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Sokhumi

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Sokhumi

This article is about the Abkhazian capital. For the city in Ghana, see Suhum, Ghana.

Sukhumi
სოხუმი, Аҟәа ,
Sokhumi, Akwa ,

Seal

location of Sukhumi within Abkhazia
Sukhumi
Location of Sukhumi in Georgia

Coordinates: 43°00′12″N 41°00′55″E / 43.00333°N 41.01528°E / 43.00333; 41.01528

Partially recognized country Abkhazia
Government
 • Mayor Alias Labakhua[1]
Highest elevation 140 m (460 ft)
Lowest elevation 5 m (16 ft)
Population (2010)
 • Total 39,100
Time zone MSK (UTC+4)
Area code(s) +7 840 22x-xx-xx

Sukhumi (Georgian: სოხუმი, Sokhumi; Abkhaz: Аҟәа, Aqwa; Russian: Сухум, Sukhum); is the capital of Abkhazia, a disputed region on the Black Sea coast. The city suffered significant damage during the Georgian–Abkhazian conflict in the early 1990s.

Naming

In Georgian, the city is known as სოხუმი (Sokhumi) or აყუ (Aqu),[2] in Megrelian as აყუჯიხა (Aqujikha),[3] and in Russian as Сухум (Sukhum) or Сухуми (Sukhumi). The toponym Sokhumi derives from the Georgian word Tskhomi/Tskhumi and means beech. In the ancient Greek sources (Pseudo-Skilak of Kariand- IV c. B. C. ) it is mentioned as Dioskuria. According to the antique traditions this name originates from the mythical Dioskures. Dioskures- Greek Dioskurio, (exactly - sons of Zeus) – twin brothers Kastor and Polidevkes. It was believed that, the town was established by the coach-men of the Dioskures, the Argonauts Telkius and Amphyst. But, the names of the town may be the Greek comprehension of the old Georgian word combination. It is significant, that “dia” in several dialects of the Georgian language and among them in Megrelian means mother and “Skuri” means water.[4] In Abkhaz, the city is known as Аҟәа (Aqwa) which according to native tradition signifies water.[5]

The medieval Georgian sources knew the town as Tskhumi (ცხუმი).[6][7][8] Later, under the Ottoman control, the town was known in Turkish as Suhum-Kale, which can be derived from the earlier Georgian form Tskhumi or can be read to mean 'water-sand fortress'.[9][10] Tskhumi in turn is supposed to be derived from the Svan language word for 'hot',[11] or the Georgian word for 'hornbeam tree'.

The ending -i in the above forms represents the Georgian nominative-suffix. The town was initially officially described in Russian as Сухум (Sukhum), until 16 August 1936 when this was changed to Сухуми (Sukhumi). This remained so until 4 December 1992, when the Supreme Council of Abkhazia restored the original version,[12] that was approved in Russia in autumn 2008,[13] even though Сухуми is also still being used.

In English, the most common form today is Sukhumi, although Sokhumi is used as well by some sources, including Encyclopædia Britannica[14] and MSN Encarta[15]

In May 2000, Professor Daur Marshan-dabad of the Abkhazian State University presented a plan in the state newspaper Respublika Abkhazia to rename Sukhumi into Amra ('Sun' in Abkhaz) and nearby New Athos into Amza ('Moon' in Abkhaz), which never materialised.[16]

General information

Sukhumi is located on a wide bay of the eastern coast of the Black Sea and serves as a port, rail junction and a holiday resort. It is known for its beaches, sanatoriums, mineral-water spas and semitropical climate. Sukhumi is also an important air link for Abkhazia as the Sukhumi Dranda Airport is located nearby the city. Sukhumi contains a number of small-to-medium size hotels serving chiefly the Russian tourists. Sukhumi botanical garden was established in 1840, one of the oldest botanical gardens in the Caucasus.

The city has a number of research institutes, the Abkhazian State University and the Sukhum Open Institute. From 1945 to 1954 the city's electron physics laboratory was involved in the Soviet program to develop nuclear weapons.

The city is a member of the International Black Sea Club.[17]

History


The history of the city began in the mid-6th century BC when an earlier settlement of the second and early first millennia BC, frequented by local Colchian tribes, was replaced by the Milesian Greek colony of Dioscurias (Greek: Διοσκουριάς), geographically the remotest that Miletus ever established. The city is said to have been so named for the Dioscuri, the twins Castor and Pollux of classical mythology. It became busily engaged in the commerce between Greece and the indigenous tribes, importing wares from many parts of Greece, and exporting local salt and Caucasian timber, linen, and hemp. It was also a prime center of slave trade in Colchis. The city and its surroundings were remarkable for the multitude of languages spoken in its bazaars.

Although the sea made serious inroads upon the territory of Dioscurias, it continued to flourish until its conquest by Mithridates VI Eupator of Pontus in the later 2nd century. Under the Roman emperor Augustus the city assumed the name of Sebastopolis [18] (Greek: Σεβαστούπολις). But its prosperity was past, and in the 1st century Pliny the Elder described the place as virtually deserted though the town still continued to exist during the times of Arrian in the 130s.[19] The remains of towers and walls of Sebastopolis have been found underwater; on land the lowest levels so far reached by archaeologists are of the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. In 542 the Romans evacuated the town and demolished its citadel to prevent it from being captured by Sassanid Iran. In 565, however, the emperor Justinian I restored the fort and Sebastopolis continued to remain one of the Byzantine strongholds in Colchis until being sacked by the Arab conqueror Marwan II in 736.

Afterwards, the town came to be known as Tskhumi.[11] Restored by the kings of Abkhazia from the Arab devastation, it particularly flourished during Georgia’s "golden age" in the 12th–13th centuries, when Tskhumi became a center of traffic with the European maritime powers, particularly with the Republic of Genoa. The Genoese established their short-lived trading factory at Tskhumi early in the 14th century.

The Ottoman navy occupied the town in 1451, but for a short time. Later contested between the princes of Abkhazia and Mingrelia, Tskhumi finally fell to the Turks in the 1570s. The new masters heavily fortified the town and called it Sohumkale, with kale meaning "fort" but the first part of the name of disputed origin. It may represent Turkish su, "water", and kum, "sand", but is more likely to be an alteration of its earlier Georgian name.[11] At the request of the pro-Russian Abkhazian prince, the town was stormed by the Russian Marines in 1810 and turned, subsequently, into their major outpost in the North West Caucasus. Sukhumi was declared the seaport in 1847 and was directly annexed to the Russian Empire after the ruling Shervashidze princely dynasty was ousted by the Russian authorities in 1864. During the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878, the town was temporarily controlled by the Ottoman forces and Abkhaz-Adyghe rebels.


Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, the town and Abkhazia in general were engulfed in the chaos of the Russian Civil War. A short-lived Bolshevik government was suppressed in May 1918 and Sukhum was incorporated into the Democratic Republic of Georgia as a residence of the autonomous People's Council of Abkhazia and the headquarters of the Georgian governor-general. The Red Army and the local revolutionaries took the city from the Georgian forces on March 4, 1921, and declared Soviet rule. Sukhum functioned as the capital of the "Union treaty" Abkhaz Soviet Socialist Republic associated with the Georgian SSR from 1921 until 1931, when it became the capital of the Abkhazian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Georgian SSR. By 1989, Sukhum had 110,000 inhabitants and was one of the most prosperous cities of Georgia. Many holiday dachas for Soviet leaders were situated there.

Beginning with the 1989 riots, Sukhum was a centre of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict, and the city was severely damaged during the 1992–1993 War. During the Georgian-Abkhaz war (1992–1993), the city and its environs suffered almost daily air strikes and artillery shellings, with heavy civilian casualties.[20] On September 27, 1993 the battle for Sukhum was concluded by a full-scale campaign of ethnic cleansing against its majority Georgian population (see Sukhumi Massacre), including members of the Abkhazian government (Zhiuli Shartava, Raul Eshba and others) and mayor of Sukhum Guram Gabiskiria. Although the city has been relatively peaceful and partially rebuilt, it is still suffering the after-effects of the war, and it has not regained its earlier ethnic diversity. Its population in 2003 was 43,716, compared to about 120,000 in 1989.[21]

Climate

Sukhumi has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), that is almost cool enough in summer to be an oceanic climate.

Climate data for Sukhumi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8
(46)
9
(48)
12
(54)
16
(61)
19
(66)
23
(73)
25
(77)
26
(79)
23
(73)
19
(66)
15
(59)
11
(52)
17.2
(62.8)
Average low °C (°F) 2
(36)
2
(36)
5
(41)
8
(46)
12
(54)
17
(63)
19
(66)
19
(66)
15
(59)
11
(52)
7
(45)
3
(37)
10
(50.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 137
(5.39)
113
(4.45)
135
(5.31)
123
(4.84)
115
(4.53)
127
(5)
100
(3.94)
123
(4.84)
127
(5)
121
(4.76)
133
(5.24)
152
(5.98)
1,506
(59.28)
Avg. rainy days 17 15 16 15 12 11 10 10 10 12 16 16 160
Source #1: Weatherbase [22]
Source #2: Georgia Travel Climate Information[23]

Demographics

Historic population figures for Sukhumi, split out by ethnicity, based on population censuses:[24]

Year Abkhaz Armenians Estonians Georgians Greeks Russians Turkish Ukrainians Total
1887 Census 1.8%
(144)
13.5%
(1,083)
0.4%
(32)
11.9%
(951)
14.3%
(1,143)
0.0%
(1)
2.7%
(216)
7,998
1926 Census 3.1%
(658)
9.4%
(2,023)
0.3%
(63)
11.2%
(2,425)
10.7%
(2,298)
23.7%
(5,104)
--- 10.4%
(2,234)
21,568
1939 Census 5.5%
(2,415)
9.8%
(4,322)
0.5%
(206)
19.9%
(8,813)
11.3%
(4,990)
41.9%
(18,580)
--- 4.6%
(2,033)
44,299
1959 Census 5.6%
(3,647)
10.5%
(6,783)
--- 31.1%
(20,110)
4.9%
(3,141)
36.8%
(23,819)
--- 4.3%
(2,756)
64,730
1979 Census 9.9%
(10,766)
10.9%
(11,823)
--- 38.3%
(41,507)
6.5%
(7,069)
26.4%
(28,556)
--- 3.4%
(3,733)
108,337
1989 Census 12.5%
(14,922)
10.3%
(12,242)
--- 41.5%
(49,460)
--- 21.6%
(25,739)
--- --- 119,150
2003 Census 65.3%
(24,603)
12.7%
(5,565)
0.1%
(65)
4.0%
(1,761)
1.5%
(677)
16.9%
(8,902)
--- 1.6%
(712)
43,716
2011 Census 67.3%
(42,603 )
9.8%
(6,192)
--- 2.8%
(1,755)
1.0%
(645)
14.8%
(9,288)
--- --- 62,914

Administration

On 2 February 2000, President Ardzinba dismissed temporary Mayor Leonid Osia and appointed Leonid Lolua in his stead.[25]

On 5 November 2004, in the heated aftermath of the 2004 presidential election, president Vladislav Ardzinba appointed head of the Gulripsh district assembly Adgur Kharazia acting mayor. During his first speech he called upon the two leading candidates, Sergei Bagapsh and Raul Khadjimba, to both withdraw.[26]

On 16 February 2005, newly elected President Bagapsh replaced Kharazia with Astamur Adleiba, who had been Minister for Youth, Sports, Resorts and Tourism until December 2004.[27] In the 11 February 2007 local elections, Adleiba successfully defended his seat in the Sukhumi city assembly and was thereupon reappointed mayor by Bagapsh on 20 March.[28]

In April 2007, while President Bagapsh was in Moscow for medical treatment, the results of an investigation into corruption within the Sukhumi city administration were made public. The investigation found that large sums had been embezzled and upon his return, on 2 May, Bagapsh fired Adleiba along with his deputy Boris Achba, the head of the Sukhumi's finance department Konstantin Tuzhba and the head of the housing department David Jinjolia.[29] On 4 June Adleiba paid back to the municipal budget 200,000 rubels.[30] and on 23 July, he resigned from the Sukhumi city council, citing health reasons and the need to travel abroad for medical treatment.[31]

On 15 May 2007, president Bagapsh released Alias Labakhua as First Deputy Chairman of the State Customs Committee and appointed him acting Mayor of Sukhumi, a post temporarily fulfilled by former Vice-Mayor Anzor Kortua. On 27 May Labakhua appointed Vadim Cherkezia as Deputy Chief of Staff.[32] On 2 September, Labakhua won the by-election in constituency No. 21, which had become necessary after Adleiba relinquished his seat. Adleiba was the only candidate and voter turnout was 34%, higher than the 25% required.[33] Since Adleiba was now a member of the city assembly, president Bagapsh could permanently appoint him Mayor of Sukhumi on 18 September.[34]

List of Mayors

# Name From Until President Comments
Chairmen of the City Soviet:
D. Gubaz <=1989 >=1989
Nodar Khashba 1991 [35] First time
Guram Gabiskiria 1992 27 September 1993
Heads of the City Administration:
Nodar Khashba 1993 [35] 26 November 1994 Second time
26 November 1994 1995 [35] Vladislav Ardzinba
Garri Aiba 1995 2000
Leonid Osia 2 February 2000 [25] Acting Mayor
Leonid Lolua 2 February 2000 [25] 5 November 2004 [26]
Adgur Kharazia 5 November 2004 [26] 16 February 2005 [27] Acting Mayor
Astamur Adleiba 16 February 2005 [27] 2 May 2007 [29] Sergei Bagapsh
Anzor Kortua May 2007 15 May 2007 Acting Mayor
Alias Labakhua 15 May 2007 29 May 2011
29 May 2011 26 September 2011 Alexander Ankvab

Main sights

Sukhumi houses a number of historical monuments, notably the Beslet arcaded bridge built during the reign of queen Tamar of Georgia in the 12th century. It also retains visible vestiges of the defunct monuments, including the Roman walls, the 11th-century castle of Bagrat III, several towers of the Great Abkhazian Wall constructed by the early modern Mingrelian and Abkhazian princes amid their territorial disputes; the 14th-century Genoese fort, and the 18th-century Ottoman fortress. The 11th century Kaman Church (12 kilometres (7 miles) from Sukhumi) is erected, according to tradition, over the tomb of Saint John Chrysostom. Some 22 km (14 mi) from Sukhumi lies New Athos with the ruins of the medieval city of Anacopia. The Neo-Byzantine New Athos Monastery was constructed here in the 1880s on behest of Tsar Alexander III of Russia. Northward in the mountains is the Voronya Cave, the deepest in the world, with a depth of 2,140 meters.[36]

Twin towns – sister cities

Sukhumi has the following agreements with other towns:[37][38]

Town Country or republic Since
Twin town relations:
Kilmarnock  Scotland
Adapazarı  Turkey
Acharnes  Greece
Pointe-à-Pitre  France
Krasnodar  Russia
Side  Turkey 24 November 2012[39]
Cooperation agreements:
Ufa  Bashkortostan
Tiraspol  Transnistria
Cherkessk  Karachay-Cherkessia
Volgograd  Russia
Grozny  Chechnya
Stepanakert  Nagorno-Karabakh
Nizhny Novgorod  Russia
Archangelsk  Russia
Tambov  Russia 20 August 2012[40]
Agreement to establish friendly ties:
Podolsk  Russia 15 June 2006[41]

See also

References

External links

  • UNOMIG photo gallery of Sukhumi
  • Suhumi webcam
  • News from FM Radio Abkhazia

Coordinates: 43°00′N 41°01′E / 43.000°N 41.017°E / 43.000; 41.017

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