Swedish Monarchs

"Queen of Sweden" redirects here. For queens consort of Sweden, see List of Swedish consorts. For the current queen consort, see Queen Silvia of Sweden.

This is a list of Swedish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden, including regents and viceroys of the Kalmar Union, up to the present time.

History

Main article: Swedish monarchy

The earliest record of what is generally considered to be a Swedish king appears in Tacitus' work Germania, c. 100 AD (the king of the Suiones). However, due to scant and unreliable sources before the 11th century, lists of succession traditionally start in the 10th century with king Olof Skötkonung, and his father Eric the Victorious, who also were the first Swedish kings to be baptized. There are, however, lists of Swedish pagan monarchs with far older dates, but in many cases these kings appear in sources of disputed historical reliability. These records notably deal with the legendary House of Yngling, and based on the Danish chronicler Saxo Grammaticus, Erik Segersäll and Olof Skötkonung have often been classified as belonging to the Swedish house of Ynglings. However, according to Icelandic sources this line of kings was broken (see Ingjald and Ivar Vidfamne), and trace them back to Sigurd Ring and Ragnar Lodbrok (whom Saxo, on the other hand, considered to belong to the House of Yngling). As there is no evidence that Eric and Olof ever used the Yngling name themselves, modern historians instead refer to their family as the House of Munsö, the Old Dynasty or the House of Uppsala.

In the 16th century, Johannes Magnus constructed a mythical line of Swedish kings, beginning with Magog, the son of Japheth, to demonstrate the antiquity of the Swedish throne. On the basis of his list, Eric XIV and Charles IX adopted their high ordinals; previous monarchs with those names are traditionally numbered counting backward from Eric XIV and Charles IX. In contemporary Swedish usage, medieval kings are usually not given any ordinal at all.

Sweden has been ruled by queens regnant on three separate occasions: by Margaret (1389–1412), Christina (1632–1654) and Ulrika Eleonora (1718–1720) respectively.

In addition to the list below, the Swedish throne was also claimed by the kings of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1599 to 1660. Following his abdication Sigismund continued to claim the throne from 1599 to his death in 1632. After his death the claim was continued by his sons, Vladislaus IV (from 1632 to 1648) and John II Casimir (from 1648 to 1660).

The Swedish monarchs have been of the House of Bernadotte since 1818, based on the Swedish Act of Succession of 1810. The Constitution of 1809 assumed that the monarch would appoint his Cabinet as he saw fit, but growing calls for democratisation during the end of the 19th century made such an idea impossible to sustain. 1917 marks the end of any real political power for the Swedish monarch. The Constitution of 1974 codifies this development by removing all decision-making powers from the monarch, making it both de facto and de jure a ceremonial position. Today, it is the Government, not the King, which holds chief executive power.

In 1980, the rule of succession was changed from agnatic to absolute primogeniture, to the benefit of Princess Victoria (b. 1977), the current heir apparent.

Monarchs and Regents of Sweden

For lists of the prehistoric kings of Sweden see List of legendary kings of Sweden

House of Munsö

|width=auto|Eric the Victorious (Erik Segersäll)
c. 970 – c. 995 ||||945?, son of Björn Eriksson||Sigrid the Haughty
or
'Świętosława' of Poland||Sotdöd (died in sickness) in Old Uppsala[1] c. 995, aged about 50 |- |width=auto|Estrid of the Obotrites||c. 1022, aged about 42 |- |width=auto|Anund Jacob (Anund Jakob)
c. 1022–1050 ||Estrid of the Obotrites|| ||c. 1050, aged about 40 |- |width=auto|Emund the Old (Emund den gamle)
1050–1060|| ||Illegitimate son of Olof Skötkonung||Astrid Njalsdotter || 1060 |- |}

House of Stenkil and contemporary

      House of Stenkil |bgcolor=#ccddff|Stenkil (Stenkil Ragnvaldsson)
1060–1066|| ||Probably from Västergötland, son of Ragnvald Ulfsson (according to Hervarar saga)||Ingamoder Emundsdotter||Sotdöd (died in sickness) in "Svitjod", 1066 |- |bgcolor=#ccddff|Eric and Eric
1066–1067|| || || ||1067, died in the fighting between eachother |- |bgcolor=#ccddff|Halsten Stenkilsson (Halsten)
1067–1070|| ||c. 1050 son of Stenkil|| ||1084, aged about 34 |- |Anund Gårdske
1070–1075|| ||Coming from Garðaríki, (Kievan Rus'), although probably with ancestral links to Scandinavia|| || |- |bgcolor=#ccddff|Stenkil|| || |- |bgcolor=#ccddff|Inge the Elder (Inge den äldre)
1079–1084, 1087–1105|| ||son of Stenkil and Ingamoder Emundsdotter||Helena, sister of Blot-Sweyn||Died in sickness, 1105. First buried in Hånger, but then moved to Varnhem Abbey |- | Blot-Sweyn (Blot-Sven)
1084–1087|| || || ||1087, ambushed by Inge the Elder's troops |- | align=left colspan=5 bgcolor=#ccddff|1087–1105, Inge the Elder (Inge den äldre) (second period) |- |bgcolor=#ccddff|Philip Halstensson (Filip Halstensson) 1105–1118|| ||son of king Halsten||Ingegerd, daughter of Harald Hardrada||Assumed to be buried in Vreta Abbey with his brother Inge II |- |bgcolor=#ccddff| Philip |- |Ragnvald Knaphövde
1125–1126|| ||Assumed to be related in some way to the House of Stenkil|| ||1126, killed before accepted in Västergötland by the supporters of Magnus the Strong |- | align=left colspan=5|1126-30 Magnus I of Sweden of the House of Estrid was ruling over the West Geats, and soon-to-be King Sverker was already ruling over the East Geats. |- |}

Houses of Sverker and Eric

      House of Estrid
      House of Eric
      House of Sverker
|bgcolor=pink|Alvastra Abbey |- |bgcolor=yellow|Uppsala Cathedral |- |bgcolor=#ccddff|Magnus II,
1160–1161|| ||son of Henry and Ingrid Ragvaldsdotter (the granddaughter of Inge the Elder)||Married to his stepsister Brigida Haraldsdotter, the daughter of Harald IV (Gille) of Norway||Died in the battle of Örebro against Charles VII, 1161 |- |bgcolor=pink|Alvastra Abbey |- |bgcolor=yellow|Varnhem Abbey |- |bgcolor=pink|Alvastra Abbey |- |bgcolor=yellow|Varnhem Abbey |- |bgcolor=pink|Alvastra Abbey |- |bgcolor=yellow|Varnhem Abbey |- |Helena Pedersdatter Strange||1234, buried at Sko kloster |- |bgcolor=yellow|Varnhem Abbey |- |}

House of Bjälbo

The House of Bjälbo is sometimes referred to as the House of Folkung |Riddarholmen Church |- |Riddarholmen Church |- |Zealand |- |Mats Kettilmundsson
Regent 27 June 1318–8 July 1319
(not of the House of Bjälbo)|| ||Unknown birthyear||None||May 1326, in Åbo, as hövitsman of Finland |- |Norway, 1 December 1374, aged about 58 |- |plague, 20 June 1359, aged about 20 |- |Oslo |}

House of Mecklenburg

|- |Mecklenburg |- |}

Monarchs during the Kalmar Union period and Regents (Riksföreståndare)

|Roskilde Cathedral |- |Pomerania |-

|align=left colspan=5|
  • 13 January 1435–4 May 1436 : Regent Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson (rikshövitsman)
  • October 1438–Autumn 1440 : Regent Karl Knutsson Bonde later King Charles II |- |Roskilde Cathedral |- |align=left colspan=5|
  • January–20 June 1448 : Regents Bengt Jönsson (Oxenstierna) and Nils Jönsson (Oxenstierna) |- |Riddarholmen Church |- |align=left colspan=5|
  • March–23 June 1457 : Regents Jöns Bengtsson (Oxenstierna), archbishop of Upsala, and Erik Axelsson (Tott) |- |Roskilde Cathedral |- |align=left colspan=5|9 August 1464–30 January 1465 Charles II (Karl Knutsson Bonde) (second period)
  • 26 December 1464–11 August 1465 : Regent Kettil Karlsson (Vasa), bishop of Linköping
  • 11 August 1465–18 October 1466 : Regent Jöns Bengtsson (Oxenstierna)
  • 18 October 1466–12 November 1467 : Regent Erik Axelsson (Tott) |- |align=left colspan=5|12 November 1467 – 15 May 1470 Charles II (Karl Knutsson Bonde) (third period)
  • 16 May 1470–6 October 1497 : Regent Sten Sture the Elder (Sten Sture den äldre) |- |Odense |- |align=left colspan=5|
  • 12 November 1501–14 December 1503 : Regent Sten Sture the Elder
  • 21 January 1504–31 December 1511 or 2 January 1512 : Regent Svante Nilsson (Svante Nilsson, herre till Ekesjö)
  • Middle of January–23 July 1512 : Regent Erik Arvidsson Trolle
  • 23 July 1512–3 February 1520 : Regent Sten Sture the Younger (Sten Sture den yngre) |- |Odense |- |}

    House of Vasa

    |width=auto|Uppsala Cathedral |- |width=auto|Västerås Cathedral |- |width=auto|Uppsala Cathedral |- |width=auto|Poland |- |width=auto|Strängnäs Cathedral |- |width=auto|Gustav II Adolph (Gustav II Adolf)
    30 October 1611 – 6 November 1632||Riddarholmen Church |- |width=auto|Vatican City |- |}

    House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch of the House of Wittelsbach

    |Riddarholmen Church |- |Riddarholmen Church |- |Riddarholmen Church |- |Riddarholmen Church |- |}

    House of Hesse

    |width=auto|Riddarholmen Church |- |}

    House of Holstein-Gottorp, a branch of the House of Oldenburg

    |width=auto|Riddarholmen Church |- |width=auto|Riddarholmen Church |- |width=auto| ||Stockholm Palace, 1 November 1778 son of Gustav III and Sophie Magdalena||Frederica of Baden||St. Gallen, Switzerland, 7 February 1837, aged 58, buried in Riddarholmen Church |- |width=auto|Riddarholmen Church |- |}

    House of Bernadotte

    |width=auto|Riddarholmen Church |- |width=auto|Riddarholmen Church |- |width=auto|Riddarholmen Church |- |width=auto|Riddarholmen Church |- |width=auto|Riddarholmen Church |- |width=auto|Royal Burial Ground |- |width=auto|Silvia Sommerlath||Living |- |}

    References

    See also

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