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Triple jump

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Triple jump

Athletics
Triple jump
Former world record holder Willie Banks.
Men's records
World Jonathan Edwards 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in) (1995)
Olympic Kenny Harrison 18.09 m (59 ft 4 in) (1996)
Women's records
World Inessa Kravets 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in) (1995)
Olympic Françoise Mbango 15.39 m (50 ft 534 in) (2008)

The triple jump, sometimes referred to as the hop, step and jump or the hop, skip and jump, is a track and field sport, similar to the long jump. The competitor runs down the track and performs a hop, a bound and then a jump into the sand pit. The triple jump was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games and has been a modern Olympics event since the Games' inception in 1896.

According to IAAF rules, "the hop shall be made so that an athlete lands first on the same foot as that from which he has taken off; in the step he shall land on the other foot, from which, subsequently, the jump is performed." [1]

The current male and female world record holders are Jonathan Edwards of Great Britain, with a jump of 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in), and Inessa Kravets of Ukraine, with a jump of 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in). Both records were set during 1995 World Championships in Gothenburg.

History

Historical sources on the ancient Olympic Games occasionally mention jumps of 15 meters or more. This led sports historians to conclude that these must have been a series of jumps, thus providing the basis for the triple jump.[2] However, there is no evidence for the triple jump being included in the ancient Olympic Games, and it is possible that the recorded extraordinary distances are due to artistic license of the authors of victory poems, rather than attempts to report accurate results.[3]

The triple jump was a part of the inaugural modern Olympics in Athens, although at the time it consisted of two hops on the same foot and then a jump. In fact, the first modern Olympic champion, James Connolly, was a triple jumper. Early Olympics also included the standing triple jump, although this has since been removed from the Olympic program and is rarely performed in competition today. The women's triple jump was introduced into the Atlanta Olympics in 1996.[4]

In Irish mythology the geal-ruith (triple jump), was an event contested in the ancient Irish Tailteann Games as early as 1829 BC.[5]

Technique

The athlete sprints down a runway to a takeoff mark, from which the triple jump is measured. The takeoff mark is commonly a physical piece of wood or similar material embedded in the runway, or a rectangle painted on the runway surface. In modern championships a strip of plasticine, tape, or modeling clay is attached to the far edge of the board to record athletes overstepping or "scratching" the mark, defined by the trailing edge of the board. There are three phases of the triple jump: the "hop" phase, the "bound" or "step" phase, and the "jump" phase. These three phases are executed in one continuous sequence.

Phases of Phillips Idowu jumping at the 2008 Summer Olympics

The hop starts with the athlete jumping from the take off board on one leg, which for descriptive purposes will be the right leg . The objective of the first phase is to hop out, focusing all momentum forward. The hop landing phase is very active, involving a powerful backward "pawing" action of the right leg, with the right take-off foot landing heel first on the runway. The hop landing also marks the beginning of the step phase, where the athlete utilises the backward momentum of the right leg to immediately execute a powerful jump forwards and upwards, the left leg assisting the take-off with a powerful hip flexion thrust. This leads to the familiar step-phase mid-air position, with the right take off leg trailing flexed at the knee, and the left leg now leading flexed at the hip and knee. The jumper then holds this position for as long as possible, before extending the knee of the leading left leg and then immediately beginning a powerful backward motion of the whole left leg, again landing on the runway with a powerful pawing action. The step landing forms the beginning of the take-off of the final phase (the jump), where the athlete utilises the backward force from the left leg to take off again. The jump phase is very similar to the long jump although most athletes have lost too much speed by this time to manage a full hitch kick, and most use a hang or sail technique. When landing in the sand-filled pit, the jumper should aim to avoid sitting back on landing, or placing either hand behind the feet. The sand pit usually begins 13m from the take off board for male international competition, or 11m from the board for international female and club-level male competition. Each phase of the triple jump should get progressively higher, and there should be a regular rhythm to the 3 landings.

A "foul", also known as a "scratch," or missed jump, occurs when a jumper oversteps the takeoff mark, misses the pit entirely, does not use the correct foot sequence throughout the phases, or does not perform the attempt in the allotted amount of time (usually about 90 seconds). When a jumper "scratches," the seated official will raise a red flag and the jumper who was "on deck," or up next, prepares to jump.

Records

Outdoor

Area Men's Women's
Mark (m) Athlete Mark (m) Athlete
World 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR) 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in)  Inessa Kravets (UKR)
Continental records
Africa 17.37 m (56 ft 1134 in)  Tarik Bouguetaïb (MAR) 15.39 m (50 ft 534 in)  Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)
Asia 17.59 m (57 ft 812 in)  Yanxi Li (CHN) 15.25 m (50 ft 014 in)  Olga Rypakova (KAZ)
Europe 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR) 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in)  Inessa Kravets (UKR)
North, Central America
and Caribbean
18.09 m (59 ft 4 in)  Kenny Harrison (USA) 15.29 m (50 ft 134 in)  Yamilé Aldama (CUB)
Oceania 17.46 m (57 ft 314 in)  Ken Lorraway (AUS) 14.04 m (46 ft 034 in)  Nicole Mladenis (AUS)
South America 17.90 m (58 ft 812 in)  Jadel Gregório (BRA) 15.31 m (50 ft 234 in)  Caterine Ibargüen (COL)

Note: As in all track-and-field events, results cannot count towards records if they are Wind assisted (>2.0 m/s).

All-time top ten athletes

Men (outdoor)

Rank Mark Wind (m/s) Athlete Location Date
1 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in) 1.3  Jonathan Edwards (GBR) Gothenburg August 7, 1995
2 18.09 m (59 ft 4 in) −0.4  Kenny Harrison (USA) Atlanta July 27, 1996
3 18.04 m (59 ft 2 in) 0.3  Teddy Tamgho (FRA) Moscow August 18, 2013
4 17.97 m (58 ft 1114 in) 1.5  Willie Banks (USA) Indianapolis June 16, 1985
5 17.96 m (58 ft 11 in) 0.1  Christian Taylor (USA) Daegu September 4, 2011
6 17.92 m (58 ft 912 in) 1.6  Khristo Markov (BUL) Rome August 31, 1987
1.9  James Beckford (JAM) Odessa May 20, 1995
8 17.90 m (58 ft 812 in) 0.4  Jadel Gregório (BRA) Belém May 20, 2007
1.0  Volodymyr Inozemtsev (URS) Bratislava June 20, 1990
10 17.89 m (58 ft 814 in) 0.0  João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA) Mexico City October 15, 1975

Men (indoor)

Rank Mark Athlete Location Date
1 17.92 m (58 ft 912 in)  Teddy Tamgho (FRA) Paris March 6, 2011
2 17.83 m (58 ft 534 in)  Aliecer Urrutia (CUB) Sindelfingen March 1, 1997
 Christian Olsson (SWE) Budapest March 7, 2004
4 17.77 m (58 ft 312 in)  Leonid Voloshin (RUS) Grenoble February 2, 1994
5 17.76 m (58 ft 3 in)  Mike Conley (USA) New York City February 22, 1987
6 17.75 m (58 ft 234 in)  Phillips Idowu (GBR) Valencia March 9, 2008
7 17.74 m (58 ft 214 in)  Marian Oprea (ROU) Bucharest February 18, 2006
8 17.73 m (58 ft 2 in)  Fabrizio Donato (ITA) Paris March 6, 2011
 Walter Davis (USA) Moscow March 12, 2006
10 17.72 m (58 ft 112 in)  Brian Wellman (BER) Barcelona March 12, 1995

Women (outdoor)

Rank Mark Wind (m/s) Athlete Location Date
1 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in) 0.9  Inessa Kravets (UKR) Gothenburg August 10, 1995
2 15.39 m (50 ft 534 in) 0.5  Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR) Beijing August 17, 2008
3 15.34 m (50 ft 334 in) −0.5  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS) Heraklion July 4, 2004
4 15.32 m (50 ft 3 in) 0.9  Hrysopiyi Devetzi (GRE) Athens August 21, 2004
5 15.31 m (50 ft 234 in) 0.0  Catherine Ibargüen (COL) Monaco July 18, 2014
6 15.29 m (50 ft 134 in) 0.3  Yamilé Aldama (CUB) Rome July 11, 2003
7 15.28 m (50 ft 112 in) 0.9  Yargelis Savigne (CUB) Osaka August 31, 2007
8 15.25 m (50 ft 014 in) 1.7  Olga Rypakova (KAZ) Split September 4, 2010
9 15.20 m (49 ft 1014 in) 0.0  Šárka Kašpárková (CZE) Athens August 4, 1997
−0.3  Tereza Marinova (BUL) Sydney September 24, 2000

Women (indoor)

Rank Mark Athlete Location Date
1 15.36 m (50 ft 412 in)  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS) Budapest 2004-03-06
2 15.16 m (49 ft 834 in)  Ashia Hansen (GBR) Valencia 1998-02-28
3 15.14 m (49 ft 8 in)  Olga Rypakova (KAZ) Doha 2010-03-13
4 15.08 m (49 ft 512 in)  Marija Šestak (SLO) Peanía 2008-02-13
5 15.05 m (49 ft 412 in)  Yargeris Savigne (CUB) Valencia 2008-03-08
6 15.03 m (49 ft 312 in)  Iolanda Chen (RUS) Barcelona 1995-03-11
7 15.01 m (49 ft 234 in)  Inna Lasovskaya (RUS) Paris 1997-03-08
8 15.00 m (49 ft 212 in)  Hrysopiyí Devetzí (GRE) Valencia 2008-03-08
9 14.94 m (49 ft 0 in)  Iva Prandzheva (BUL) Maebashi 1999-03-07
 Cristina Nicolau (ROM) Bucharest 2000-02-05
 Oksana Udmurtova (RUS) Tartu 2008-02-20

Olympic medalists

Men

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
 James Connolly (USA)  Alexandre Tuffèri (FRA)  Ioannis Persakis (GRE)
1900 Paris
 Myer Prinstein (USA)  James Connolly (USA)  Lewis Sheldon (USA)
1904 St. Louis
 Myer Prinstein (USA)  Fred Englehardt (USA)  Robert Stangland (USA)
1908 London
 Tim Ahearne (GBR)  Garfield MacDonald (CAN)  Edvard Larsen (NOR)
1912 Stockholm
 Gustaf Lindblom (SWE) (SWE)  Erik Almlöf (SWE)
1920 Antwerp
 Vilho Tuulos (FIN)  Folke Jansson (SWE)  Erik Almlöf (SWE)
1924 Paris
 Nick Winter (AUS)  Luis Brunetto (ARG)  Vilho Tuulos (FIN)
1928 Amsterdam
 Mikio Oda (JPN)  Levi Casey (USA)  Vilho Tuulos (FIN)
1932 Los Angeles
 Chuhei Nambu (JPN)  Erik Svensson (SWE)  Kenkichi Oshima (JPN)
1936 Berlin
 Naoto Tajima (JPN)  Masao Harada (JPN)  Jack Metcalfe (AUS)
1948 London
 Arne Åhman (SWE) (AUS)  Ruhi Sarialp (TUR)
1952 Helsinki
 Adhemar da Silva (BRA)  Leonid Shcherbakov (URS)  Arnoldo Devonish (VEN)
1956 Melbourne
 Adhemar da Silva (BRA)  Vilhjálmur Einarsson (ISL)  Vitold Kreyer (URS)
1960 Rome
 Józef Szmidt (POL)  Vladimir Goryaev (URS)  Vitold Kreyer (URS)
1964 Tokyo
 Józef Szmidt (POL)  Oleg Fyodoseyev (URS)  Viktor Kravchenko (URS)
1968 Mexico City
 Viktor Saneyev (URS)  Nelson Prudencio (BRA)  Giuseppe Gentile (ITA)
1972 Munich
 Viktor Saneyev (URS)  Jörg Drehmel (GDR)  Nelson Prudencio (BRA)
1976 Montreal
 Viktor Saneyev (URS)  James Butts (USA)  João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA)
1980 Moscow
 Jaak Uudmäe (URS)  Viktor Saneyev (URS)  João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA)
1984 Los Angeles
 Al Joyner (USA)  Mike Conley, Sr. (USA)  Keith Connor (GBR)
1988 Seoul
 Khristo Markov (BUL)  Igor Lapshin (URS)  Aleksandr Kovalenko (URS)
1992 Barcelona
 Mike Conley, Sr. (USA)  Charles Simpkins (USA)  Frank Rutherford (BAH)
1996 Atlanta
 Kenny Harrison (USA)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR)  Yoelbi Quesada (CUB)
2000 Sydney
 Jonathan Edwards (GBR)  Yoel García (CUB)  Denis Kapustin (RUS)
2004 Athens
 Christian Olsson (SWE)  Marian Oprea (ROU)  Danil Burkenya (RUS)
2008 Beijing
 Nelson Évora (POR)  Phillips Idowu (GBR)  Leevan Sands (BAH)
2012 London
 Christian Taylor (USA)  Will Claye (USA)  Fabrizio Donato (ITA)

Women

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1996 Atlanta
 Inessa Kravets (UKR)  Inna Lasovskaya (RUS)  Šárka Kašpárková (CZE)
2000 Sydney
 Tereza Marinova (BUL)  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)  Olena Hovorova (UKR)
2004 Athens
 Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)  Hrysopiyí Devetzí (GRE)  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)
2008 Beijing
 Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)  Hrysopiyí Devetzí (GRE)
2012 London
 Olga Rypakova (KAZ)  Caterine Ibargüen (COL)  Olha Saladukha (UKR)

World Championships medalists

Men

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki  Zdzisław Hoffmann (POL)  Willie Banks (USA)  Ajayi Agbebaku (NGR)
1987 Rome  Khristo Markov (BUL)  Mike Conley (USA)  Oleg Sakirkin (URS)
1991 Tokyo  Kenny Harrison (USA)  Leonid Voloshin (URS)  Mike Conley (USA)
1993 Stuttgart  Mike Conley (USA)  Leonid Voloshin (RUS)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR)
1995 Gothenburg  Jonathan Edwards (GBR)  Brian Wellman (BER)  Jerome Romain (DMA)
1997 Athens  Yoelbi Quesada (CUB)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR)  Aliecer Urrutia (CUB)
1999 Seville  Charles Friedek (GER)  Rostislav Dimitrov (BUL)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR)
2001 Edmonton  Jonathan Edwards (GBR)  Christian Olsson (SWE)  Igor Spasovkhodskiy (RUS)
2003 Saint-Denis  Christian Olsson (SWE)  Yoandri Betanzos (CUB)  Leevan Sands (BAH)
2005 Helsinki  Walter Davis (USA)  Yoandri Betanzos (CUB)  Marian Oprea (ROU)
2007 Osaka  Nelson Évora (POR)  Jadel Gregório (BRA)  Walter Davis (USA)
2009 Berlin  Phillips Idowu (GBR)  Nelson Évora (POR)  Alexis Copello (CUB)
2011 Daegu  Christian Taylor (USA)  Phillips Idowu (GBR)  Will Claye (USA)
2013 Moscow  Teddy Tamgho (FRA)  Pedro Pablo Pichardo (CUB)  Will Claye (USA)

Women

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1993 Stuttgart  Anna Biryukova (RUS)  Yolanda Chen (RUS)  Iva Prandzheva (BUL)
1995 Gothenburg  Inessa Kravets (UKR)  Iva Prandzheva (BUL)  Anna Biryukova (RUS)
1997 Athens  Šárka Kašpárková (CZE)  Rodica Mateescu (ROU)  Olena Hovorova (UKR)
1999 Seville  Paraskevi Tsiamita (GRE)  Yamilé Aldama (CUB)  Olga Vasdeki (GRE)
2001 Edmonton  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)  Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)  Tereza Marinova (BUL)
2003 Saint-Denis  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)  Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)  Magdelin Martinez (ITA)
2005 Helsinki  Trecia Smith (JAM)  Yargelis Savigne (CUB)  Anna Pyatykh (RUS)
2007 Osaka  Yargelis Savigne (CUB)  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)  Hrysopiyí Devetzí (GRE)
2009 Berlin  Yargelis Savigne (CUB)  Mabel Gay (CUB)  Anna Pyatykh (RUS)
2011 Daegu  Olha Saladukha (UKR)  Olga Rypakova (KAZ)  Caterine Ibargüen (COL)
2013 Moscow  Caterine Ibargüen (COL)  Ekaterina Koneva (RUS)  Olha Saladukha (UKR)

Season's bests

Men

Year Distance Athlete Place
1967 16.92 m (55 ft 6 in)  Aleksandr Zolotaryev (URS) Chorzow
1968 17.39 m (57 ft 012 in)A  Viktor Saneyev (URS) Ciudad de Mexico
1969 16.94 m (55 ft 634 in)  Viktor Saneyev (URS) Athina
1970 17.34 m (56 ft 1012 in)  Viktor Saneyev (URS) Suhumi
1971 17.40 m (57 ft 1 in)  Pedro Pérez (CUB) Cali
1972 17.44 m (57 ft 212 in)  Viktor Saneyev (URS) Suhumi
1973 17.20 m (56 ft 5 in)  Mikhail Bariban (URS) Moscow
1974 17.23 m (56 ft 614 in)  Viktor Saneyev (URS) Rome
1975 17.89 m (58 ft 814 in)  João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA) Mexico City
1976 17.38 m (57 ft 014 in)  João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA) Rio de Janeiro
1977 17.19 m (56 ft 434 in)  Ron Livers (USA) Sochi
1978 17.44 m (57 ft 212 in)  João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA) Bratislava
1979 17.27 m (56 ft 734 in)  João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA) San Juan
1980 17.35 m (56 ft 11 in)  Jaak Uudmäe (URS) Moscow
1981 17.56 m (57 ft 714 in)  Willie Banks (USA) Sacramento
1982 17.57 m (57 ft 712 in)  Keith Connor (GBR) Provo
1983 17.55 m (57 ft 634 in)  Vasiliy Grishchenkov (URS) Moscow
1984 17.46 m (57 ft 314 in)  Oleg Protsenko (URS) Moscow
1985 17.97 m (58 ft 1114 in)  Willie Banks (USA) Indianapolis
1986 17.80 m (58 ft 434 in)  Khristo Markov (BUL) Budapest
1987 17.92 m (58 ft 912 in)  Khristo Markov (BUL) Rome
1988 17.77 m (58 ft 312 in)  Khristo Markov (BUL) Sofia
1989 17.65 m (57 ft 1034 in)i  Mike Conley (USA) Budapest
1990 17.93 m (58 ft 934 in)  Kenny Harrison (USA) Stockholm
1991 17.78 m (58 ft 4 in)  Kenny Harrison (USA) Tokyo
1992 17.72 m (58 ft 112 in)  Mike Conley (USA) Zürich
1993 17.86 m (58 ft 7 in)  Mike Conley (USA) Stuttgart
1994 17.77 m (58 ft 312 in)i  Leonid Voloshin (RUS) Grenoble
1995 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR) Gothenburg
1996 18.09 m (59 ft 4 in)  Kenny Harrison (USA) Atlanta
1997 17.85 m (58 ft 634 in)  Yoelbi Quesada (CUB) Athens
1998 18.01 m (59 ft 1 in)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR) Oslo
1999 17.59 m (57 ft 812 in)  Charles Friedek (GER) Seville
2000 17.71 m (58 ft 1 in)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR) Sydney
2001 17.92 m (58 ft 912 in)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR) Edmonton
2002 17.86 m (58 ft 7 in)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR) Manchester
2003 17.77 m (58 ft 312 in)  Christian Olsson (SWE) Haina
2004 17.83 m (58 ft 534 in)i  Christian Olsson (SWE) Budapest
2005 17.81 m (58 ft 5 in)  Marian Oprea (ROM) Lausanne
2006 17.74 m (58 ft 214 in)i  Marian Oprea (ROM) Bucuresti
2007 17.90 m (58 ft 812 in)  Jadel Gregório (BRA) Belém
2008 17.75 m (58 ft 234 in)i  Phillips Idowu (GBR) Valencia
2009 17.73 m (58 ft 2 in)  Phillips Idowu (GBR) Berlin
2010 17.98 m (58 ft 1134 in)  Teddy Tamgho (FRA) New York City
2011 17.96 m (58 ft 11 in)  Christian Taylor (USA) Daegu
2012 17.81 m (58 ft 5 in)  Christian Taylor (USA) London
2013 18.04 m (59 ft 2 in)  Teddy Tamgho (FRA) Moscow
2014 17.76 m (58 ft 3 in)  Pedro Pablo Pichardo (CUB) La Habana

Women

Year Distance Athlete Place
1986 13.68 m (44 ft 1012 in)  Esmeralda García (BRA) Indianapolis
1987 14.04 m (46 ft 034 in)  Li Huirong (CHN) Hamamatsu
1988 14.16 m (46 ft 514 in)  Li Huirong (CHN) Shijiazhuang
1989 14.52 m (47 ft 712 in)  Galina Chistyakova (URS) Stockholm
1990 14.54 m (47 ft 814 in)  Li Huirong (CHN) Sapporo
1991 14.95 m (49 ft 012 in)  Inessa Kravets (URS) Moscow
1992 14.62 m (47 ft 1112 in)  Galina Chistyakova (RUS) Villeneuve d'Ascq
1993 15.09 m (49 ft 6 in)  Anna Biryukova (RUS) Stuttgart
1994 14.98 m (49 ft 134 in)  Sofiya Bozhanova (BUL) Stara Zagora
1995 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in)  Inessa Kravets (UKR) Gothenburg
1996 15.33 m (50 ft 312 in)  Inessa Kravets (UKR) Sacramento
1997 15.20 m (49 ft 1014 in)  Šárka Kašpárková (CZE) Athens
1998 15.16 m (49 ft 834 in)i  Ashia Hansen (GBR) Maebashi
1999 15.07 m (49 ft 514 in)  Paraskevi Tsiamita (GRE) Seville
2000 15.32 m (50 ft 3 in)  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS) Yokohama
2001 15.25 m (50 ft 014 in)  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS) Edmonton
2002 14.95 m (49 ft 012 in)  Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR) Radès
2003 15.29 m (50 ft 134 in)  Yamilé Aldama (CUB) Rome
2004 15.36 m (50 ft 412 in)i  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS) Budapest
2005 15.11 m (49 ft 634 in)  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)
 Trecia Smith (JAM)
Paris
Helsinki
2006 15.23 m (49 ft 1112 in)  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS) Athens
2007 15.28 m (50 ft 112 in)  Yargelis Savigne (CUB) Osaka
2008 15.39 m (50 ft 534 in)  Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR) Beijing
2009 15.14 m (49 ft 8 in)  Nadezhda Alekhina (RUS) Cheboksary
2010 15.25 m (50 ft 014 in)  Olga Rypakova (KAZ) Split
2011 14.99 m (49 ft 2 in)
14.99 m (49 ft 2 in) A
 Yargelis Savigne (CUB)
 Caterine Ibargüen (COL)
Paris
Bogotá
2012 14.99 m (49 ft 2 in)  Olha Saladuha (UKR) Helsinki
2013 14.88 m (48 ft 934 in)i  Olha Saladuha (UKR) Göteborg
2014 15.31 m (50 ft 234 in)  Caterine Ibargüen (COL) Monaco
  • "i" denotes indoor performance.

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ Rosenbaum, Mike (2012). An Illustrated History of the Triple Jump. Retrieved from http://trackandfield.about.com/od/triplejump/ss/illustriplejump.htm.
  3. ^ Koski, Rissanen & Tahvanainen (2004). Antiikin urheilu. Olympian kentiltä Rooman areenoille. [The Sports of Antiquity. From the Fields of Olympia to Roman Arenas.] Jyväskylä: Atena Kustannus Oy. ISBN 951-796-341-6
  4. ^ "Athletics at the 1996 Atlanta Summer Games: Women's Triple Jump". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 2013-08-18. 
  5. ^ Adams, Patricia (2006-03-01). History of the Highland Games and Women in Scottish Athletics. ...contained in the Irish "Book of Leinster", which was written in the twelfth century AD...this book describes the Tailteann Games held at Telltown, County Meath from 1829 BC until at least 554 BC...included in these events...were the geal-ruith (triple jump). Clan MacTavish Genealogy and History, 1 March 2006. Retrieved from http://www.dunardry.net/ladies_lounge.html.
  6. ^ Men's Outdoor Triple Jump Records. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  7. ^ Women's Outdoor Triple Jump Records. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  8. ^ Triple Jump - men - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  9. ^ Triple Jump - women - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  10. ^ Triple Jump - men - senior - indoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  11. ^ Triple Jump - women - senior - indoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.

External links

  • IAAF triple jump homepage
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