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Tskhinvali

Tskhinvali
Tskhinvali
ცხინვალი / Цхинвал(и)
The monument to the victims of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict
Tskhinvali
Tskhinvali
Location of Tskhinvali in Georgia / South Ossetia
Coordinates:
Country  Georgia/
De facto under the South Ossetian control
Established 1398
Area
 • Total 7.4 km2 (2.9 sq mi)
Elevation 860 m (2,820 ft)
Population
 • Total 30,000
Time zone Moscow time (UTC+3)
 • Summer (DST) Moscow summer time (UTC+4)
Tskhinvali is located in South Ossetia
Tskhinvali
Tskhinvali
Tskhinvali in South Ossetia

Tskhinvali (

References

  • Casualties in South Ossetia from Human Rights Watch
  • Tskhinvali after the war from RIA Novosti
  • 13 Aug 2008: Pictures of destroyed Tskhinvali after shelling of the city by Georgian troops on 8 Aug 2008 from Osinform
  • "Kvartals old Tskhinval (photo)"(«Кварталы старого Цхинвала (фото)») — OSinform.ru

Pictures

  • Site of Tskhinvali: information, news, video, photos, etc. — www.chinval.ru

Sites

External links

  1. ^
  2. ^ http://eng.kremlin.ru/speeches/2008/08/26/1543_type82912_205752.shtml
  3. ^ http://en.rian.ru/world/20090910/156083204.html
  4. ^ (Russian)Словарь географических названий
  5. ^
  6. ^ (Russian)ИСТОРИЯ ЦАРСТВА ГРУЗИНСКОГО ("History of the
  7. ^ The Permanent Committee on Geographical Names (
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^

Notes

Tskhinvali is twinned with the following cities:

Twin towns — Sister cities

International relations

There was a railway service before 1991 at the Tskhinvali Railway station.

Transport

On August 21, 2008, a world-known[19] Russian conductor and director of the Mariinsky Theatre, of Ossetian origin, Valery Gergiev conducted a concert near the ruined building of South Ossetian parliament in memory of the victims of the war in South Ossetia.[20]

The city contains several monuments of medieval Georgian architecture, with the Kavti Church of St. George being the oldest one dating back to the 8th-10th centuries.

Currently, Tskhinvali functions as the capital of South Ossetia. Before the 2008 war it had a population of approximately 30,000. The town remained significantly impoverished in the absence of a permanent political settlement between the two sides in the past two decades.

21 August 2008. Valery Gergiev with Mariinsky Theatre opera in Tskhinvali.

Present

Climate data for Tskhinvali
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 1.9
(35.4)
3.3
(37.9)
7.8
(46)
14.2
(57.6)
19.5
(67.1)
22.8
(73)
25.2
(77.4)
25.4
(77.7)
21.2
(70.2)
15.8
(60.4)
8.7
(47.7)
4.0
(39.2)
14.15
(57.47)
Average low °C (°F) −7.1
(19.2)
−6.0
(21.2)
−2.2
(28)
2.0
(35.6)
7.2
(45)
10.4
(50.7)
13.1
(55.6)
13.0
(55.4)
8.6
(47.5)
4.1
(39.4)
0.5
(32.9)
−4.7
(23.5)
3.24
(37.83)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 46
(1.81)
46
(1.81)
52
(2.05)
74
(2.91)
97
(3.82)
97
(3.82)
75
(2.95)
66
(2.6)
60
(2.36)
68
(2.68)
65
(2.56)
59
(2.32)
805
(31.69)
Source: Climate-data.org[18]

Located in the Caucasus, at 860 metres (2,820 ft) above sea level, Tskhinvali has a borderline oceanic/humid continental climate (Cfb/Dfb, according to the Köppen climate classification), with an average annual precipitation of 805 millimetres (31.7 in). Summers are mild and winters are cold, with snowfalls.

Climate

Geography

A considerable part of the population of the South Ossetia (at least, 30,000 out of 70,000) fled into North Ossetia–Alania prior or immediately after the start of the war.[12] However, many civilians were killed during the shelling and the following Battle of Tskhinvali (162 civilian deaths were documented by the Russian team of investigators[13] and 365 - by the S.Ossetian authorities[14]). The town was heavily damaged during the battle. The Jewish Quarter — one of the town's unique neighbourhoods was also reported to be destroyed.[15] Andrey Illarionov visited the town in October 2008, and reported that Jewish Quarter indeed was in ruins, though he observed that the ruins were overgrown with shrubs and trees, which indicates that the destruction took place during 1991–1992 South Ossetia War.[16] However, Mark Ames, who was covering the last war for The Nation, stated that Tskhinvali's main residential district, nicknamed Shanghai because of its population density (it’s where most of the city’s high-rise apartment blocks are located), and the old Jewish Quarter, were completely destroyed.[17]

Tskhinvali was shelled by the Georgian government on 8 August 2008 with BM-21 "Grad" mobile artillery rocket systems in an attempt to regain control over the breakaway republic of South Ossetia. After the bombings, the Georgian army invaded the city in an attempt to gain control of the capital. The Russian army responded on the following day by moving its own forces into the city and counterattacking the Georgian army. On 10 August Georgian forces pulled out of Tskhinvali that was captured by the Russian army after intense fighting.

A building in the city after the Battle of Tskhinvali.[9][10][11] August 18, 2008

2008 South Ossetian War

During the acute phase of the Sochi ceasefire accord left Tskhinvali in the hands of Ossetians.

The town saw Korenizatsiya ("nativization") policy which induced an inflow of the Ossetians from the nearby rural areas into Tskhinvali. It was essentially an industrial centre, with lumber mills and manufacturing plants, and had also several cultural and educational institutions such as a venerated Pedagogical Institute (currently Tskhinvali State University) and a drama theatre. According to the last Soviet census (in 1989), Tskhinvali had a population of 42,934.

[8] Tskhinvali was first chronicled by Georgian sources in 1398 as a village in

A vintage photo of Tskhinval' by D. Rudnev, 1886.

The area around the present-day Tskhinvali was first populated back in the Sarmatian elements.

History

[7] (Staliniri From 1934 to 1961, the city was named

See ცხინვალი for more. [6] which is the historical name of the city.[5][4]",hornbeams), literally meaning "the land of ქრცხილვანი The name of Tskhinvali is derived from the

Name

Contents

  • Name 1
  • History 2
  • 2008 South Ossetian War 3
  • Geography 4
    • Climate 4.1
  • Present 5
  • Transport 6
  • International relations 7
    • Twin towns — Sister cities 7.1
  • Notes 8
  • External links 9
    • Sites 9.1
    • Pictures 9.2
  • References 10

It is located on the Tbilisi.

[3][2][1]

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