyed by a Grad rocket fired from Gaza.

In the selection of candidates for the March 2006 Knesset election, Livni was awarded the number three position on Kadima's list of candidates, which effectively guaranteed her election to the Knesset.[28]

Foreign minister

In 2006, Livni was appointed as Minister of Foreign Affairs. She held this position until 2009.

In that capacity, she was in charge of negotiations with the Palestinian Authority. During these negotiations, she even raised the possibility of fixing the future border between Israel and the future Palestinian state so as to place Israeli Arab towns within the Palestinian state, an idea originally suggested by Israeli politician Avigdor Liberman.[29]

Her record for pragmatism as foreign minister earned her a high level of respect among U.S., European, and even Arab diplomatic circles, that has lasted even after she left the post.[2]

Vice prime minister

On 4 May 2006, with the swearing-in of the 31st Government, Livni became Vice (or designated Acting) Prime Minister and retained the position of Foreign Minister. She ceased serving as Justice Minister at that time, but again held that position from 29 November 2006 to 7 February 2007, while still serving in her primary role of Foreign Minister.[28]

After the March 2006 Knesset election, Livni was described as "the second most powerful politician in Israel".[30] Livni is the second woman in Israel to hold the post of foreign minister, after Golda Meir. In 2007, she was included in the Time 100 Most Influential People in the World.[31] Forbes ranked her the 40th most powerful woman in the world in 2006,[32] 39th in 2007,[33] and 52nd in 2008.[34]

Livni became the first Israeli cabinet minister to explicitly differentiate Palestinian guerrilla attacks against Israeli military targets from terrorist attacks against civilians. In an interview on the US television news show Nightline, recorded on 28 March 2006, Livni stated, "Somebody who is fighting against Israeli soldiers is an enemy and we will fight back, but I believe that this is not under the definition of terrorism, if the target is a soldier."[35]

In 2007, she met with Palestinian prime minister, Salam Fayyad, to discuss "improving the lives of the Palestinian people, without compromising Israel's security."[36]

On 2 May 2007, Livni called for Olmert's resignation in the wake of the publication of the Winograd Commission's interim report. She offered herself as leader of Kadima if Olmert decided to step down, and asserted her confidence in her ability to defeat him in a party election should he decline.[37][38] However, her call was ignored by Olmert and her decision to stay in the Cabinet sparked some controversy.[39]

As foreign minister, Livni won the admiration of European colleagues, who cite her lawyerly logic and pragmatism.[9][40]

In 2008, Livni condemned a photomontage of Pope Benedict XVI with a swastika displayed on his chest, which was published on a website run by supporters of her Kadima party.[41]

Kadima leadership and Prime minister designation

In the Kadima leadership election held on 17 September 2008, Olmert decided not to stand for re-election as party leader, and stated he would resign as prime minister following the election. Livni and Shaul Mofaz emerged as the main rivals for the leadership.[42] Livni won the Kadima leadership election by a margin of just 431 votes (1%).[43][44] Palestinian peace negotiators were reportedly pleased with the result.[45]

Upon declaring victory in the leadership election, Livni said the "national responsibility (bestowed) by the public brings me to approach this job with great reverence."[46]

On 21 September 2008, Olmert, who was facing several criminal investigations, formally resigned his office in a letter submitted to president Shimon Peres, and the following day Peres formally asked Livni to form a new government.[47][48] Livni faced tough negotiations with Kadima's coalition partners, particularly the Shas party, which had set conditions for joining a Livni government.[49][50][51] Likud, the main opposition party, lobbied Shas and other parties seeking to bring about that result.[52]

2009 Knesset elections

Livni at "Thank you" party for Kadima volunteers, February 2009.

In February 2009 Israel held elections for the national parliament, the Knesset. Livni, foreign minister and head of the Kadima party, campaigned against Benjamin Netanyahu of the Likud party to lead the new government. While election results gave Kadima the most seats in the Knesset, parties to the right in Israel's political spectrum gained enough seats that a coalition government under Kadima leadership was unlikely. As a result, Israeli president Shimon Peres asked Netanyahu and Likud (which received one fewer seat than Kadima in the elections) to form a government; this was the first time in Israel's history that the party with the most seats was not asked to attempt to form a government.[53]

The New York Times commended Livni for "refusing the extortionist conditions set by Shas," and endorsed her candidacy for prime minister, saying Israelis would have "a clear choice in February between a leader who has the courage to abandon tired old thinking on politics and security and one who has not."[54] Although it expressed some doubts, the Israeli newspaper Haaretz also endorsed Livni for prime minister.[55]

Livni at "Youths for Tzipi Livni" party, February 2009.

When Livni was tapped to form the next governing coalition, Palestinian political analyst Mahdi Abdel Hadi said that Livni has been received warmly in the Gulf, and that she is the leader most Arabs want to see as Israel's next prime minister.[56] During the 2009 general elections, Arab media depicted her very negatively but as the lesser of the evils.[57][58][59]

Leader of the opposition

After an internal Foreign Ministry document stated that some European Union countries were considering freezing a planned upgrade in relations with Israel, Livni, as opposition leader, wrote in the message addressed to EU foreign policy chief Javier Solana, the EU's external relations commissioner Benita Ferrero-Waldner, and the EU's current council president, Czech foreign minister Karel Schwarzenberg: "You all know my commitment to peace between Israel and its neighbors and to the two-state solution, a commitment shared with the majority of the Israeli public. I believe that this kind of attitude, one which directly links an upgrade in relations with regional diplomatic progress, is overlooking the substantial gains that the upgrade could provide both to the people of Israel and the people of Europe."[60]

On 25 May 2009, Livni told Harvard University students: "On the Iranian issue, there is no opposition or coalition in Israel. ... Iran represents the threat of extreme Islamic state". She said Iran was a threat to other countries in the region, and Iran must be stopped from attaining nuclear weapons.[61]

Prior to Lebanon's 2009 general elections (and its inclusion of Hezbollah), Livni "acknowledged an important principle" from U.S. President Barack Obama's then-recent speech in Cairo that "Elections alone do not make true democracy." She explained her position in a New York Times op-ed by alluding to her experience as Israel's justice minister when Hamas participated in Palestinian elections in 2006: "At the time, the counterargument was that the very participation in elections would act as a moderating force on extremist groups. With more accountability, such groups would be tempted to abandon their militant approach in favor of a purely political platform. But this analysis ignored the possibility that some radical groups sought participation in the democratic process not to forsake their violent agenda but to advance it." Livni advocated that "the international community must adopt at the global level what true democracies apply at the national one—a universal code for participation in democratic elections. This would include requiring every party running for office to renounce violence, pursue its aims by peaceful means and commit to binding laws and international agreements." She added: "The intent here is not to stifle disagreement, exclude key actors from the political process or suggest that democracy be uniform and disregard local cultures and values."[62]

Livni voiced support for Israel's gay community ahead of Gay and Lesbian Pride Month in June 2009. She addressed an event held at the gay community's municipal center in Tel Aviv's Meir Park.[63][64] After a 1 August 2009 attack on a gay youth center that left two people dead and 15 wounded in Tel Aviv, Livni, who is in contact with the gay and lesbian community, said "This event should shake up society, and all the circles inherent in it, including the political establishment and the education system, and on this day deliver an unequivocal message against intolerance, incitement and violence, and to act against any manifestation of these." She attended a rally near the location of the attack, along with hundreds of Israelis and some other politicians, and urged Israel's gay and lesbian community to continue living their lives, despite the "hate crime."[65]

Livni opposed Netanyahu's land reform bill.[66]

On 8 October 2009, Livni was honored by Yale University as a Chubb Fellow for her work and the inspiration spurred by her activities. She is the third Israeli leader to receive this honor after Shimon Peres and Moshe Dayan. The list also includes former U.S. Presidents Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton. Livni referred to the Goldstone Report accusing Israel of committing war crimes in Gaza, and said there was a huge ethical gap between those seeking to murder children in their homes and those unintentionally harming civilians used by terrorists as human shields. Referring to the Israeli shelling of several UN schools in Gaza where thousands of civilians were taking shelter during the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict, Livni insisted that she "regret(s) every civilian casualty, but what happened at the UN school was not a mistake."[67][68] Addressing the peace process, Livni said Israel is not involved in it as a favor to anyone, but that it is in the interest of all parties. At her next stop in Miami, Livni became the first Israeli woman to receive the International Hall of Fame Award from the International Women's Forum.[69][70]

As opposition leader, Livni noted in a 2009 Knesset speech that she herself did not support Yitzhak Rabin's policies at the time. "The dispute is around the question of whether you can have it both ways -– maintaining Israel as a Jewish state and keeping the entire Land of Israel," she said.[71] Political analysts see Livni's speech at the 2003 commemoration rally for Rabin as a turning point in her political career when she became more popular among the Israeli peace camp. She delivered a speech which many found deeply moving in which she said the day Rabin was murdered was "the day that the skies fell down on me because of what happened to us, to all the citizens of Israel." As foreign minister, Livni would again attend the memorial for Rabin in 2009. Labor Party officials were not keen on this idea, fearing that her appearance would cost them votes. Some Kadima officials also seemed reluctant, fearing her appearance at left-wing event would send some votes Likud's way.[72] Livni attended the memorial for Rabin in 2009.[73]

After a draft document authored by Sweden (the then-holder of the rotating EU presidency) surfaced that calls officially for a division of Jerusalem and implies that the EU would also recognize a unilateral Palestinian declaration of statehood, Livni wrote a letter to Swedish Foreign Minister Carl Bildt, saying it was "wrong and not helpful," and that she conveyed "deep concern regarding what appears to be an attempt to prejudge the outcome of issues reserved for final status negotiations." European efforts to "dictate for either party the nature of the outcome on the status of Jerusalem," she said, would only serve to endanger the fulfillment of "our shared vision of two states for two peoples into a reality."[74] Livni also called on France to speak up against the draft during her meeting with Sarkozy in Paris.[75]

In December 2009, Livni travelled to Paris and met with French president Nicolas Sarkozy. "Time is against us," she told reporters following talks at the Elysee Palace that also touched on Iran. "We discussed the need to re-launch the peace process between Israel and the Palestinians, and I believe that this is part of Israel's interest to relaunch the negotiations from the point at which we stopped basically a year ago."[76]


During the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict, Livni was criticized by Arab League Chairman Amre Moussa who said that "I am greatly surprised by, and I reject, the words of the Israeli foreign minister (Livni), who asks: 'Is there a humanitarian crisis? There is no humanitarian crisis in Gaza'"[77] Livni was quoted as saying "Israel has been supplying comprehensive humanitarian aid to the [Gaza] strip... and has even been stepping this up by the day."[78] Israel would later allow a daily three-hour truce during the offensive to enable aid to flow through a humanitarian corridor.[79]

Livni declared that the 2009 Gaza military offensive had "restored Israel's deterrence... Hamas now understands that when you fire on its citizens it responds by going wild – and this is a good thing."[80]

UK arrest warrant

In December 2009, a warrant for Livni's arrest was understood to have been issued by a British court, following an application by lawyers acting for Palestinian victims of Operation Cast Lead. The warrant focused on Livni's role in Israel's war against Hamas-run Gaza earlier in the year, and was withdrawn after her visit was canceled. For several years, Palestinian activists have made largely unsuccessful attempts to prosecute Israeli officials in European courts under the universal jurisdiction system.[81] The warrant was issued on 12 December and revoked on 14 December 2009, after it was revealed that Livni had not entered British territory.[82][83][84]

The British Foreign Secretary, David Miliband, contacted Livni and his Israeli counterpart Avigdor Lieberman to formally explain the incident and apologize on behalf of the British government.[85] Miliband had expressed concern at the situation and said officials were looking "urgently at ways in which the UK system might be changed in order to avoid this sort of situation arising again". Judges in the United Kingdom can issue arrest warrants for war crimes suspects around the world under the Geneva Convention Act 1957, without any requirement to consult public prosecutors which was something Miliband described as "unusual".[86] J Street applauded Miliband's rejection of the warrant and "his promise to pursue a change in the law that would prevent unfortunate events like these from happening in the future."[87] Prime Minister Gordon Brown expressed his regret over the warrant and spoke to Livni, reassuring her that she was "most welcome in Britain any time." Livni's office later stated that Brown promised to seek legislative changes to ensure no Israeli official would risk arrest while on British soil.[88]

Yehuda Blum, Israel's former ambassador to the United Nations and a professor of law at Hebrew University of Jerusalem, commented: "The abuse and misuse of this concept of universal jurisdiction should be discontinued." Blum said the law was intended for use in cases with no clear jurisdiction, such as piracy in international waters, and should not be expanded for political aims. Israeli officials, acting under orders from Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, told the British ambassador they expect quick action to change the law.[89] Livni called the arrest warrant "an abuse of the British legal system".[90] At a security conference in Israel, Livni did not directly address the arrest warrant but defended Israel's conduct during Operation Cast Lead, saying she "would make the same decisions all over again". "When the state of Israel has to do the right thing, it has to be done – condemnation or no condemnation, statements or no statements, arrest warrants or no arrest warrants... This is the role of leadership, and as far as I’m concerned I would repeat each and every decision."

Kadima leadership loss and resignation

In November 2011, the three candidates opposed to Tzipi Livni in 2008 called for a primary to be held as soon as possible, citing the probability of Knesset elections soon. On 19 January 2012, Livni set the primary date for 27 March 2012. Livni lost by a wide margin (64.5% to her 35.5%) to challenger and former defense minister Shaul Mofaz. In May 2012 Livni resigned from the Knesset.[91]

Founding Hatnuah

On 27 November 2012, Livni announced the establishment of a new party, called Hatnuah ("The Movement").[92][93] She was joined by seven members of Knesset from the Kadima Party: Yoel Hasson, Robert Tiviaev, Majalli Wahabi, Orit Zuaretz, Rachel Adato, Shlomo Molla and Meir Sheetrit.[93] Former Labor leaders Amram Mitzna and Amir Peretz also joined the party.

Following the 2013 elections, Livni did not recommend any candidate for prime minister to President Peres. After other party leaders endorsed Netanyahu, Livni lead Hatnuah in being the first of several parties to agree to join a new coalition under Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, forming the thirty-third government of Israel. Livni served as justice minister until 2 December 2014, when she along with Finance Minister Yair Lapid were fired from their posts over a range of policy disagreements.[94] A particular source of frustration for Netanyahu was Livni's control of the legislation committee.[95]

In December 2014 (after Livni had been dismissed as a cabinet minister), Secretary of State John Kerry told European Union ambassadors that his stance against a unilateral Palestinian measure at the UN Security Council was influenced by his talks with Livni and former president Shimon Peres, who said such a move could serve the political interests of those opposing the peace process.[96][97]

The Zionist Union and Opposition

After the dissolution of the Knesset in December 2014, Labor leader Isaac Herzog and Livni announced a joint slate between Labor and Hatnuah, called the Zionist Union, to contest the 2015 elections in an effort to keep Netanyahu, leader of the Likud Party, from securing a fourth term as prime minister. They proposed to share the role of prime minister (an arrangement known in the Knesset as rotation) if they won enough votes, though Livni also stated she would step back if her participation presented a hurdle to coalition building.[98]

Livni currently serves as a member of the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee, the Constitution, Law and Justice Committee, and initiated the creation of the Subcommittee on International Lawfare, which she chairs.[99]


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External links

  • Tzipi Livni's official website (Hebrew)
  • Tzipi Livni on the Knesset website
  • Appearances on C-SPAN
  • Tzipi Livni collected news and commentary at The Guardian
  • Tzipi Livni collected news and commentary at Ha'aretz
  • Tzipi Livni collected news and commentary at The Jerusalem Post
  • Tzipi Livni collected news and commentary at The New York Times
  • Works by or about Tzipi Livni in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
Political offices
Preceded by
Tommy Lapid
Minister of Justice
Succeeded by
Haim Ramon
Preceded by
Meir Sheetrit
Minister of Justice
Succeeded by
Daniel Friedmann
Preceded by
Silvan Shalom
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Succeeded by
Avigdor Lieberman
Preceded by
Benjamin Netanyahu
Leader of the Opposition
Succeeded by
Shaul Mofaz
Preceded by
Yaakov Neeman
Minister of Justice
Succeeded by
Ayelet Shaked
Party political offices
Preceded by
Ehud Olmert
Leader of Kadima
Succeeded by
Shaul Mofaz
New office Leader of Hatnuah
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