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The Skeptical Environmentalist

The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World
The Skeptical Environmentalist
Hardcover edition
Author Bjørn Lomborg
Original title Verdens sande tilstand
Translator Hugh Matthews - responsible for translation of the original title from Danish
Subject Futurology
Genre Non-fiction
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Publication date
2001
ISBN
OCLC 45618321
363.7 21
LC Class GE149 .L65 2001
Followed by Cool It: The Skeptical Environmentalist's Guide to Global Warming

The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World (overpopulation, declining energy resources, deforestation, species loss, water shortages, certain aspects of global warming, and an assortment of other global environmental issues are unsupported by analysis of the relevant data. It was first published in Danish in 1998, while the English edition was published as a work in environmental economics by Cambridge University Press in 2001.

Due to the scope of the project, comprising the range of topics addressed, the diversity of data and sources employed, and the many types of conclusions and comments advanced, The Skeptical Environmentalist does not fit easily into a particular scientific discipline or methodology. Although published by the social sciences division of Cambridge University Press, the findings and conclusions were widely challenged on the basis of natural science. This interpretation of The Skeptical Environmentalist as a work of environmental science generated much of the controversy and debate that surrounded the book.

The author

Bjørn Lomborg

Prior to becoming the Director of the Political Science at the University of Aarhus.

Some critics focus on his lack of training or professional experience in the environmental sciences or economics. Supporters argue his research is an appropriate application of his expertise in cost-benefit analysis, a standard analytical tool in policy assessment. His advocates further note that many of the scientists and environmentalists who criticized the book are not themselves environmental policy experts or experienced in cost-benefit research.

Origins

In numerous interviews, Lomborg ascribed his motivation for writing The Skeptical Environmentalist to his personal convictions, making clear that he was a pro-environmentalist and Litany", which he at one time claims to have affirmed, but purports to correct in his work.

Methods

The general analytical approach employed by Lomborg is based on cost-benefit analyses as employed in economics, social science, and the formulation and assessment of government policy. Much of Lomborg's examination of his Litany is based on statistical data analysis, therefore his work may be considered a work of that nature. Since it examines the costs and benefits of its many topics, it could be considered a work in economics, as categorized by its publisher. However, The Skeptical Environmentalist is methodologically eclectic and cross-disciplinary, combining interpretation of data with assessments of the media and human behavior, evaluations of scientific theories, and other approaches, to arrive at its various conclusions.

In arriving at the final work, Lomborg has used a similar approach in each of his work's main areas and subtopics. He progresses from the general to the specific, starting with a broad concern, such as

Contents

The Skeptical Environmentalist's subtitle refers to the

In establishing its arguments, The Skeptical Environmentalist examined a wide range of issues in the general area of environmental studies, including environmental economics and science, and came to an equally broad set of conclusions and recommendations. Lomborg's work directly challenged popular examples of green concerns by interpreting data from some 3,000 assembled sources. The author suggested that environmentalists diverted potentially beneficial resources to less deserving environmental issues in ways that were economically damaging. Much of the book's [1][2][3][4]

The Litany

"The Litany" comprises very diverse areas where, Lomborg claims, overly pessimistic claims are made and bad policies are implemented as a result. He cites accepted mainstream sources, like the United States government, United Nations agencies and others, preferring global long-term data over regional and short-term statistics.

The Skeptical Environmentalist is arranged around four major themes:

  • Human prosperity from an economic and demographic point of view
  • Human prosperity from an ecological point of view
  • Pollution as a threat to human prosperity
  • Future threats to human prosperity

Lomborg's main argument is that vast majority of environmental problems such as pollution, water shortages, deforestation, and species loss as well as population growth, hunger, and AIDS, are area-specific and highly correlated with poverty. Therefore, challenges to human prosperity are essentially logistical matters, and can be solved largely through economic and social development. Concerning problems that are more pressing at the global level, such as the depletion of fossil fuels and global warming, Lomborg argues that these issues are often overstated and that recommended policies are often inappropriate if assessed against alternatives.[5]

Human prosperity from an economic and demographic point of view

Lomborg analyzes three major themes: [6]

Human prosperity from an ecological point of view

In his section on prosperity from an ecological perspective, Lomborg looks at the world's natural resources and draws a conclusion in stark contrast to that of the well known report [7]

Pollution as a threat to human prosperity

Lomborg considers pollution from different angles. He notes that air pollution in wealthy nations has steadily decreased in recent decades. He finds that air pollution levels are highly linked to economic development, with moderately developed countries polluting most. Again, Lomborg argues that faster growth in emerging countries would help them reduce their air pollution levels. Lomborg suggests that devoting resources to reduce the levels of specific air pollutants would provide the greatest health benefits and save the largest number of lives (per amount of money spent), continuing an already decades-long improvement in air quality in most developed countries. Concerning [8]

Future threats to human prosperity

In his section regarding future threats to prosperity, Lomborg proposes his main recommendation and assessment that pursuant to cost-benefit analysis, the environmental threats to human prosperity are overstated and much of policy response is misguided. As an example, Lomborg cites worries about pesticides and their link to cancer. He argues that such concerns are vastly exaggerated in the public perception, as alcohol and coffee are the foods that create by far the greatest risk of cancer, as opposed to vegetables that have been sprayed with pesticides. Furthermore, if pesticides were not used on fruit and vegetables, their cost would rise, and consequently their consumption would go down, which would cause cancer rates to increase. He goes on to criticize the fear of a vertiginous decline in biodiversity, proposing that 0.7% of species have gone extinct in the last 50 years (as compared to a maximum of 50%, as claimed by some biologists). While Lomborg admits that extinctions are a problem, he asserts that they are not the catastrophe claimed by some, and have little effect on human prosperity.

Lomborg's most contentious assertion, however, involves Kyoto protocol is grossly insufficient. He goes on to argue that the economic costs of restrictions aimed at reversing or even slowing global warming are impractically high compared to an alternative of international coordination. Moreover, he asserts that the cost of combating global warming would be disproportionately shouldered by poor developing countries. Since the Kyoto agreement places unrealistic limits on economic activities, the countries that suffer from pollution and poverty due to the state of their economies will be condemned, Lomborg states, to a perpetually undeveloped economic state.

Lomborg proposes that the importance of global warming in terms of policy priority may be low compared to other policy issues such as fighting poverty, disease and aiding poor countries, which has direct and more immediate impact both in terms of welfare and the environment. He therefore suggests that a global cost-benefit analysis be undertaken before deciding on future measures. The [9]

Conclusions

Lomborg concludes his book by once again reviewing the Litany, and noting that the real state of the world is much better than the Litany claims. According to Lomborg, this discrepancy poses a problem, as it focuses public attention on relatively unimportant issues, while ignoring those that are paramount. In the worst case, The Skeptical Environmentalist argues, the global community is pressured to adopt inappropriate policies which have adverse effects on humanity, wasting resources that could be put to better use in aiding poor countries or fighting diseases such as AIDS. Lomborg thus urges us to look at what he calls the true problems of the world, since solving those will also solve the Litany.[10]

Reaction

The Skeptical Environmentalist was controversial even before its English-language release, with anti-publication efforts launched against Cambridge University Press. Once in the public arena, the book elicited extreme reactions in scientific circles and in the mainstream media. Opinion was largely polarized. Environmental groups were generally critical.

Anti-publication pressures

Dr. Chris Harrison (Publishing Director of social science publishing for Cambridge University Press), anticipating the level of controversy a book like The Skeptical Environmentalist would likely provoke, took extra care with the book's peer-review process. Instead of choosing candidates from the usual list of social science referees, Cambridge University Press chose from a list provided by their environmental science publishing program. Four were chosen: a climate scientist, an expert in biodiversity and sustainable development, a specialist on the economics of climate change (whose credentials include reviewing publications for the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)) and a "pure" economist. All four members of Cambridge's initial review panel agreed that the book should be published.

While criticism of the book was to be expected, the publisher was apparently surprised by the pressure brought against it to not publish The Skeptical Environmentalist. The complaints of some critics included demands that Cambridge convene a special panel to review the book in order to identify errors (despite existing pre-publication peer review), that Cambridge transfer their publishing rights to a "non-scholarly publishing house" and that they review their own policies to prevent publication of any book described as "essentially a political tract" in the future.

In the article, entitled "Peer review, politics and pluralism", Dr. Harrison noted that "many of the critical reviews of The Skeptical Environmentalist went beyond the usual unpicking of a thesis and concentrated instead on the role of the publisher in publishing the book at all. The post tray and e-mail inbox of editors and senior managers at the press bore witness to a concerted campaign to persuade Cambridge to renounce the book." He went on to describe complaints from environmentalists who feared the book would be "abused by corporate interests". Cambridge University Press felt it necessary to issue a formal, written statement, in order to "explain the editorial decisions that led not just to publishing the book but also to Cambridge's resistance to concerted pressure to withdraw it from the market." With these complaints and the publication of a Scientific American issue regarding the book (described below), Cambridge stated, in response to those who claimed the book lacked peer-review credentials, "it would be quite wrong to abandon an author who had satisfied the requirements of our peer-review system."

Cambridge took the additional step of inviting submissions of publishing proposals for books which offered an opposing argument to Lomborg's but noted that they had, to the best of Chris Harrison's knowledge, seen no attempt by any of the critics to submit such a proposal. This is seen by some to suggest that criticism of the book was political rather than academic. Subsequent to Cambridge's unequivocal assertion that The Skeptical Environmentalist had been subject to peer-review, Harrison noted that

we were surprised and disappointed to see the critics' letter being quoted in an issue of Time magazine (2 September 2002)... in which the authors repeated their charge that the book had not been peer-reviewed despite the assurances to the contrary that they had by then received by the press... It has become part of the anti-Lomborg folklore that this book bypassed the usual Cambridge peer-review process... This is a charge that is repeated in many of the public and private attacks in the press, and it is unfounded.

Cambridge University Press maintained their position and the book was published.

Criticism

Critics approached The Skeptical Environmentalist from several angles. Some scientists attacked the data, the analyses and conclusions, while others pointed to the "media" as being responsible for creating undue attention. One group of individuals simply found Lomborg's findings unrealistic, while another discovered that the book's findings largely matched their own.

Criticism of the material and methods

The January 2002 issue of [12] After receiving much criticism, the magazine published his complete rebuttal on its website,[13] along with the counter rebuttals of John Rennie[14] and John P. Holdren.[15]

straw man arguments,[17] with charges that his Litany of environmental doom-mongering does not accurately represent the mainstream views of the contemporary green movement.

The "separately written expert reviews" further detail the various expert opinions. Peter Gleick's assessment, for example, states:

There is nothing original or unique in Lomborg's book. Many of his criticisms have appeared in... previous works—and even in the work of environmental scientists themselves. What is new, perhaps, is the scope and variety of the errors he makes.

Jerry Mahlman's appraisal of the chapter he was asked to evaluate, states:

I found some aspects of this chapter to be interesting, challenging, and logical. For example, the author's characterizations of the degree of difficulty in actually doing something meaningful about climate change through mitigation and coping/adaptation are perceptive and valuable. In principle, such characterizations could provide a foundation for more meaningful policy planning on this difficult problem. Unfortunately, the author's lack of rigor and consistency on these larger issues is likely to negate any real respect for his insights.

David Pimentel, who was repeatedly criticized in the book, also wrote a critical review.[18]

Criticism of media handling

Another angle of criticism focused as much on the media and Lomborg himself as it did on the book, charging that The Skeptical Environmentalist's prominence was due to the intense media coverage: had not the coverage been so great, neither would its impact. The controversial statements the book presents, and the fact that Lomborg offered a catchy public image made the package of contrarian and hip book author eminently media-ready.

One critical article, "The Skeptical Environmentalist: A Case Study in the Manufacture of News",[19] attributes this media success to its initial, influential supporters:

"News of the pending book first appeared in the UK in early June of 2001 when a Sunday Times article by Nayab Chohan featured an advanced report of claims made by Lomborg that London's air was cleaner than at any time since 1585. Headlined "Cleanest London Air for 400 Years," the publicity hook was both local and timely, as the tail end of the article linked the book's questioning of the Kyoto climate change protocol to U.S. president George W. Bush's visit the same week to Europe, and Bush's controversial opposition to the treaty. The Times followed up the report the next day with a news article further detailing the book's Kyoto protocol angle."
"With The Times reports, Lomborg and his claims had made the Anglo media agenda. As is typically the case, other media outlets followed the reporting of the elite newspaper. Articles pegging the claims of The Skeptical Environmentalist to Bush's European visit ran later that week in the U.K's The Express and Daily Telegraph, and Canada's Toronto Star."

The media was criticized for the biased selection of reviewers and not informing readers of reviewers' background. Richard C. Bell, writing for Worldwatch noted that the Wall Street Journal, "instead of seeking scientists with a critical perspective," like many publications "put out reviews by people who were closely associated with Lomborg", with the Journal soliciting a review from the Competitive Enterprise Institute's Ronald Bailey, someone "who had earlier written a book called The True State of the World, from which much of Lomborg's claims were taken." Bell also criticized the Washington Post, whose Sunday Book World assigned the book review to Dennis Dutton, identified as "a professor of philosophy who lectures on the dangers of pseudoscience at the science faculties of the University of Canterbury in New Zealand", and as the editor of the web site Arts and Letters Daily. Bell noted that:

"The Post did not tell its readers that Dutton's web site features links to the Global Climate Coalition, an anti-Kyoto consortium of [20]"

The "unrealistic" critique

Some critics of The Skeptical Environmentalist took issue not with the statistical investigation of Lomborg's Litany, but with the suggestions and conclusions for which they were the foundation. This line of criticism considered the book as a contribution to the policy debate over environment rather than the work of natural science. In a BBC column from August 23, 2001, veteran BBC environmental correspondent Alex Kirby wrote:

"I am neither a statistician nor a scientist, and I lack the skill to judge Lomborg's reworkings of the statistics of conventional wisdom. But I am worried that on virtually every topic he touches, he reaches conclusions radically different from almost everybody else. That seems to suggest that most scientists are wrong, short-sighted, naïve, interested only in securing research funds, or deliberately dancing to the campaigners' tune. Most I know are honest, intelligent and competent. So it beggars belief to suppose that Professor Lomborg is the only one in step, every single time."[21]

Kirby's first concern was not with the extensive research and statistical analysis, but the conclusions drawn from them:

"What really riles me about his book is that it is so damnably reasonable. In the rational world that Bjørn Lomborg thinks we all inhabit, we would manage problems sensibly, one by one...But the real world is messier, more unpredictable - and more impatient."

On September 5, 2001, at a Lomborg book reading in England, British environmentalist author

"Lomborg specialises in presenting the reader with false choices - such as the assertion that money not spent on preventing climate change could be spent on bringing clean water to the developing world, thereby saving more lives per dollar of expenditure. Of course, in the real world, these are not the kind of choices we are faced with. Why not take the $60 billion from George Bush's stupid Son of Star Wars program and use that cash to save lives in Ethiopia? Because in a world where political choices are not made democratically at a global level, but by a small number of rich countries and corporations, the poor and the environment are never going to be a priority."[22]

The December 12, 2001 issue of [23]

Addressing the apparent difficulty of scientists opposing The Skeptical Environmentalist in criticizing the book strictly on the basis of statistics and challenging the conclusions about areas of environmental sciences that were drawn from them, Lynas contends:

"One of the biggest problems facing the environmental community in analyzing Lomborg’s book is that his work, as flawed as it is, has clearly been very time-consuming and meticulous. In a busy and under funded world, few people have the time or background knowledge to plow though 3,000 footnotes checking his sources. It is impressively interdisciplinary."

Support

Despite intense criticism in most of the natural scientific press, The Skeptical Environmentalist received positive, sometimes enthusiastic, reviews from policy magazines, academic journals in social science and many newspapers and other mainstream media. Given the timing of the English edition, which was published in August 2001, it has been suggested that the media coverage of The Skeptical Environmentalist would have been considerably greater, had not the September 11, 2001 attacks dominated media coverage for several months.

Influential UK newsweekly The Skeptical Environmentalist is a triumph."[24][25]

Among the general media, the

In March 2003 the New York Law School Law Review published[26] an examination of the critical reviews of Skeptical Environmentalist from the Scientific American, Nature and Science magazines by Professor of Law David Shoenbrod and then Senior Law Student Christi Wilson of New York Law School. The authors take the perspective of a court faced with an argument against hearing an expert witness in order to evaluate whether Lomborg was credible as an expert, and whether his testimony is valid to his expertise. They classify the types of criticisms leveled at Lomborg and his arguments, and proceed to evaluate each of the reasons given for disqualifying Lomborg. They conclude that a court should accept Lomborg as a credible expert in the field of statistics, and that his testimony was appropriately restricted to his area of expertise. Of course, Professor Shoenbrod and Wilson note, Mr. Lomborg's factual conclusions may not be correct, nor his policy proposals effective, but his criticisms should be addressed, not merely dismissed out of hand.

The [27] where Roger A. Pielke argued:

The use of science by scientists as a means of negotiating for desired political outcomes – the politicization of science by scientists – threatens the development of effective policies in contested issues. By tying themselves to politics, rather than policy, scientists necessarily restrict their value and the value of their science.

In "Green with Ideology - The hidden agenda behind the "scientific" attacks on Bjørn Lomborg’s controversial book, The Skeptical Environmentalist",

The Skeptical Environmentalist obviously should be held to high standards of accuracy, but to insist that it read like a scientific paper is both specious and disingenuous. The book is essentially a response to such popular environmentalist tracts as the State of the World report and the reams of misinformation disseminated by Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth, the Union of Concerned Scientists, The Ecologist, the Turning Point Project, Grist, Wild Earth, and the rest of the sprawling eco-media propaganda complex.

Jeremy Clarkson has also shown support for the book, believing it to be a voice of reason which he frequently mentions it in his Sunday Times columns.

Longer-term impact

The Skeptical Environmentalist became a high-profile international bestseller during 2001–2002. Lomborg's book currently appears on the reading list of university environmental studies courses as recommended or required reading. In the years following publication, Lomborg's impact on the public policy debate was heightened by his association with the economists.

Accusations of scientific dishonesty

After the publication of The Skeptical Environmentalist, Lomborg was accused of scientific dishonesty. Several environmental scientists brought a total of three complaints against Lomborg to the [28] The charges claimed that The Skeptical Environmentalist contained deliberately misleading data and flawed conclusions. Due to the similarity of the complaints, the DCSD decided to proceed on the three cases under one investigation.

DCSD investigation

On January 6, 2003, a mixed DCSD ruling was released, in which the Committees decided that The Skeptical Environmentalist was scientifically dishonest, but Lomborg was innocent of wrongdoing due to a lack of expertise in the relevant fields:[29]

"Objectively speaking, the publication of the work under consideration is deemed to fall within the concept of scientific dishonesty. ...In view of the subjective requirements made in terms of intent or gross negligence, however, Lomborg's publication cannot fall within the bounds of this characterization. Conversely, the publication is deemed clearly contrary to the standards of good scientific practice."

The DCSD cited The Skeptical Environmentalist for:

  • Fabrication of data;
  • Selective discarding of unwanted results (selective citation);
  • Deliberately misleading use of statistical methods;
  • Distorted interpretation of conclusions;
  • Plagiarism;
  • Deliberate misinterpretation of others' results.

MSTI review and response

On February 13, 2003, Lomborg filed a complaint against the DCSD's decision with the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MSTI), which oversees the group.

On December 17, 2003, the Ministry found that the DCSD had made a number of procedural errors, including:

  • Not using a precise standard for deciding "good scientific practice" in the social sciences;
  • Defining "objective scientific dishonesty" in a way unclear in determining whether "distortion of statistical data" had to be deliberate or not;
  • Not properly documenting that The Skeptical Environmentalist was a scientific publication on which they had the right to intervene in the first place;
  • Not providing specific statements on actual errors.

The Ministry remitted the case to the DCSD. In doing so the Ministry indicated that it regarded the DCSD's previous findings of scientific dishonesty in regard to the book as invalid. The Ministry also instructed the DCSD to decide whether to reinvestigate. On March 12, 2004, the Committee formally decided not to act further on the complaints, reasoning that renewed scrutiny would, in all likelihood, result in the same conclusion.[30][28]

Response of the scientific community

The original DCSD decision about Lomborg provoked a petition[31] among Danish academics from 308 scientists, many from the social sciences, who criticised the DCSD's investigative methods.

Another group of Danish scientists collected signatures in support of the DCSD. The 640 signatures in this second petition came almost exclusively from the medical and natural sciences, and included Nobel laureate in Chemistry Jens Christian Skou, former university rector Kjeld Møllgård, and professor Poul Harremoës from the Technical University of Denmark.[32]

Continued debate and criticism

A group of scientists published an article in 2005 in the Journal of Information Ethics,[33] in which they concluded that most criticism against Lomborg was unjustified, and that the scientific community had misused their authority to suppress the author.

Kåre Fog

The claim that allegations against Lomborg were unsubstantiated was challenged in the next issue of Journal of Information Ethics[34] by Kåre Fog, one of the original DCSD petitioners. Fog reasserted his contention that, despite the ministry's decision, most of the accusations against Lomborg were valid, and rejected what he called "the Galileo hypothesis", which portrays Lomborg as a brave young man confronting an entrenched opposition.

Fog has established a curated catalogue of criticisms against Lomborg,[35] which includes a section for each page of every Skeptical Environmentalist chapter. Fog enumerates and details what he believes to be flaws and errors in Lomborg's work. He explicitly indicates if particular mistakes may have been made deliberately by Lomborg, in order to mislead. According to Fog, since none of his denunciations of Lomborg's work have been proven false, the suspicion that Lomborg has misled deliberately is maintained. Lomborg has written a full text published online as Godehetens Pris (Danish) [36] that goes through the main allegations put forward by Fog and others.

See also

Literature

References

  1. ^ Bjorn Lomborg Biography, www.lomborg.com. Retrieved 26 February 2006.
  2. ^  
  3. ^ The Skeptical EnvironmentalistSkeptical About , Richard M. Fisher's review of The Skeptical Environmentalist, in "The Skeptical Inquirer".
  4. ^ Grist magazine article Rebuttals from scientists working in the various fields his book makes claims about.
  5. ^ Lomborg, 2001. Part I. The Litany.
  6. ^ Lomborg, 2001. Part II. Human Welfare.
  7. ^ Lomborg, 2001. Part III. Can Human Prosperity Continue?.
  8. ^ Lomborg, 2001. Part IV. Pollution.
  9. ^ Lomborg, 2001. Part V. Tomorrow's Problems.
  10. ^ Lomborg, 2001. Part VI. The Real State of the World.
  11. ^ "The Skeptical Environmentalist Replies". Scientific American, May 2002.
  12. ^ Moses, Jonathon W and Knutsen, Torbjorn K. Ways Of Knowing: Competing Methodologies in Social and Political Research, 2007
  13. ^ ScientificAmerican+BL for SA.PDF
  14. ^ Rennie, John. "A Response to Lomborg's Rebuttal". Scientific American, 15 April 2002. Retrieved 21 February 2006.
  15. ^ Holdren, John P. "A Response to Bjørn Lomborg’s Response to My Critique of His Energy Chapter". Scientific American, 15 April 2002. Retrieved: 21 February 2006.
  16. ^ Stuart Pimm; Jeff Harvey (November 8, 2001). "No need to worry about the future". Nature 414 (6860): 149.  
  17. ^ Local Environment. 2002. 
  18. ^ David Pimentel. (Summer 2002). Skeptical of the skeptical environmentalist. Skeptic.
  19. ^ Nisbet, Matthew. "The Skeptical Environmentalist: A Case Study in the Manufacture of News". Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal, 23 January 2003. Retrieved 21 February 2006.
  20. ^ Commentary: Media Sheep
  21. ^ Kirby, Alex. "Bjørn Lomborg's wonderful world" BBC News, 23 August 2001. Retrieved 21 February 2006.
  22. ^ schema-root.org/mark_lynas
  23. ^ . [Schulz, Kathryn (12 December 2001). "Let Us Not Praise Infamous Men". Grist Magazine. 
  24. ^ The Economist – Books & Arts – Environmental scrutiny - Doomsday postponed
  25. ^ The Economist – Leader – The environment – Defending science “The January issue of Scientific American devoted many pages to a series of articles trashing ‘The Skeptical Environmentalist’. The authors, all supporters of the green movement, were strong on contempt and sneering, but weak on substance.”
  26. ^ New York Law School Law Review 46 (3): 581–614. 2003 http://www.nyls.edu/pdfs/v46n3-4p581-614.pdf . 
  27. ^ Environmental Science & Policy 7, 2004
  28. ^ a b Hansen, Jens Morten (2008). "The 'Lomborg case' on sustainable development and scientific dishonesty". International Geological Congress. Retrieved 23 November 2014. 
  29. ^ [1]. Retrieved 22-Dec-2008.
  30. ^ "Lomborg celebrates ministry ruling".  
  31. ^ "Underskriftsindsamling i protest mod afgørelsen om Bjørn Lomborg fra - Udvalgene Vedrørende Videnskabelig Uredelighed". Retrieved 26 February 2006.
  32. ^ "Verden ifølge Lomborg - eller den moderne udgave af "Kejserens Nye Klæder": Han har jo ikke noget på...". Retrieved 26 February 2006.
  33. ^ Rörsch, A; Frello, Thomas; Soper, Ray; De Lange, Adriaan (2005). "On the opposition against the book The Skeptical Environmentalist by B. Lomborg". Journal of Information Ethics 14 (1): 16–28.   ():
  34. ^ Fog, K. (2005). "The real nature of the opposition against B. Lomborg". Journal of Information Ethics 14 (2): 66–76.  
  35. ^ "Lomborg errors". 
  36. ^ Godhedens Pris

Bibliography

  • Lomborg, Bjørn (2001). The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521010683.
  • van den Bergh, Jeroen (2010). An assessment of Lomborg's The Skeptical Environmentalist and the ensuing debate,[2] Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences 7(1).

External links

  • A sample of the book (PDF)
  • A 224-page rebuttal to Lomborg, by twelve scientists, published by the Danish Ecological Council; free download
  • Lomborg's responses to his critics at Bjørn Lomborg's Website
  • HAN selection of complaints made by Lomborg critics, an article collection by Heidelberg Appeal Nederland, supporting Lomborg.
  • Kyoto Economics by William Shepherd
  • .Science and Nature, Scientific AmericanNew York Law School Law Professor and a Senior Law Student review of the reviews to determine whether Lomborg is still credible as an expert witness and whether his testimony is appropriate to his expertise based on the criticisms of
  • The Lomborg Deception: Setting the Record Straight About Global Warming by Howard Friel (Yale University Press [3], 2010)

Reviews of the book

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