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Shahrizor Eyalet

Eyalet-i Şehrizor
Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire

1554–1862
Location of Sharazor Eyalet
Sharazor Eyalet in 1609
Capital Kirkuk;[1]
Sulaymaniyya (after 1784)[2]
History
 -  Established 1554
 -  Disestablished 1862
Today part of  Iraq
 Iran

Shahrizor[3] Eyalet (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت شهر زور; Eyālet-i Šehr-i Zōr)[4] was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire covering the area of present-day Iraqi Kurdistan.[3]

History

When the Ottomans conquered the region in 1554,[2] they decided to leave the government of the region to Kurd leaders, so it was not incorporate it directly into the Ottoman administrative system.[2] The governors were members of Kurdish clans, and only rarely were there Ottoman garrisons in the province.[2]

In the 18th and 19th centuries, the eyalet came to be dominated by the Baban clan.[3] The members of this clan were able to maintain their rule by guaranteeing the security of the Ottoman Empire's volatile border with Iran in exchange of almost full autonomy.[3] The sanjak of Baban, which included the town of Kirkuk, was named after the family.[3]

The Baban considered the Kurdish princes of Ardalan, who controlled the Iranian portions of Kurdistan, to be their natural rivals, and in 1694 Sulayman Beg invaded Iran and defeated the mir of Ardalan.[3] After 1784,[2] the Babans moved their capital to the new town of Sulaymaniya, which was named after the dynasty’s founder.[3]

In 1850 the rule of the Babans was finally brought to an end,[3] and the region was placed under the direct control of the governor of Baghdad in 1862.[2] However, the fall of the Babans led to a deterioration of the relations between the clans, and the resulting anarchy was only ended with the rise of another Kurdish clan, the Barzinji, in the early 20th century.[3]

Administrative divisions

Sanjaks of Sharazor Eyalet in the 17th century:[5]

References

  1. ^ John Macgregor (1850). Commercial statistics: A digest of the productive resources, commercial legislation, customs tariffs, of all nations. Including all British commercial treaties with foreign states. Whittaker and co. p. 12. Retrieved 2013-06-01. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Gábor Ágoston; Bruce Alan Masters (2009-01-01). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. p. 526.  
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Gábor Ágoston; Bruce Alan Masters (2009-01-01). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. p. 70.  
  4. ^ "Some Provinces of the Ottoman Empire". Geonames.de. Retrieved 25 February 2013. 
  5. ^ Evliya Çelebi; Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall (1834). Narrative of Travels in Europe, Asia, and Africa in the Seventeenth Century. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 90. Retrieved 2013-06-01. 

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