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Timeline of Jerusalem


Timeline of Jerusalem

This is a timeline of major events in the History of Jerusalem; a city that had been fought over sixteen times in its history.[1] During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times.[2]


  • Ancient period 1
    • Proto-Canaanite period 1.1
    • Canaan and New Kingdom Egyptian period 1.2
    • Independent Israel and Judah (House of David) period 1.3
    • Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Empire period 1.4
    • Persian (Achaemenid) Empire period 1.5
  • Classical antiquity 2
    • Hellenistic Kingdoms (Ptolemaic / Seleucid) period 2.1
    • Hasmonean kingdom 2.2
    • Early Roman period 2.3
    • Late Roman period (Aelia Capitolina) 2.4
  • Late Antiquity period 3
    • Byzantine period 3.1
  • Middle Ages 4
    • Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphate period 4.1
    • Fatimid Caliphate period 4.2
    • First Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099-1187) 4.3
    • Ayyubid period and Second Crusader Kingdom 4.4
    • Bahri and Burji Mamluk periods 4.5
  • Early modern period 5
    • Early Ottoman period 5.1
  • Modern era 6
    • Decline of the Ottoman Empire period 6.1
    • British Mandate period 6.2
    • Partition between Israel and Jordan 6.3
    • Israel period 6.4
  • Graphical Overview of Jerusalem's Historical Periods 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9
    • Notes 9.1
    • Bibliography 9.2
  • External links 10

Ancient period

New Kingdom at its maximum territorial extent in the 15th century BCE
The Levant showing Jerusalem in c. 830 BCE
Neo-Assyrian Empire at its greatest extent
Achaemenid Empire under Darius III

Proto-Canaanite period

Canaanite and New Kingdom Egyptian period

Independent Israel and Judah (House of David) period

Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Empires period

Illustration from the Nuremberg Chronicle of the destruction of Jerusalem under the Babylonian rule

Persian (Achaemenid) Empire period

Classical antiquity

Hellenistic Kingdoms (Ptolemaic / Seleucid) period

Kingdoms of the Diadochi and others before the battle of Ipsus, circa 303 BCE
The Seleucid Empire in c.200 BCE
Hasmonean Kingdom at its greatest extent under Salome Alexandra

Hasmonean kingdom

Early Roman period

Extent of the Roman Empire under Augustus, 30BCE – 6AD
Pompey in the Temple, 63 BCE (Jean Fouquet 1470–1475)
Jesus at the Temple (Giovanni Paolo Pannini c. 1750)
The siege of Jerusalem, 70AD (David Roberts, 1850)
  • 7–26 Brief period of peace, relatively free of revolt and bloodshed in Judea and Galilee[28]
  • c.12 The 12-year-old Jesus travels to Jerusalem on Passover, as he did every year[29] and is found in the Temple (Biblical sources only).
  • 28-30 CE: Three year Ministry of Jesus, during which a number of key events took place in Jerusalem, including: (Biblical sources only)
Flevit super illam” (He wept over it); by Enrique Simonet, 1892.
  • 30 CE: Key events in the martyrdom of Jesus which took place in Jerusalem (Biblical sources only)

Late Roman period (Aelia Capitolina)

The Roman empire at its peak under Hadrian showing the location of the Roman legions deployed in 125 CE.

Late Antiquity period

Byzantine period

Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476
Helena finding the True Cross (Italian manuscript, c.825)
The Madaba Map depiction of sixth-century Jerusalem

Middle Ages

Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates period

The expansion of the caliphate under the Umayyads.
  Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
  Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750
An anachronistic map of the various de facto independent emirates after the Abbasids lost their military dominance (c. 950).

Fatimid Caliphate period

The Fatimid Caliphate at its greatest extent

First Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099-1187)

Crusader states in 1180
The capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders on 15 July 1099
1. The Holy Sepulcher, 2. The Dome of the Rock, 3. Ramparts
A woodcut of Jerusalem in the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493

Ayyubid period and Second Crusader Kingdom

The Crusader defeat at the Battle of Hattin leads to the end of the First Crusader Kingdom (1099-1187). During the Second Crusader Kingdom (1192-1291), the Crusaders can only gain a foothold in Jerusalem on a limited scale, twice through treaties (access rights in 1192 after the Treaty of Jaffa; partial control 1229-39 after the Treaty of Jaffa and Tell Ajul), and again for a last time between 1241-44.[53]

Jerusalem under the Ayyubid dynasty after the death of Saladin, 1193
The Bahri Mamluk Dynasty 1250–1382

Bahri and Burji Mamluk periods

  • 1260: The Army of the Mongol Empire reaches Palestine for the first time:

Early modern period

Early Ottoman period

The Ottoman Empire in 1683, showing Jerusalem

Modern era

Decline of the Ottoman Empire period

Map of Jerusalem in 1883
"Independent" Vilayet of Jerusalem shown within Ottoman administrative divisions in the Levant after the reorganisation of 1887–88

British Mandate period

Zones of French and British influence and control proposed in the Sykes-Picot Agreement
General Allenby enters Jerusalem on foot out of respect for the Holy City, 11 December 1917

Partition between Israel and Jordan

Israeli period

The Temple Mount as it appears today. The Western Wall is in the foreground with the Dome of the Rock in the background
  • 6 June: The Battle of Ammunition Hill takes place in the northern part of Jordanian controlled East Jerusalem
  • 7 June: The Old City is captured by the IDF.
  • 10 June: The Moroccan Quarter including 135 houses and the Al-Buraq mosque is demolished, creating a plaza in front of the Western Wall
  • 28 June: Israel declares Jerusalem unified and announces free access to holy sites of all religions.

Graphical Overview of Jerusalem's Historical Periods

See also

Other cities in Israel



  1. ^ Steckoll, Solomon H., The gates of Jerusalem, Frederick A. Praeger, New York, 1968, preface
  2. ^ "Do We Divide the Holiest Holy City?". Moment Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2008. . According to Eric H. Cline's tally in Jerusalem Besieged.
  3. ^ a b c d e Slavik, Diane. 2001. Cities through Time: Daily Life in Ancient and Modern Jerusalem. Geneva, Illinois: Runestone Press, p. 60. ISBN 978-0-8225-3218-7
  4. ^ Mazar, Benjamin. 1975. The Mountain of the Lord. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., p. 45. ISBN 0-385-04843-2
  5. ^ Chronology of the Israelite Tribes from The History Files (
  6. ^ Ben-Dov, Meir. 1985. In the Shadow of the Temple. New York, New York: Harper & Row Publishers, Inc., pp. 34–35. ISBN 0-06-015362-8
  7. ^ Bright, John (1980). A History of Israel. p. 311. 
  8. ^ Student Reader Jerusalem: "When Cyrus captured Babylon, he immediately issued the Edict of Cyrus, a decree that those who had been exiled by the Babylonians could return to their homelands and start rebuilding."
  9. ^ "Maccabean Revolt". Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  10. ^ Josephus The Jewish Wars (1:60)
  11. ^ Lectures on ancient history, Barthold Georg Niebuhr, Marcus Carsten Nicolaus von Niebuhr. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  12. ^ "Josephus, chapter 10". Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  13. ^ Encyclopaedic dictionary of the Bible, Volume 5, William George Smith. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  14. ^ Sievers, 142
  15. ^ Between Rome and Jerusalem: 300 years of Roman-Judaean relations By Martin Sicker. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  16. ^ "Armenians of Jerusalem Launch Project To Preserve History and Culture". Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  17. ^ The problem of the Greek sources of Movsēs Xorenacʻi's History of Armenia. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  18. ^ A history of the Jews in Babylonia, Volume 2 By Jacob Neusner page 351. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  19. ^ "And when he had ordained five councils (συνέδρια), he distributed the nation into the same number of parts. So these councils governed the people; the first was at Jerusalem, the second at Gadara, the third at Amathus, the fourth at Jericho, and the fifth at Sepphoris in Galilee." xiv 54Ant.Josephus, :
  20. ^ "Josephus uses συνέδριον for the first time in connection with the decree of the Roman governor of Syria, Gabinius (57 BCE), who abolished the constitution and the then existing form of government of Palestine and divided the country into five provinces, at the head of each of which a sanhedrin was placed ("Ant." xiv 5, § 4)." via Jewish Encyclopedia: Sanhedrin:
  21. ^ Armstrong 1996, p. 126
  22. ^ Sicker 2001, p. 75
  23. ^ Israel handbook: with the Palestinian Authority areas By Dave Winter. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  24. ^ The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ. 14 November 2000. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  25. ^ """Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews – Book XVIII, "Cyrenius came himself into Judea, which was now added to the province of Syria. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  26. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, page 247–248: "Consequently, the province of Judea may be regarded as a satellite of Syria, though, in view of the measure of independence left to its governor in domestic affairs, it would be wrong to say that in the Julio-Claudian era Judea was legally part of the province of Syria."
  27. ^ A History of the Jewish People, H.H. Ben-Sasson editor, 1976, page 247: "When Judea was converted into a Roman province [in 6 CE, page 246], Jerusalem ceased to be the administrative capital of the country. The Romans moved the governmental residence and military headquarters to Caesarea. The centre of government was thus removed from Jerusalem, and the administration became increasingly based on inhabitants of the Hellenistic cities (Sebaste, Caesarea and others)."
  28. ^ John P. Meier's A Marginal Jew, v. 1, ch. 11; also H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, page 251: "But after the first agitation (which occurred in the wake of the first Roman census) had faded out, we no longer hear of bloodshed in Judea until the days of Pilate."
  29. ^ Luke 2:41–43
  30. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, The Crisis Under Gaius Caligula, pages 254–256: "The reign of Gaius Caligula (37–41) witnessed the first open break between the Jews and the Julio-Claudian empire. Until then – if one accepts Sejanus' heyday and the trouble caused by the census after Archelaus' banishment – there was usually an atmosphere of understanding between the Jews and the empire ... These relations deteriorated seriously during Caligula's reign, and, though after his death the peace was outwardly re-established, considerable bitterness remained on both sides. ... Caligula ordered that a golden statue of himself be set up in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Only Caligula's death, at the hands of Roman conspirators (41), prevented the outbreak of a Jewish-Roman war that might well have spread to the entire East."
  31. ^ Acts 21:26–39
  32. ^ See also Flavius Josephus, Jewish Antiquities XX, ix, 1.
  33. ^ Eusebius, , III, xxxiiHistoria EcclesiasticaEusebius, .
  34. ^ Christopher Mackay. "Ancient Rome a Military and Political History" 2007: 230
  35. ^ : First Nicaea: Canon VIISeven Ecumenical CouncilsSchaff's : "Since custom and ancient tradition have prevailed that the Bishop of Aelia [i.e., Jerusalem] should be honored, let him, saving its due dignity to the Metropolis, have the next place of honor."; "It is very hard to determine just what was the "precedence" granted to the Bishop of Aelia, nor is it clear which is the "metropolis" referred to in the last clause. Most writers, including Hefele, Balsamon, Aristenus and Beveridge consider it to be Cæsarea; while Zonaras thinks Jerusalem to be intended, a view recently adopted and defended by Fuchs; others again suppose it is Antioch that is referred to."
  36. ^ Browning, Robert. 1978. The Emperor Julian. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, p. 176. ISBN 0-520-03731-6
  37. ^ Horn, Cornelia B.; Robert R. Phenix, Jr. 2008. The Lives of Peter the Iberian, Theodosius of Jerusalem, and the Monk Romanus. Atlanta, Georgia: Society of Biblical Literature, p. lxxxviii. ISBN 978-1-58983-200-8
  38. ^ The Emperor Justinian and Jerusalem (527–565)
  39. ^ Hussey, J.M. 1961. The Byzantine World. New York, New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, p. 25.
  40. ^ Karen Armstrong. 1997. Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths. New York, New York: Ballantine Books, p. 229. ISBN 0-345-39168-3
  41. ^ """Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 21, Number 281: "Do not set out on a journey except for three Mosques i.e. Al-Masjid-AI-Haram, the Mosque of Allah's Apostle, and the Mosque of Al-Aqsa, (Mosque of Jerusalem).. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  42. ^ Ostrogorsky, George. 1969. History of the Byzantine State. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, p. 104. ISBN 0-8135-0599-2
  43. ^ Theophilus of Edessa's Chronicle, Robert G. Hoyland
  44. ^ Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies
  45. ^ ''Charlemagne and the Early Middle Ages'' by Miriam Greenblatt, p.29. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  46. ^ Heck, Gene W. Charlemagne, Muhammad, and the Arab roots of capitalism. p. 172. 
  47. ^ War And Peace in the Law of Islam by Majid Khadduri, p.247. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  48. ^ a b Guy le Strange (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems from AD 650 to 1500, Translated from the Works of the Medieval Arab Geographers. Florence:  
  49. ^ Damascus: A History, Ross Burns, p138
  50. ^ Singh, Nagendra. 2002. "International Encyclopedia of Islamic Dynasties"'
  51. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. 2007. "Historic Cities of the Islamic World
  52. ^ Runciman, Steven. 1951. A History of the Crusades: Volume 1 The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. New York, New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 279–290. ISBN 0-521-06161-X
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  54. ^  
  55. ^  
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  59. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Jerusalem (After 1291)". Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  60. ^ Jerusalem Timeline From David to the 20th century Archived 27 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  61. ^ Earthquakes in the Mediterranean and Middle East, A Multidisciplinary Study of Seismicity up to 1900, Nicholas Ambraseys
  62. ^ Chaucer's dead body: from corpse to corpus By Thomas Augustine Prendergast. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  63. ^ The Druzes: A New Study of Their History, Faith and Society, Nejla M. Abu Izzeddin, p192
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  65. ^  
  66. ^ Fisk and King, 'Description of Jerusalem,' in The Christian Magazine, July 1824, page 220. Mendon Association, 1824.
  67. ^ "The Jewish Quarter – BATEI MAHSE Square". Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
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  69. ^ "Mishkenot Sha'ananim". Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
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  72. ^ Jerusalem: city of longing By Simon Goldhill. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  73. ^   The group assembled at the Wall shouting "the Wall is ours". They raised the Jewish national flag and sang Hatikvah, the Israeli anthem. The authorities had been notified of the march in advance and provided a heavy police escort in a bid to prevent any incidents. Rumors spread that the youths had attacked local residents and had cursed the name of Muhammad
  74. ^ Levi-Faur, Sheffer and Vogel, 1999, p. 216.
  75. ^ Sicker, 2000, p. 80.
  76. ^ 'The Wailing Wall In Jerusalem Another Incident', The Times, Monday, 19 August 1929; pg. 11; Issue 45285; col D.
  77. ^ Prince-Gibson, Eetta (27 July 2006). "Reflective truth". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 10 May 2009. 
  78. ^ "Christians in the Holy Land" Edited by Michael Prior and William Taylor. ISBN 0-905035-32-1. Page 104: Albert Aghazarian "The significance of Jerusalem to Christians". This writer states that "Jews did not own any more than 20% of this quarter" prior to 1948.
  79. ^ "Palestine and Palestinians", page 117.


  • Armstrong, Karen (1996). Jerusalem - One City. Three Faiths. New York: Ballantine Books.  
  • Sicker, Martin (2001). Between Rome and Jerusalem: 300 years of Roman-Judaean relations. Greenwood Publishing Group.  

External links

  • History of Jerusalem. Jerusalem through the ages at Hagshama
  • Main Events In The History Of Jerusalem at HUJI
  • Jerusalem timeline at
  • Jerusalem chronology at Christian Travel Study Programs
  • Main Events in the History of Jerusalem at CenturyOne Bookstore
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