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Solapur

Solapur
सोलापूर
City
Satrasta in Solapur
Satrasta in Solapur
Nickname(s): Siddheshwar Nagari
Solapur is located in Maharashtra
Solapur
Location of Solapur in Maharashtra
Coordinates:
Country  India
Region Western India
State Maharashtra
District Solapur
Government
 • Body Solapur Municipal Corporation
 • Mayor Prof Sushilatai Abute[1]
 • Deputy Mayor Mr. Pravin Dongre[2]
 • Municipal Commissioner Mr.Vijay Kalam[1]
Elevation 457 m (1,499 ft)
Population (2011 Census of India)
 • City 9,51,118
 • Metro 12,84,863
Demonym(s) Solapurkar, Solapuri
Language
 • Official Marathi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 41300X[3]
Telephone code 0217[4]
Vehicle registration MH-13 (Solapur city)[5]
MH-45 (Solapur(Akluj) rural district)[6]
Spoken languages Marathi, Kannada, Hindi[7]
Sex ratio 52/48 /
Literacy Rate 83.88%
Website .in.nicsolapur

Solapur (IPA: ) (   ) is a city located in the south-eastern region of indian state of Maharashtra.[8][9] Solapur comes under the administration of the Pune division.[10] Solapur is located on major road and rail routes between Mumbai and Hyderabad, with a branch line to the cities of Bijapur (now known as Vijayapur) and Gadag in the neighbouring state of Karnataka.[11] It is classified as a 2 Tier and B-2 class city by House Rent Allowance (HRA) classification by the Government of India.[12] It is 49th-most-populous city in India and 43rd-largest urban agglomeration.[13]

Solapur has speakers of Marathi, Kannada,[14] Telugu,[15]Tamil and Hindi languages with multilingual features. Solapur is the fourth-largest district in Maharashtra in terms of land area, and seventh-largest in terms of population.[16] The district shares its borders with the south indian state of Karnataka and Hyderabad city.[17]

Solapur district has the highest number of sugar factories (total 33) in Maharashtra.[18][19] Solapur leads Maharashtra in production of indian cigarettes or Beedi.[20][21] Solapuri Chadars and towels are famous in India and also at a global level,[22][23] however there has been a significant decline in their exports due to quality reasons.[24] Solapuri chadars are the famous and first product in Maharashtra to get a Geographical Indication tag[25][26] It has been a leading center for cotton mills and power looms in Maharashtra. Solapur had the world's second-largest and Asia's largest spinning mill.[27] The National Research Centre on Pomegranate (NRCP) of India is located in Solapur.[28][29][30] and also the pomegranate farming is done on a large scale in Solapur District.[31] The Science Centre in Kegaon (Solapur) is the third largest and prominent scientific association in Maharashtra.[32][33] The Raichur- Solapur Power Transmission line of 765 kV power capacity suffices the power grid accessing need of the southern states of Karanataka and Andhra Pradesh.[34][35][36][37] The first waste-to-energy electricity plant in Maharashtra is situated in Solapur.[38][39][40][41][42]

The Gramadevata (Chief deity) of the city is Shri Shivyogi Siddheshwar.[43][44] The "Nandidhwaj" procession on the Hindu festival of Makar Sankranti and on account of it an annual fair locally known as Gadda Yatra attracts large crowds and is associated with the marriage of Lord Siddheshwar.[45][46] In 1992, the Solapur Municipal Corporation extended its area up to 300 square kilometres (120 sq mi) by merging its suburbs.[47]

Contents

  • Etymology and history 1
  • Toponomy 2
  • Culture 3
  • Demographics 4
  • Geography and climate 5
  • Civic administration 6
  • Education 7
    • University 7.1
    • Colleges 7.2
    • Science Museum 7.3
    • Tourism 7.4
  • Sports 8
  • Environment 9
  • Transport 10
    • Rail 10.1
    • Road 10.2
    • Air 10.3
  • Utility services 11
  • Notable and prominent Solapurkars 12
  • See also 13
  • Notes and References 14
  • External links 15

Etymology and history

The Solapur District was ruled by various dynasties such as Andhrabhratyas, Bombay State and it became a full-fledged district of Maharashtra State in 1960.[54]

A prominent Kannadiga woman and writer Jayadevi Taayi Ligade and some of Lingayat Kannadigas had tried for inclusion of Solapur region into Karnataka state (former Mysore state) on grounds of linguistic majority of Kannada speaking people in and around Solapur region.[55] and the demand was again asserted by Chief Minister of Karnataka B. S. Yeddyurappa in 2010.[56]

The Solapur Municipal Council was the first municipal council to hoist the indian national flag on the Municipal Council building in 1930. The municipal corporation building was built by Rao Saheb Mallappa Warad.[57] He was also one of the first ones to bring the farming tractor in India. It was his wish that the building should be used for some public purpose and thus the building was made the municipal council. The building is also called Indra Bhawan which means 'Abode of Indra' (Lord Indra).[58] Mallappa Warad was also one of the ten members of 'Chamber of Merchants' under Queen Victoria.

Taking the spirit of Dandi March from Mahatma Gandhi, the freedom fighters of solapur hoisted the National Flag on 6 April 1930 on the Municipal Council building. This was the first and the unique incidence of such kind throughout the country.

During the Indian independence movement, the people of Solapur enjoyed full freedom on 9–11 May 1930.[59] However, this resulted in the executions of Mallappa Dhanshetti, Abdul Rasool Qurban Hussein, Jagannath Bhagwan Shinde and Shrikisan Laxminarayan Sarada, who were hanged on 12 January 1931, in the prison at Pune. This resulted in the city becoming recognised as "The City of Hutatmas" literally "The City of Martyrs".[60]

Toponomy

The Inscriptions of chief deity of Solapur Shivyogi Shri.Siddheshwar of the time of the Kalachuris of Kalyani (Basavakalyan) suggest that the town was called "Sonnalage" which came to be pronounced as "Sonnalagi".[61] A Sanskrit inscription dated Shake 1238, after the downfall of the Yadavas found at Kamati in Mohol shows that the town was known as Sonalipur. One of the inscriptions found in Solapur fort shows that the town was called Sonalpur[62] It was the main commercial hub of the Devagiri Yadavas and an important trading city.The town was known as Sonnalagi even up to the times of the Yadavas of Devagiri.

Culture

Solapur is a city with multi-linguistic and multi-cultural features.[63] Solapur has a mixture of Telugu,Kannada, Marathi , Hindi and Urdu language speakers.[64]

Demographics

As per 2011 census of Solapur city[65] and as per provisional reports of Census of India, population of Solapur in 2011 is 951,118; of which male and female are 482,194 and 468,924 respectively.

  • Solapur's Literacy Rate in 2011

In education section, total literates in Solapur city are 710,180 of which 390,335 are males while 319,845 are females. Average literacy rate of Solapur city is 83.88 percent of which male and female literacy was 91.31 and 76.30 percent respectively.

Geography and climate

Climate data for Solapur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.7
(98.1)
39.4
(102.9)
43.9
(111)
44.7
(112.5)
46.0
(114.8)
45.6
(114.1)
38.9
(102)
40.0
(104)
37.2
(99)
38.5
(101.3)
36.1
(97)
34.7
(94.5)
46.0
(114.8)
Average high °C (°F) 30.9
(87.6)
34.1
(93.4)
37.4
(99.3)
39.9
(103.8)
40.2
(104.4)
34.8
(94.6)
31.7
(89.1)
31.0
(87.8)
31.9
(89.4)
32.8
(91)
31.2
(88.2)
30.0
(86)
33.8
(92.8)
Average low °C (°F) 16.2
(61.2)
18.2
(64.8)
21.8
(71.2)
24.8
(76.6)
25.2
(77.4)
23.4
(74.1)
22.5
(72.5)
21.9
(71.4)
21.8
(71.2)
21.0
(69.8)
18.2
(64.8)
16.0
(60.8)
20.9
(69.6)
Record low °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
6.1
(43)
12.2
(54)
13.9
(57)
16.1
(61)
17.2
(63)
16.7
(62.1)
15.0
(59)
15.9
(60.6)
12.4
(54.3)
7.8
(46)
6.7
(44.1)
4.4
(39.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 4.6
(0.181)
6.7
(0.264)
5.6
(0.22)
10.0
(0.394)
30.2
(1.189)
119.8
(4.717)
131.7
(5.185)
135.3
(5.327)
189.2
(7.449)
89.5
(3.524)
25.1
(0.988)
8.0
(0.315)
755.7
(29.752)
Average rainy days 0.2 0.6 0.5 0.9 2.5 7.0 8.8 8.7 9.5 4.5 1.6 0.6 45.4
Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[66][67]

Solapur is located at . It has an average elevation of 458 metres (1502 feet). It is bordered by Ahmednagar district on the north; Osmanabad district on the north and northeast.

Gulbarga district on the southeast and Bijapur Districts on the south of Karnataka State, Sangli district on the south and southwest; Satara district on the west, and Pune district on the northwest. It is situated at a distance of 410 km (250 mi) from the Maharashtra State Capital of Mumbai by road and train.

Solapur is at a distance of 245 km (152 mi) from Pune and 305 km (190 mi) from Hyderabad. Solapur is situated on the Deccan plateau.

Solapur falls under the category of dry (arid and semiarid) climate according to the Köppen climate classification. The city experiences three distinct seasons: summer, monsoon and winter. Typical summer months are from March to May, with maximum temperatures ranging from 30 to 40 °C (86 to 104 °F). The warmest months in Solapur are April and May. The typical maximum temperatures being 40 °C (104 °F) or more. The highest temperature ever recorded is 46.0 °C (114.8 °F) in May 1988.[67] Although summer does not end until May or even the midst of June, the city often receives locally developed heavy thundershowers in May (although humidity remains high). The monsoon lasts from June to the end of September, with moderate rainfall. The city of Solapur receives an average rainfall of 545 mm (21.5 in) per year.[68] Winter begins in November and lasts until the end of February, with the temperatures occasionally dropping below 10 °C (50 °F). Solapur lies very close to the seismically active zone around Killari, Latur District, about 100 km (62 mi) east of the city.

Civic administration

Kambar Talav (lake), also known as Sambhaji Talav (lake)

The civic administration of the city is managed by the Solapur Municipal Corporation,which was established on the Maharashtra Day of 1 May 1964 in the building constructed by Mallappa Warad in 1930. The corporation oversees the engineering works, health, sanitation, water supply, administration and taxation in the city.[69] It is headed by a Mayor who is assisted by Municipal Commissioner and elected representatives. The city is divided into 125 wards and 6 zones. The corporation members also known as corporators are elected by the citizens of Solapur every five years. The corporators in turn elect the Mayor. Its activities include developing new layouts and roads, town-planning and land-acquisition.[70]

Education

University

The colleges and the institutes in center of Shivaji University (Kolhapur) at Solapur was functioning with the three departments Polymer Chemistry, Applied Physics/ Electronics and Geology with the masters courses and M. Phil, PhD research in these areas. The center was located on the old campus of Dr. V. M. Government Medical College that was later on relocated to Police Golibar Maidan. The center was transformed to the university to serve the students of Solapur district and was formally inaugurated on 3 August 2004.

Colleges

Solapur is home to 14 engineering, 2 medical colleges and 1 dental college; it also has another 40 colleges in the city extent.

Science Museum

Solapur has a Science Centre, which is a Science Museum and is the third in the state after Nehru Science Centre, Worli in Mumbai and Raman Science Centre in Nagpur. The Science Centre is located at Kegaon, Hiraj Road, near Solapur University beside the Pune-Solapur National Highway.[71] The Centre works with the motto of propagating science to the masses. Night sky observation through telescopes is one of the many programmes of the Centre.[72][73]

Tourism

Pandharpur is a holy and famous pilgrimage place dedicated to Lord Vitthal and Shri. Rakhumai goddess[74] prominently worshipped among Varkari community. It is also one of the Kuldaivat of Maharashtra State. It is located at a distance of 72 km by road from Solapur District headquarters. An important tourist destination is Siddeshwar Temple, the abode of Siddheshwar (Siddhrameshwara) built in the 16th century. It attracts 3.5 million pilgrims yearly. Solapur is also famous for its Markandeya Temple built in 1893, the Venkateshwara Temple built in 1970, and the Rupa Bhavani temple built in the 19th century, Shri Shankar Temple. Solapur has a land based fort in the city centre.[75] and also, Akkalkot was the home to Shri Swami Samarth Maharaj, a 19th-century saint who is believed by his devotees to be an incarnation of Lord Dattatreya.[2] Akkalkot State during the British Raj, was a princely state ruled by the royal Bhonsale dynasty.

Sports

Indira Gandhi Stadium in Solapur, formerly known as Park Maidan hosts Ranji Trophy matches and is the home venue for Maharashtra cricket team.[76]

Environment

Solapur is one of the most-polluted cities in Maharashtra due to the effluent chemicals produced as the waste products from the textile industries in its region.[77][78] As many vehicles in the city utilize diesel fuel, it also generates tremendous smog emitted by sugar factories and heavy textiles industries in the city's suburb.[79] Various efforts are being made by Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) to reduce air pollution and its environmental effects.[80] The city has launched a GO-GREEN scheme by planting trees in the city and developing greenery with the help of various eco-friendly people in the city.[81]

Transport

Rail

Main entrance of Solapur Railway Station

Solapur railway station is the main railway hub within the city.[82] The Solapur Railway Division is an important division connecting South India to Western & North west India. Trains from Ahmedabad, Jaipur, New Delhi, Mumbai, Pune etc., ply to Southern states (Telangana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu & Kerala) via Solapur.[83]

It is served daily by Solapur Banglore Express, Solapur Nagpur, Solapur Pune Hutatma Express, Solapur Mumbai, Solapur Jaipur Superfast express and Solapur Goa Express. Hotgi Junction and Kurduvadi Junction are two junction railway stations present in the Solapur district.[84][85]

Road

NH9, the Pune-Machilipatnam highway at the outskirts of Solapur.

Solapur is well-connected by road with major cities of Maharashtra as well as the adjoining State Capital of Hyderabad and important cities in Karnataka by four National HighwaysNH 9 highway connecting Pune with Vijaywada via Hyderabad, NH-13 connecting Solapur to Mangalore, Karnataka and NH-211 connecting Solapur to Dhule. Ratnagiri-Nagpur National highway NH-204 passes through city, connecting Solapur to other important cities in Maharashtra like Nagpur, Sangli, Kolhapur and Nanded. Recently sanctioned National Highways- (Solapur - Kalaburagi)[86] and Ratnagiri-Solapur-Yavatmal-Nanded-Nagpur.[87] (Solapur-Bijapur) Road section in NH-13 is proposed to be improved by its four laning.[88] The Solapur-Aurangabad national highway is also proposed for its four laning to reduce the time and cost in traveling from Solapur to Aurangabad.[89]

Air

Solapur Airport (IATA code: SSE[90]) is located to the south of Solapur city. There are no scheduled flights operating out of Solapur Airport. The Government of Maharashtra has planned to upgrade the airport.[91][92]

Utility services

The electrical supply to the city is managed by the Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company Limited[93] and water is supplied from the Ujjani Dam on the Bhima River.[94]

Notable and prominent Solapurkars

See also

Notes and References

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  2. ^ "DEPUTY MAYOR". Retrieved May 2015. 
  3. ^ Mahesh (25 December 2009). "Solapur Pin Codes and zip codes of villages and cities". www.maharashtraspider.com. Retrieved 3 July 2015. 
  4. ^ "Sholapur Std Code". www.mapsofindia.com. Maharashtra, India. Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  5. ^ Sachin Lad (6 October 2014). "नाकाबंदीत तपासणी : सवलत फक्त ‘एमएच १०’साठीच; सीमाभागात दक्षता" [Nākābandīt Tapāsṇī: Savalat Phakta 'MH 10'sāṭhīca; Sīmābhāgāt Dakṣatā].  
  6. ^ "Vehicle Registration Numbers Series in Mumbai and City Districts Of Maharashtra". www.mumbai77.com. 19 November 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  7. ^ "ऐतिहासिक है महाराष्ट्र का शहर:सोलापुर" [Aitihāsik hai Mahārāṣṭra kā śahar: Sōlāpur]. www.hindi.nativeplanet.com (in  
  8. ^ "Overview of Solapur".  
  9. ^ "ऐतिहासिक है महाराष्ट्र का सोलापुर" [Aitihāsik hai Mahārāṣṭra kā Sōlāpur].  
  10. ^ Swati Shinde Gole,  
  11. ^ "Maharashtra Cities: Solapur". www.maharashtratourism.net. Retrieved April 2015. 
  12. ^ "Re-classification of cities/towns on the basis of 2001 Census -grant of House Rent Allowance (HRA) and Compensatory (City) Allowance (CCA) to Central Government employees.". dpe.nic.in. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  13. ^ "Biggest Cities in India". nriol.com. Retrieved April 2015. 
  14. ^ महाराष्ट्र राज्य, येळ्ळूर' फलकावर हातोडा" ['Mahārāṣṭra Rājya, Yēḷḷūr' Phalakāvar Hātōḍā]'".  
  15. ^ "संस्कृति वेध सोलापूर" [Sanskr̥ti Vēdh Sōlāpūr]. Vision Maharashtra Foundation (in  
  16. ^ "Demography" (PDF). solapur.gov.in. 2013. Retrieved June 2014. 
  17. ^  
  18. ^ Ketaki Ghoge (22 June 2015). "In a first Solapur decides to give up on sugarcane cultivation".  
  19. ^ Sanjay Pathak (13 March 2013). "देशातील सर्वाधिक साखर कारखान्यांनाचा मान सोलापूर जिल्ह्याला" [Dēśātīl Sarvādhik Sākhar Kārakhān'yānnācā mān Sōlāpūr Jil'hyālā].  
  20. ^ Meena Menon (21 June 2006). "A dream come true for beedi workers of Solapur".  
  21. ^ Rebecca Bundhun (3 June 2013). "'"Check out India's 'Manchester of the East.  
  22. ^ Prashant Mane (26 September 2011). "सोलापुरी चादरी, टॉवेलच्या व्यवसायाला घरघर" [Sōlāpurī Cādarī, ṭŏvēlacyā Vyavasāyālā Gharghar].  
  23. ^ "सोलापुर को मिला पहला पांचसितारा होटल" [Sōlāpur Kō Milā Pahlā Pān̄casitārā Hōṭal].  
  24. ^ Suryakant Asabe (15 August 2008). "सोलापुरी चादरींची निर्यात थांबली" [Sōlāpurī Cādarīn̄cī Niryāt Thāmblī].  
  25. ^ Supriya Shelar (May 2010). "BARRING STRAWBERRIES, OTHER GOODIES LANGUISH IN STATE".  
  26. ^ a b "મહારાષ્ટ્રનું સબ્સિડી બજેટ" [Mahārāṣṭranuṁ Subsidy Budget].  
  27. ^ Roli Srivastav (October 2014). "Shinde losing ground like chaddar in Solapur".  
  28. ^ Matrix News (August 2013). "कुशल प्रबंधन व उन्नत तकनीक अपनाने की सलाह" [Kuśal Prabandhan Vā Unnatā Taknīk Apnānē kī Salāh].  
  29. ^ R.K. Pal (September 2012). "About NRCP". www.nrcpomegranate.org. NRCP. Retrieved April 2015. 
  30. ^ Kavitha Iyer (20 May 2015). "Maharashtra: Shifting weather pattern plays spoilsport; farmers’ efforts fail to bear fruit".  
  31. ^ Dinkar Gaangal (18 January 2015). "...सोलापुरात काही घडले आहे!" [... Sōlāpurāt Kāhī Ghaḍlē āhē!].  
  32. ^ "सोलापुरात विज्ञानाच्या गमतींचे नवे केंद्र" [Sōlāpurāt Vijñānācyā Gamatīn̄cē Navē Kēndra].  
  33. ^ Rameshwar Vibhute (February 2014). "विज्ञानातील आनंददायी नवलाई आली सोलापूरच्या कक्षेत" [Vijñānātīl Ãnanddāyī Navlā'ī ālī Sōlāpūrcyā Kakṣēt].  
  34. ^ "ರಾಯಚೂರು– ಸೊಲ್ಲಾಪುರ ವಿದ್ಯುತ್‌ ಜಾಲ" [Raichur_ Solapur Vidyut Jala]. www.planetkannada.com (in  
  35. ^ B.S. Satish Kumar (16 August 2014). "Raichur–Solapur power line to be dedicated to nation today".  
  36. ^ "Milestones achieved".  
  37. ^  
  38. ^ Piyush Babele (5 June 2015). "How Solapur converted garbage into electricity".  
  39. ^ "पर्यावरण दिवस: यूरोप की राह चला सोलापुर" [Paryāvaraṇ Divas: Europe kī Rāh Calā Sōlāpur].  
  40. ^ Chittaranjan Tembhekar,  
  41. ^ Ashwini Waghmale (Deputy Municipal Commissioner) (28 August 2013). "वीज प्रकल्पातून भागली गणपतीची वर्गणी" [Vīj Prakalpātūn Bhāglī Gaṇpatīcī Vargaṇi].  
  42. ^ Karnika Bahuguna (16 March 2015). "Organic Recycling Systems develops green mode of generating electricity from solid waste".  
  43. ^ "Why Solapur". www.shagundreamspaces.com. Shagun. Retrieved April 2015. 
  44. ^ "योगदंड पूजनाने सिद्धेश्वर यात्रेच्या धार्मिक विधींना सुरुवात" [Yōgdaṇḍ Pūjnānē Sid'dhēśvar Yātrēcyā Dhārmik Vidhīnnā Suruvāt].  
  45. ^ "गड्डा यात्रा सोलापुर" [Gaḍḍā Yātrā Sōlāpur]. www.misalpav.com (in  
  46. ^ "ASSOCIATION OF CONSULTING CIVIL ENGINEERS (ACCE) - SOLAPUR". accesolapur.com. Solapur,  
  47. ^ हद्द' वाढली पण विकास रखडलेलाच" ['Hadda' vāḍhlī Paṇ Vikās Rakhaḍalēlāch]'".  
  48. ^ "महाराष्ट्र का ऐतिहासिक शहर: सोलापुर" [Maharashtra ka Aitihasik Shahar: Solapur]. www.hindi.nativeplanet.com. Retrieved April 2015. 
  49. ^ "Historical Importance". www.solapurpolice.gov.in. Solapur Police. Retrieved April 2015. 
  50. ^ Raju Gore, Pratap Patil. "Welcome to Maharashtra Political Parties.in". maharashtrapoliticalparties.in (in  
  51. ^ "Solapur". www.maharashtrainformation.com. 3 May 2012. Retrieved 21 May 2015. 
  52. ^ "Pandharpur". Retrieved May 2015. 
  53. ^ http://solapurbarassociation.com/History.php
  54. ^ "Solapur". www.maharashtrainformation.com. May 2012. Retrieved May 2015. 
  55. ^ Shankaragouda Hanmantagouda Patil (April 2002). Community Dominance and Political Modernisation: The Lingayats.  
  56. ^  
  57. ^ "SHOLAPUR DURING POST-1818 PERIOD". The Gazzetters Department,  
  58. ^ "Solapur Attractions: Indra Bhawan". www.nativeplanet.com.  
  59. ^ Eijaz Mujawar (10 February 2012). "अस्वस्थ शहर - सोलापूर विकासाची चिंता कोणाला?" [Asvasth śahar - Sōlāpūr Vikāsācī Cintā Kōṇālā?].  
  60. ^ "Solapur". www.trodly.com. Retrieved May 2015. 
  61. ^ Nagnath Dhaygode, Amit Shinde; Amol Shinde (2013). "A geographical study of eco-tourism in Solapur district.". Maharashtra, India. Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  62. ^ "Solapur History. Government of Maharashtra" (PDF). Retrieved 25 June 2009. 
  63. ^ Rajnish Joshi (1 May 2012). "सोलापुरात आढळतो एकजिनसी झालेला महाराष्ट्र !" [Sōlāpurāt āḍhaḷtō ēkjinsī jhālēlā Mahārāṣṭra !].  
  64. ^ Vishal Kulkarni; Mallinath Karkanti; Mugdha Kulkarni; Swapna Lad; Kanchan Kulkarni (29 September 2012). "रंग सोन्नलगीचे" [Raṅg Sōnnalagīcē]. www.maayboli.com (in  
  65. ^ "Solapur 2011 Census Data".  
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  67. ^ a b "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 10 April 2015. 
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  82. ^ Nikhil Deshmukh,  
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  85. ^ "रेल्वेच्या नुसत्याच घोषणा" [Railwaycyā Nusatyāch Ghōṣṇā].  
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  87. ^ Ashish Roy (December 2014). "State needs better road network: Kelkar report".  
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  92. ^ Samir Karve (24 June 2015). "दोन विमानतळात सांधेजोड आवश्यक" [Dōn Vimāntaḷāt Sāndhējōḍ āvaśyak].  
  93. ^ Anvi Mehta (25 April 2014). "Intermittent power cuts for next couple of days in Pune". Pune:  
  94. ^ Sarang Dastane (12 May 2015). "Water in Ujani dam slips into the negative".  

External links

  • Solapur Government Site


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