World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Sudiţi

Article Id: WHEBN0006147738
Reproduction Date:

Title: Sudiţi  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Nationality law, History of Romania, Human migration
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Sudiţi

For the commune in Ialomița County, see Sudiți, Ialomița. For the villages in Buzău County, see Gherăseni and Poșta Câlnău.

People in Bucharest in 1825

The Sudiți (plural of Sudit - Romanian language, from Italian suddito, meaning "subject" or "citizen") were inhabitants of the Danubian Principalities (Wallachia and Moldavia) who, for the latter stage of the 18th and a large part of the 19th century — during and after the Phanariote period of rule, were placed under the protection of foreign states (usually the Habsburg Monarchy, Imperial Russia, and France) as reward for particular services or in exchange for payment.

Rights acquired included immunity from prosecution in front of both local rulers (hospodars) and the Principalities' suzerain power, the Ottoman Empire, as well as tax exemptions; the competing interests of nations involved allowed consuls to traffic sudiți favours and titles.

History

The category was established by the 1774 Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, which led to the creation of foreign consulates in Iași and Bucharest.

An expanding and powerful social category during the Russian administration (1828-1857).

Adolphe Billecoq, French consul to Wallachia (1843)

Notable sudiți included Tudor Vladimirescu and Dimitrie Macedonski, leaders of the 1821 Wallachian uprising, as well as Ashkenazi Jews who had left various regions in Russia and the Austrian-ruled Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria.

The category disappeared after the 1878 Romanian War of Independence.

See also

References

  • Paul Cernovodeanu, "Evreii în epoca fanariotă", in Magazin Istoric, March 1997, p. 25-28
  • Neagu Djuvara, Între Orient și Occident. Țările române la începutul epocii moderne, Humanitas, Bucharest, 1995, p. 184-187
  • Constantin C. Giurescu, Istoria Bucureștilor. Din cele mai vechi timpuri pînă în zilele noastre, Ed. Pentru Literatură, Bucharest, 1966, p. 114, 115, 288
  • (French) Nicolae Iorga, Histoire des relations entre la France et les Roumains: La Monarchie de juillet et les Roumains (details on French consuls and their Jewish protégés)
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.