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Terrorism in the European Union

GSG9 team returning in 1977 after liberating the passengers of Lufthansa Flight 181

The failed, foiled and successfully executed acts of terrorism in the European Union are according to the European Police Office either unspecified, or pertains to religious issues, animal rights, right wing, left wing or separatist movements. The field is subject to considerable cooperation among national authorities.

Law enforcement

The seat of the European Police Office (Europol) in The Hague.

European cooperation in the field of counter-terrorism include Europol, an EU agency, and Interpol. TREVI was an early example of EU cooperation in this field. s In July 2014 France introduced legislation to combat terrorism by toughening surveillance, making it lawful to detain individuals linked to radical Islamist groups, and to block Internet sites that incite anti-Semitism, terrorism and hatred. The country's Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve revealed 600 French nationals were in Syria at the time or planned to go there. The bill includes a ban on foreign travel for up to six months for radicalized individuals, provides for the confiscation and invalidation of passports, and prohibits airlines from allowing such individuals to fly.[1]

Trend

Europol provides annual statistics regarding terrorist attacks and terrorist related arrests in the EU, with data available from 2006.[2] According to these data the vast majority of terrorist attacks in the EU are affiliated with Ethno-national or separatist motives, followed by left-wing attacks and those that are registered as 'unspecified'. A smaller number of terrorist attacks is motivated religiously or associated with right-wing or single-issue groups, respectively (animal rights extremists). However, among those arrested on terror-related grounds separatists form the largest group, followed by religiously motivated terror suspects. The relatively high incidence of arrests related to religiously motivated terrorism (in comparison to the number of such attacks) is at least in part related to recruitment networks for violent action outside the EU and to the dissemination of terrorist propaganda.[3] Europol's reports do not provide a breakdown of the proportion of attacks that have been completed or the type of damage inflicted. In January 2015, The Economist compiled data regarding deaths due to political violence in western Europe since 2001. These data show that the death toll associated with Islamist terror is particularly high, especially when compared with the low overall proportion of religiously motivated attacks reported by Europol.[4]

List of incidents

The following is an incomplete list of incidents in the European Union its preceding European communities:

Terrestrial

Date Location Country Deaths Injuries Means Perpetrator
15 September 1958  Paris  France 1 3 Small arms fire 'FLN (Algerian nationalists)'
12 December 1969  Milan  Italy 17 88 Improvised explosive device Ordine Nuovo
22 July 1970  Gioia Tauro  Italy 6 72 Improvised explosive device Ordine Nuovo
31 May 1972  Sagrado  Italy 3 2 Improvised explosive device 'Vincenzo Vinciguerra & Charles Cicuttini'

Ordine Nuovo, and Italian Military Secret Service (SID)

5–6 September 1972  Munich  Germany 17 uk hostage taking Black September
14 December 1973  Marseille  France 4 20 Improvised Explosive Device Charles
Martel Group
17 May 1973  Milan  Italy 4 45 Improvised explosive device 'Gianfranco Bertoli'

(alleged Gladio agent)

17 December 1973  Rome  Italy 31 21 Grenade & Small arms fire -
28 May 1974  Brescia  Italy 8 103 Improvised explosive device -
4 August 1974  San Benedetto Val di Sambro  Italy 12 48 Improvised explosive device Ordine Nero
20 November 1974  Savona  Italy 1 13 Improvised explosive device -
2 December 1975  Wijster  Netherlands 3 - Hostage taking

(12 days)

South Moluccan nationalists
4 December 1975  Amsterdam  Netherlands 1 - Hostage taking

(16 days)

South Moluccan nationalists
16 December 1976  Brescia  Italy 1 11 Improvised explosive device -
23 May 1977  Glimmen  Netherlands 8 6 Hostage taking

(20 days)

South Moluccan nationalists
9 June 1977  Rome  Italy 1 Small arms fire 'JCAG (Armenian nationalists)'
13 March 1978  Assen  Netherlands 2 1 Hostage taking

(2 days)

South Moluccan nationalists
23 March 1979  The Hague  Netherlands 2 - Small arms fire 'PIRA (Irish republicans)'
12 October 1979  The Hague  Netherlands 1 - Small arms fire 'JCAG (Armenian nationalists)'
16 March 1978  Rome  Italy 6 - Grenade & Small arms fire -- Hostage taking

(55 days)

'Red Brigades'
3 May 1979  Rome  Italy 2 1 Grenade & Small arms fire 'Red Brigades'
10 March 1980  Rome  Italy 2 12 Improvised explosive device 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
15 September 1974  Paris  France 2 34 Improvised Explosive Device PFLP (Palestinian nationalists)
24 October 1975  Paris  France 2 - Grenade & Small arms fire 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
20 May 1978  Paris  France 4 3 Grenade & Small arms fire 'PFLP (Palestinian nationalists)'
5 October 1978  Marseille  France 9 12 Small arms fire
23 December 1979  Paris  France 1 - Grenade & Small arms fire 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
28 January 1980  Paris  France 1 8 Improvised Explosive Device
17 July 1980  Paris  France 2 4 Small arms fire 'Guards of Islam
(Iranian agents)'
29 July 1980  Lyon  France 2 11 Small arms fire 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
3 October 1980  Paris  France 4 40 Improvised Explosive Device -
25 November 1980  Paris  France 2 1 Small arms fire -
4 March 1981  Paris  France 2 1 Small arms fire 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
21 July 1981  Athens  Greece 2 - Small arms fire
24 September 1981  Paris  France 1 2 Small arms fire -- Hostage taking

(2 days)

'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
29 March 1982  Ambazac  France 5 27 Improvised Explosive Device 'Carlos the Jackal'
22 April 1982  Paris  France 1 47 Car bomb 'Carlos the Jackal'
9 August 1982  Paris  France 6 22 Grenade & Small arms fire '
21 August 1982  Paris  France 1 2 Improvised Explosive Device -
28 February 1983  Paris  France 1 4 Improvised Explosive Device 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
15 July 1983  Paris  France 8 55 Improvised Explosive Device 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
5 August 1983  Avignon  France 7 - Small arms fire
1 October 1983  Marseille  France 1 26 Improvised Explosive Device 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
7 November 1983  Athens  Greece 1 1 Small arms fire '
15 November 1983  Athens  Greece 2 - Small arms fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
31 December 1983  Marseille  France 5 58+ Improvised Explosive Device 'Carlos the Jackal'
7 February 1984  Paris  France 2 1 Small arms fire 'Islamic Jihad'
8 February 1984  Paris  France 1 - Small arms fire '
28 March 1984  Athens  Greece 2 - Small arms fire '
25 January 1985  Paris  France 1 - Small arms fire 'Action Directe'
21 February 1985  Athens  Greece 2 - Small arms fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
23 February 1985  Paris  France 1 15 Improvised Explosive Device -
3 March 1985  Paris  France 4 - Small arms fire -
26 November 1985  Athens  Greece 1 14 Car bomb '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
20 March 1986  Paris  France 2 28 Improvised Explosive Device 'CSPPA (Lebanese faction)'
25 April 1986  Lyon  France 1 - Small arms fire -
9 September 1986  Paris  France 1 18 Improvised Explosive Device 'CSPPA (Lebanese faction)'
15 September 1986  Paris  France 1 51 Improvised Explosive Device 'CSPPA (Lebanese faction)'
17 September 1986  Paris  France 5 50+ Improvised Explosive Device 'CSPPA (Lebanese faction)'
18 October 1986  Toulon  France 4 - Car bomb -
17 November 1986  Paris  France 1 - Small arms fire 'Action Directe'
27 July 1980  Antwerp  Belgium 1 20 Grenade '
2 August 1980 Bologna  Italy 85 200+ Improvised explosive device Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari
20 October 1981  Antwerp  Belgium 3 106 Truck bomb -
9 October 1982  Rome  Italy 1 37 Grenade & Small arms fire '
13 July 1983  Brussels  Belgium 1 - Small arms fire -
29 July 1983  Palermo  Italy 4 - Car bomb 'Corleonesi mafia clan'
17 September 1983  Nivelles  Belgium 3 1 Small arms fire Brabant massacres
1 December 1983  Anderlues  Belgium 2 - Small arms fire Brabant massacres
1 May 1985  Brussels  Belgium 2 13 Car bomb 'Communist Combatant Cells'
27 September 1985  Overijse & Braine-l'Alleud  Belgium 8 2 Small arms fire Brabant massacres
9 November 1985  Aalst  Belgium 8 15 Small arms fire Brabant massacres
6 December 1985  Liège  Belgium 1 2 Improvised Explosive Device
22 July 1985  Copenhagen  Denmark 1 27 Improvised Explosive Device (Palestinian nationalists)
23 December 1984  San Benedetto Val di Sambro  Italy 17 267 Improvised explosive device Mafia, Camorra, neo-fascists
13 January 1985  Rome  Italy 1 - Small arms fire '-'
2 April 1985  Pizzolungo  Italy 3 8 Improvised explosive device 'Corleonesi mafia clan'
25 September 1985  Rome  Italy 1 14 Improvised explosive device '
27 December 1985  Rome  Italy 19 99 Grenade & Small arms fire '
14 April 1988  Naples  Italy 5 15 Improvised explosive device 'Japanese Red Army'
1 May 1988  Roermond & Nieuw-Bergen  Netherlands 3 3 Improvised Explosive Device -- Small arms fire 'PIRA (Irish republicans)'
28 June 1988  Athens  Greece 1 - Car bomb '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
11 July 1988  Athens  Greece 11 98 Car bomb -- Grenade & Small arms fire '
19 December 1988  Cagnes sur Mer  France 1 12 Improvised Explosive Device
27 September 1989  Athens  Greece 1 - Small arms fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
4 January 1991  San Lazzaro di Savena  Italy 3 2 Small arms fire
19 April 1991  Patras  Greece 7 7 Improvised Explosive Device (Palestinian nationalists)
16 March 1992  Copenhagen  Denmark 1 - Improvised Explosive Device -
23 May 1992  Capaci  Italy 5 - Car bomb 'Corleonesi mafia clan'
14 July 1992  Athens  Greece 1 5 Rocket propelled grenade fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
19 July 1992  Palermo  Italy 6 10 Car bomb -
27 May 1993  Florence  Italy 6 26 Improvised explosive device 'Corleonesi mafia clan'
28 July 1993  Milan  Italy 5 6+ Improvised explosive device 'Corleonesi mafia clan'
24 January 1994  Athens  Greece 1 - Small arms fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
5 October 1994  Paris  France 4 6 Small arms fire -- Hostage taking -
2 February 1995  Oberwart  Austria 4 - Improvised explosive device 'Bavarian Liberation Army'
25 July 1995  Paris  France 8 150 Improvised explosive device 'GIA
(Islamists)
'
3 December 1996  Paris  France 3 85 Improvised explosive device 'GIA
(Islamists)
'
28 May 1997  Athens  Greece 1 - Small arms fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
20 May 1999  Rome  Italy 1 - Small arms fire New Red Brigades
17 November 1999  Athens  Greece 1 - Improvised Explosive Device 'Revolutionary Nuclei'
19 April 2000  Plévin  France 1 - Improvised explosive device -
8 June 2000  Athens  Greece 1 - Small arms fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
19 March 2002  Bologna  Italy 1 - Small arms fire New Red Brigades
11 October 2002  Vantaa  Finland 7 166 Suicide bombing Petri Gerdt
3 March 2003  Castiglion Fiorentino  Italy 2[148] - Small arms fire New Red Brigades
11 March 2004  Madrid  Spain 191 2050 [149] Improvised Explosive Device 'Abu Hafs al-Masri Brigade part of Al-Qaida'
25 November 2004  Oismae  Estonia 2 3 Suicide bombing -
7 July 2005  London  United Kingdom 52 700 Suicide bombing 'Islamists'
6 December 2007  Paris  France 1 4 Improvised explosive device -
1 May 2009  Apeldoorn  Netherlands 7 12 Vehicle 'Karst Tates'
17 June 2009  Athens  Greece 1 - Small arms fire 'Sect of Revolutionaries'
28 March 2010  Athens  Greece 1 2 Improvised Explosive Device
24 June 2010  Athens  Greece 1 - Improvised Explosive Device
19 July 2010  Athens  Greece 1 - Small arms fire 'Sect of Revolutionaries'
11 December 2010  Stockholm  Sweden 1 2 Suicide bombing 'Taimour Abdulwahab al-Abdaly (Islamist)
2 March 2011  Frankfurt  Germany 2 2 Small arms fire 'Islamist'
15 March 2012  Montauban  France 2 1 Small arms fire 'Mohammed Merah (Islamist)'
19 March 2012  Toulouse  France 4 1 Small arms fire 'Mohammed Merah (Islamist)'
19 May 2012  Brindisi  Italy 1 5 Improvised explosive device 'Giovanni Vantaggiato'
18 July 2012  Burgas  Bulgaria 7 30 Suicide bombing 'Islamic Jihad'
24 May 2014  Brussels  Belgium 4 0 Small arms fire Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant[168]
7 January 2015  Paris  France 12 11 Small arms fire Al-Qaeda in Yemen
14 February 2015  Copenhagen  Denmark 2 5 Small arms fire Omar Abdel Hamid El-Hussein
22 October 2015  Trollhättan  Sweden 3 (including perpertrator) 2 Sword Anton Lundin Pettersson[172]

Aerial

Date Sub Flight Dead Hurt Pax. Type Perpetrator Description
18 February 1969

El Al — 432

AMSZRHTLV

1 8 28 Grenade & Small arms fire PFLP (Palestinian nationalists) Ground. Zurich Kloten Airport, Switzerland
An El Al operated Boeing 720-058B is attacked by a squad of four armed militants while it was preparing for takeoff at the Zurich International Airport in Kloten. At least 8 passengers and crew were injured during the attack and co-pilot, Yoram Peres, died of his wounds a month later. The plane was severely damaged. A greater disaster was averted when an undercover Israeli security agent stationed on the plane, opened fire at the attackers and killed the squad leader.[173]
17 December 1973

Lufthansa
— 'Unnamed Boeing 737'

FCOATHDAMKWA

2 2 10 Hijacking -- Hostage taking

(2 days)

- —Hijacking on ground at Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport, Italy & hostages freed in Kuwait
Following the attack on Pan Am Flight 110, 5 Italian hostages are captured and placed on a Lufthansa airliner, and the pilot forced to fly to Beirut. An Italian customs agent dies in the terminal during the capture of the five Italians. After Lebanese authorities refused to let the plane land, it landed in Athens, where the terrorists demanded the release of 2 Arab terrorists. In order to make Greek authorities comply with their demands, the terrorists killed a hostage and threw his body onto the tarmac.
The plane then flew to [14]
8 September 1974

Trans World Airlines — 841

TLVATHFCOJFK

88 - 88 Improvised Explosive Device Abu Nidal Organisation

(Suspected)

—Greek airspace
About 30 minutes after takeoff, the TWA operated Boeing 707-331B crashed into the Ionian Sea. The out of control aircraft was observed on the flight deck of Pan Am 110. They watched the TWA aircraft execute a steep climb, the separation of an engine from the wing, and the craft spiral into the ocean. All 79 passengers and nine crew members were killed. The National Transportation Safety Board determined the plane was destroyed by a bomb in the cargo hold, which caused structural failure resulting in uncontrollable flight.
Forty-nine passengers boarded the plane in Tel Aviv for Italy and the United States. They included 17 Americans (plus a baby), 13 Japanese, 4 Italians, 4 French, 3 Indians, 2 Iranians, 2 Israelis, 2 Sri Lankans, an Australian and a Canadian. The nationalities of 30 other passengers and the 9 crew members were not immediately known at the time. Reuters reported a total of 37 Americans aboard.
27 June 1976

Air France — 193

TLV BENEBB

4 10 260 Hijacking -- Hostage taking

(8 days)

PFLP-EO (Palestinian nationalists) & Revolutionary Cells —Hijacking in Israeli airspace & raid to free hostages at Entebbe Airport, Uganda
The dead include 4 hostages, 1 Israeli soldier and 7 hijackers. Up to 50 more Ugandan soldiers are killed in the Israeli operation.
13 October 1977

Lufthansa — 181

PMIFCOLCABAHDXBADEMGQ

1 4 91 Hijacking -- Hostage taking

(6 days)

PFLP (Palestinian nationalists) —Hijacking in French airspace & raid to free hostages at Aden Adde Intl. Airport, Somalia
One member of the crew is killed along with 3 hijackers. Another crew member and 3 passengers are also injured.
14 June 1985

Trans World Airlines — 847

ATHBEYALGBEYALGBEY

1 5 147 Hijacking -- Hostage taking

(3 days)

Islamic Jihad —Hijacking in Greek airspace & hostages freed in Beirut, Lebanon
A Trans World Airlines Boeing 727 is hijacked by two Lebanese men, who had smuggled pistols and grenades through the Athens airport security, after originally taking off from Cairo. The flight was en route from Athens to Rome and then scheduled to terminate in London. The hijackers were seeking the release of 700 Shi'ite Muslims from Israeli custody.
Some passengers were threatened and some beaten. United States Navy diver Robert Dean Stethem was killed, and his body was thrown onto the tarmac. Dozens of passengers were held hostage over the next two weeks until released by their captors after some of their demands were met.[174]
23 November 1985

Egypt Air — 648

ATHMLA

58 20+ 95 Hijacking -- Hostage taking

(2 days)

Abu Nidal Organisation —Hijacking in Greek airspace & raid to free hostages at Malta International Airport, Malta
The Boeing 737-266 took off at 20:00 (UTC+2) on an Athens-to-Cairo route. Ten minutes after takeoff, three Palestinian gunmen hijacked the aircraft. The terrorists, calling themselves the Egypt Revolution, were armed with guns and grenades. During the initial hijacking an Egyptian Security Service agent opened fire, killing one terrorist instantly before being wounded along with two flight attendants. In the exchange of fire the fuselage was punctured, causing a rapid depressurization. The aircraft was forced to descend to 14,000 feet (4,300 m) to allow the crew and passengers to breathe. The ailing plane was diverted to land in Malta.
The chief hijacker threatened to kill a passenger every 15 minutes until his demands were met. An Israeli woman, Nitzan Mendelson and an American, Scarlett Marie Rogenkamp, were executed.
On 25 November, the storming of the aircraft by the Egyptian Al-Sa'iqa (Thunderbolt) unit — Task Force 777 — killed 54 out of the remaining 87 passengers, two crew members and one hijacker. A total of 58 out of the 95 passengers and crew had died and 2 out of the 3 hijackers by the time the crisis was over. Maltese medical examiners estimated that 4 passengers were shot to death by the commandos.
2 April 1986

Trans World Airlines — 840

FCOATH

4 7 122 Improvised Explosive Device Abu Nidal Organisation —Greek airspace
About 20 minutes before landing, a bomb hidden underneath seat 10-F is detonated on the Boeing 727-231 -- flying en route from Rome to Athens -- while it was over Argos, Greece, blasting a hole in the plane's starboard side. Four American passengers, including a nine-month-old infant, are ejected through the hole to their deaths below. Seven others on the aircraft were injured by shrapnel as the cabin suffered a rapid decompression. The remaining 110 passengers survived the incident as pilot Richard "Pete" Petersen made an emergency landing.[175]
19 September 1989

Union de Transport Aériens
— 772

BZVNDJCDG

170 - 170 Improvised explosive device Libyan
agents
Niger airspace
A McDonnell Douglas DC-10 aircraft operated by the French airline Union des Transports Aériens took off from N'Djamena International Airport at 13:13. Forty-six minutes later, at its cruising altitude of 10,700 metres (35,100 ft), a bomb explosion caused UTA Flight 772 to break up over the Sahara Desert 450km east of Agadez in the southern Ténéré of Niger. All 155 passengers and 15 crew members died.[176]
24 December 1994

Air France — 8969

ALG MRS

3 16 232 Hijacking GIA
(Islamists)
—Hijacking in Algiers & raid to free hostages at Marseille Provence Airport, France.
An Air France Airbus A300B2-1C is hijacked by the Armed Islamic Group at Houari Boumedienne Airport, Algiers, Algeria, with the intention of blowing up the plane over the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Three passengers are killed. When the aircraft reaches Marseille, the GIGN, an intervention group of the French National Gendarmerie, storms the plane and kills all four hijackers. Thirteen passengers, three crew and nine GIGN members are injured.

See also

References

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  9. ^ Daniele Ganser, NATO's Secret Armies. Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe, Franck Cass, London, 2005, pp.3–4
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  11. ^ (With original documents, including juridical sentences and the report of the Italian Commission on Terrorism) (Italian)
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  55. ^ Rubin 2008, p. 80
  56. ^ The Associated Press. Orly Blast Claims Seventh Victim, New Threats. July 21, 1983. Ocala Star-Banner, July 21, 1983
  57. ^ The New York Times. Death Toll Rises to 7 After Terror at Orly. July 22, 1983
  58. ^ The New York Times, October 9, 1983. French Hold Armenians in Orly Airport Bombing
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  148. ^ One of the terrorists included
  149. ^ El Mundo (Spanish)
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  172. ^ Svenske medier: Anton Lundin-Pettersson (21) sto bak sverdangrepet
  173. ^
  174. ^ Smith, William E. June 24, 2001. Terror Aboard Flight 847. TIME Magazine. Retrieved: 24 November 2012.
  175. ^ TWA Pilot's Wife Says Her Husband is a Hero With PM-Plane-Bomb Bjt
  176. ^ " Court Awards US Victims More Than $6 Billion for 1989 Libyan Terrorist Bombing of French Airliner That Killed 170 People Over African Desert." PR Newswire. 15 January 2008. Retrieved on 3 June 2009.

Bibliography

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