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Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario

Sault Ste. Marie
City (single-tier)
City of Sault Ste. Marie
Official seal of Sault Ste. Marie
Nickname(s): The Soo, The Sault
Motto: "Naturally Gifted"
Sault Ste. Marie is located in Ontario
Sault Ste. Marie
Sault Ste. Marie
Country  Canada
Province  Ontario
District Algoma
Incorporated 1888 (town)
Incorporated 1912 (city)
 • Type Corporation
 • Mayor Christian Provenzano
 • Council Sault Ste. Marie City Council
 • MP Bryan Hayes
 • MPP David Orazietti
 • Land 223.26 km2 (86.20 sq mi)
 • Urban 57.46 km2 (22.19 sq mi)
 • Metro 805.38 km2 (310.96 sq mi)
Elevation[3] 192.00 m (629.92 ft)
Population (2011)[1][2]
 • City (single-tier) 75,141
 • Density 336.6/km2 (872/sq mi)
 • Urban 67,646
 • Urban density 1,177.2/km2 (3,049/sq mi)
 • Metro 79,800
 • Metro density 99.1/km2 (257/sq mi)
Time zone Eastern Standard Time (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) (UTC-4)
Postal code FSA P6A, P6B, P6C
Area code(s) (705) and (249)[4]
CA rank: 46th in Canada
Municipal rank: 66th in Canada

Sault Ste. Marie ( "Soo Saint Marie") is a city on the St. Marys River in Algoma District, Ontario, Canada. It is the third largest city in Northern Ontario, after Sudbury and Thunder Bay.

While there is some debate on the exact meaning of "Sault" in Sault Ste. Marie, scholars of early French note that the word translates into jump, referring to the place where one needs to "jump", or put into the St. Mary’s River. This translation relates to the treacherous rapids and cascades of the St. Mary's River, which descend more than 20 feet from the level of Lake Superior to the level of the lower lakes. Hundreds of years ago, this prohibited boat traffic and required an overland portage from one lake to the other. Thus the entire name translates to "Saint Mary's Rapids" or "Saint Mary's Falls". The word sault is pronounced in French, and in the English pronunciation of the city name.[5] Residents of the city are called Saultites.

Sault Ste. Marie is bordered to the east by the unincorporated portion of Algoma District, which includes the local services boards of Aweres, Batchawana Bay, Goulais and District, Peace Tree and Searchmont.

The city's census agglomeration, including the townships of Laird, Prince and Macdonald, Meredith and Aberdeen Additional and the First Nations reserves of Garden River and Rankin, had a total population of 79,800 in 2011.

Sault Ste. Marie is the seat of the Algoma District.

To the south, across the river, is the United States and the city of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. The two cities are joined by the International Bridge, which connects Interstate 75 on the Michigan side and Huron Street (and former Ontario Secondary Highway 550B) on the Ontario side. Shipping traffic in the Great Lakes system bypasses the Saint Mary's Rapids via the American Soo Locks, the world's busiest canal in terms of tonnage that passes through it, while smaller recreational and tour boats use the Canadian Sault Ste. Marie Canal.

Established as one settlement by Jesuit missionaries in the 17th century, the two saults remained so until after the War of 1812.[6]


  • History 1
  • Climate 2
  • Economy 3
  • Alternative energy capital of North America 4
  • Transportation 5
  • Tourism 6
  • Demographics 7
    • Ethnicity 7.1
    • Religion 7.2
  • Government 8
  • Education 9
  • Sports 10
  • Walk of Fame 11
  • Culture 12
  • Notable residents and groups 13
  • Media 14
  • Sister cities 15
  • References 16
  • External links 17


Ojibwe fishermen in the St. Marys Rapids, 1901
Sault Ste. Marie Museum in downtown Sault Ste. Marie

This area was originally called Baawitigong, meaning "place of the rapids," by the Ojibwa, who used the site as a regional meeting place during whitefish season in the St. Mary's Rapids. (The anglicized form of this name, Bawating, continues to be used in institutional and geographic names in the area.)

After the visit of Étienne Brûlé in 1623, the French called it "Sault de Gaston" in honour of Gaston, Duke of Orléans, the brother of King Louis XIII of France. In 1668, French Jesuit missionaries renamed it Sault Sainte Marie, and established a settlement (present-day Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan) on the river's south bank. Later, a fur trading post was established and the settlement expanded to include both sides of the river. Sault Ste. Marie is one of the oldest French settlements in North America. It was at the crossroads of the 3,000-mile fur trade route, which stretched from Montreal to Sault Ste. Marie and to the North country above Lake Superior. A mixed population of Europeans, Native Americans and First Nations peoples, and Métis lived at the village spanning the river.[7]

The city name originates from Saults de Sainte-Marie, archaic French for "Saint Mary's Falls", a reference to the rapids of Saint Marys River. Etymologically, the word sault comes from an archaic spelling of saut (from sauter), which translates most accurately in this usage to the English word cataract. This in turn derives from the French word for "leap" or "jump" (similar to somersault). Citations dating back to 1600 use the sault spelling to mean a cataract, waterfall or rapids. In modern French, however, the words chutes or rapides are more usual, and sault survives almost exclusively in geographic names dating from the 17th century. (See also Long Sault, Ontario, Sault St. Louis, Quebec, and Grand Falls/Grand-Sault, New Brunswick, three other place names where "sault" also carries this meaning.)

On July 20, 1814 an American force destroyed the North West Company depot on the north shore of the St. Marys River. Since the Americans were unable to capture Fort Michilimackinac, the British forces retained control of the Sault Ste. Marie.[8]

Cairn commemorating the Wolseley Expedition to quell the North-West Rebellion.
Turning the first sod ceremony for the construction of the Sault Ste. Marie Canal, 30 July 1890.

In 1870, the United States refused the steamer Chicona, carrying Colonel Garnet Wolseley permission to pass through the locks at Sault Ste Marie. The Wolseley Expedition incident led to the construction of a Canadian Sault Ste. Marie Canal, which was completed in 1895.[9]

Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario was incorporated as a town in 1887 and a city in 1912. The town gained brief international notoriety in 1911 in the case of Angelina Napolitano, the first person in Canada to use the battered woman defence for murder.[10]

During World War II, and particularly after the US was attacked at Pearl Harbor in 1941, concern turned to the locks and shipping channel at Sault Ste. Marie. A substantial military presence was established to protect the locks from a possible attack by Nazi German aircraft from the north. The new development of long-range bombers created fears of a sudden air raid. Military strategists studied polar projection maps which indicate that the air distance from occupied Norway to the town was about the same as the distance from Norway to New York. That direct route of about 3000 miles is over terrain where there were few observers and long winter nights.

A joint Canadian and US committee called the "Permanent Joint Board on Defence" drove the installation of anti-aircraft defence and associated units of the United States Army Air Forces and Royal Canadian Air Force to defend the locks. An anti-aircraft training facility was established 100 kilometres (62 mi) north of Sault Ste. Marie on the shores of Lake Superior. Barrage balloons were installed, and early warning radar bases were established at 5 locations in northern Ontario (Kapuskasing, Cochrane, Hearst, Armstrong (Thunder Bay District), and Nakina)[11] to watch for incoming aircraft. Military personnel were established to guard sensitive parts of the transportation infrastructure. A little over one year later, in January 1943, most of these facilities and defences were deemed excessive and removed, save a reduced military base at Sault Ste. Marie.

On January 29, 1990, Sault Ste. Marie became a flashpoint in the Meech Lake Accord constitutional debate when council passed a resolution declaring English the city's official language[12] and the sole language for provision of municipal services.[13] The Sault Ste. Marie language resolution was not the first of its kind in Ontario, but because Sault Ste. Marie was the largest municipality to have passed such a resolution and the first to do so although it had a sizable Franco-Ontarian population,[14] the council's action was very controversial. Many objections were raised by the French-speaking population.


Sault Ste. Marie has humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with cold, snowy winters and warm summers that are moderated to some extent by Lake Superior. Winters are cold but are milder than some inland places.[3] Temperatures drop below −20 °C (−4.0 °F) 24 days per year. Summers are warm with a July high of 24.0 °C (75.2 °F) and temperatures above 30 °C (86.0 °F) occur 4 days per year.[3] The average annual precipitation is 889 millimetres (35.0 in), which is evenly distributed throughout the year though the months September to November are wetter.[3] The record high was 36.8 °C (98.2 °F) while the record low was −38.9 °C (−38.0 °F).[3]


Sault Ste. Marie internment camp 1915–18
Ermatinger Old Stone House, the oldest stone house west of Toronto
MS Norgoma, museum ship docked at Roberta Bondar Park

The museum ship in the Great Lakes at Sault Ste. Marie.

Astronaut photograph of the St. Marys River, with Sault Ste. Marie at the top left.

The city has made a name for itself in steel-making, and Essar Steel Algoma (formerly Algoma Steel) is the largest single employer with 3500 employees at the main plant and approximately 553 (440 unionized and 113 non-unionized) at an adjacent tube mill operated by Tenaris. During the 1940s, the steel and chromium operations were of substantial importance to the war effort in Canada and the United States. Algoma Steel and the Chromium Mining and Smelting Corporation were key producers for transportation and military machines. The Huron Central Railway is important to the operation of the steel operation, but Genesee and Wyoming, Inc., owner of the railway, has announced its intention to discontinue operations, but continued to operate under an agreement which terminated on August 15, 2010.[16]

ESSAR Steel Algoma Inc.
St. Mary's Paper, now closed

Sault Ste. Marie prospered during the 1960s and '70s, but as imported steel began to compete with domestic production, the local industry began to contract. Since the late 1980s, Algoma Steel (Currently Essar Steel Algoma), has declared bankruptcy twice and laid off large numbers of workers. Most recently, Algoma (Essar) was bailed out by the Ontario government with interest-free loans.

The company experienced a swift turnaround in 2004 from its earlier financial troubles of the 1990s. China's increased demand for steel of the past decade has increased the price of steel. Denis Turcotte, CEO, was named Canadian CEO of the year in 2006 for his efforts. An offer to purchase ASI by the Essar Group (India) had been recommended by the ASI Board of Directors and was approved. The company was officially sold to the Essar Group in June 2007 for $1.6 billion. Essar Steel Algoma is currently the most profitable steel company per unit on a global scale.

Forestry is also a major local industry, although St. Mary's Paper has been closed and decommissioned, despite having been reopened in June 2007 under new ownership. Also related to wood products is Flakeboard Ltd., which employs over 110 people in the community along with an adjacent melamine factory which manufactures products with Flakeboard's materials. Such examples of this are furniture and cupboards where a finish is added to the product. Together both of Flakeboard's factories employ about 150 people. The Huron Central Railway is important to these local industries, too.

Furthermore, the business process outsourcing industry, with three call centres, Nucomm, Agero and Sutherland Global Services located within city limits employ about 1500 people. The largest employer of the three call centres is Sutherland Global Services. The call centre industry has become a large employer in Sault Ste. Marie which contributed to the economic turn around of the city in the late 1990s.

Another very large employer in the community is the Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation (OLG). The OLG has a corporate office located within the city on the waterfront and employs about 900 people in Sault Ste. Marie between the corporate office and OLG Casino Sault Ste. Marie. The prize centre used to reside within the city but was moved back to Toronto (York Mills) in 2009. Its role in Sault Ste. Marie has diminished, although only slightly; however, it is still the fourth largest employer next only to Essar Steel Algoma, Sault Area Hospital and the call centre industry.

Sault Ste. Marie is one of only a few cities in Ontario where a municipal bylaw prevents stores from opening on December 26. As in Sudbury, retail stores in Sault Ste. Marie instead begin their post-Christmas Boxing Day sales on December 27. A municipal referendum to determine whether voters favour allowing stores to open on Boxing Day was held concurrently with the 2010 municipal election.[17] Although voter turnout was not high enough to make the referendum legally binding, meaning that Sault Ste. Marie City Council is free to disregard the results if it chooses to revisit the issue in the future, 60.77 per cent of voters opposed allowing stores to open.[18]

Alternative energy capital of North America

Sault College wind turbine, used to teach students about wind turbine operation.

The city is home to the Montreal River Harbour.[21] Elementa Group has built a pilot waste-to-energy plant in Sault Ste. Marie,[22] and the local Public Utilities Commission collects methane gas from the city's landfill.


Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario (left), Soo Locks and International Bridge (centre), and Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan (right), with St. Marys River in the background
Sault Ste. Marie Canal, with the International Bridge and rail bridge in background

Sault Ste. Marie is served by Highway 17, which is a segment of the Trans-Canada Highway in the region. The highway connects the city to Thunder Bay to the northwest and Sudbury to the east. The International Bridge connects downtown Sault Ste. Marie to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, becoming Interstate 75 on the American side. Interstate 75 continues south to Saginaw, Flint, and Detroit before crossing into Ohio, eventually terminating in Hialeah, Florida, near Miami.

The International Bridge also directs traffic from the American side of the border via Sault Ste. Marie's new transport route that runs from the bridge to Second Line. This new limited-access roadway, known as "Carmen's Way" after the late MP Carmen Provenzano, will make it much easier for transport trucks to gain access to main roads. The route of Carmen's Way has a wide grassy right-of-way on both sides of the roadway, to facilitate future expansion of its lane capacity. Planning is underway to eventually connect Second Line East to the new four-lane section of Highway 17 that recently opened east of the city.

The city also plays an inherited role in marine transportation, with the locks in Michigan being an integral component of the St. Lawrence Seaway. However, the city also holds a small-scale lock which is used by small boats and other pleasure craft in the summer. Also recently opened is a multi-modal terminal designed to take advantage of the Sault as a rail, road, and water transportation hub.

Sault Ste. Marie is also served by Sault Ste. Marie Airport and Sault Transit Services.[23] The city is no longer linked to any other major cities by passenger rail, but is part of the Algoma Central Railway network, which runs north from the city to the small town of Hearst. In 2006 the city's Member of Parliament, Tony Martin, called for passenger rail service to be reinstated between Sault Ste. Marie and Sudbury.[24]


The Art Gallery of Algoma, on the Sault's waterfront

Area tourist attractions include the Canadian Bushplane Heritage Centre, the Sault Ste. Marie Canal National Historic Site, boat tours of the Sault locks (which connect Lake Superior with the lower Great Lakes), Whitefish Island, the Ermatinger-Clergue National Historic Site, Casino Sault Ste. Marie, the Art Gallery of Algoma and the Algoma Central Railway's popular Agawa Canyon Tour Train.

Nearby parks include Pancake Bay Provincial Park, Batchawana Bay Provincial Park and Lake Superior Provincial Park. Winter activities are also an asset to Sault Ste Marie's tourism industry with the annual Bon Soo Winter Carnival, Searchmont Resort as a great ski and snowboard destination, Stokely Creek Lodge (cross country ski resort) and Hiawatha a nearby cross country ski trails. The city also hosts a large snowmobile trail system that criss-crosses the province of Ontario.

A new non-motorized HUB trail is being created around the city (20 km) so that walkers, rollerbladers and cyclists (snowshoeing and cross country skiing in winter) can enjoy the beautiful and convenient circle tour around town. The Voyageur Hiking Trail, a long-distance trail that will eventually span from Sudbury to Thunder Bay, originated in Sault Ste. Marie in 1973. The Roberta Bondar Pavilion was created to commemorate the first Canadian female astronaut to go into space.

The city is also home to the Station Mall, one of the largest shopping malls in Northern Ontario.


Canada 2011 National Household Survey[25] Population % of Total Population
Visible minority group South Asian 270 0.37
Chinese 290 0.39
Black 260 0.35
Filipino 35 0.05
Latin American 110 0.15
Arab 85 0.12
Southeast Asian 40 0.05
Korean 40 0.05
Japanese 25 0.03
Total visible minority population 1,215 1.65
Aboriginal group First Nations 5,975 8.12
Métis 2,115 2.87
Inuit 25 0.03
Total Aboriginal population 7,970 10.83
White 64,445 87.53
Total population 73,625 100

Similar to many other Northern Ontario municipalities, Sault Ste. Marie's population has declined in the 1990s and early 2000s, with many individuals migrating to larger cities in southern Ontario. Since the early 1990s, the city had dropped from 84,000 to 74,566 residents, but in the 2006 census the city's population grew very slightly to 74,948. The city's census agglomeration, consisting of the townships of Laird, Prince and Macdonald, Meredith and Aberdeen Additional and the First Nations reserves of Garden River and Rankin, had a total population of 80,098, up from 78,908 in 2001.[29][30]


Sault Ste. Marie was at one time a haven for Italian immigrants. The city has a large concentration of ethnic Italians for a community its size.[31] The city also has a significant First Nations population, with three reserves nearby.

Those who are of European origin constitute 91.6% of the population, including those who are of Italian, French, English and Nordic descent. Aboriginals or Native Canadians, constitute 7.8%, and those who are of Chinese, Asian, African, and Filipino ancestry make up the remainder of the population.


Religion statistics for Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario
Religion Population %
Christian (all) 54,745 74.36%
  Catholic 1   29,920   40.64%
  United Church   7,150   9.71%
  Anglican   4,730   6.42%
  Lutheran   1,980   2.69%
  Presbyterian   1,335   1.81%
  Pentecostal   1,230   1.67%
  Baptist   1,170   1.59%
  Christian Orthodox   230   0.31%
  Christian, n.i.e. 2   7,000   9.51%
Jewish 190 0.26%
Hindu 165 0.22%
Muslim 135 0.18%
Traditional (Aboriginal) Spirituality 60 0.08%
Buddhist 25 0.03%
Other religions 3 225 0.31%
No religious affiliation 4 18,080 24.56%
National Household Survey 2011 [25]

1 Includes Roman Catholic, Eastern Catholic,
Polish National Catholic Church and Old Catholic.
2 Includes mostly answers of "Christian", not otherwise stated.
3 Includes Pagan, Wicca,
UnityNew ThoughtPantheist, Scientology, Rastafarian,
New Age, Gnostic, Satanist, etc.
4 Includes Agnostic, Atheist, Humanist, and No religion,
and other responses, such as Darwinism, etc.

Christianity is the chief faith in the city, with Roman Catholicism being the largest denomination. This can be attributed to the large number of citizens with a traditional French and Italian Catholic heritage. After Catholicism and Protestantism, those who identify as being non-religious make up almost one-quarter of residents.


Sault Ste. Marie Civic Centre

The Corporation of the City of Sault Ste. Marie is run by a city council of 12 councillors (representing six wards) and a mayor. The most recent municipal election was held on October 27, 2014, and the mayoralty was won by Christian Provenzano. The outgoing mayor, Debbie Amaroso, was the first woman elected to this office.[32]

The city's crest contains the words "Ojibwa Kitche Gumeeng Odena" (from Ojibwe gichi-gamiing oodena) which means "Town by the large body of water of the Ojibwe" (or simply "Town by Lake Superior") in the Ojibwe language.

The city is served by the Sault Ste. Marie federal electoral district and the Sault Ste. Marie provincial electoral district. The boundaries of these two districts are not identical; the provincial district encompasses the city alone, while the federal district extends northerly to the Montreal River and east to Bruce Mines and St. Joseph Island. The city's current federal Member of Parliament is Bryan Hayes (Conservative), and its Member of Provincial Parliament is David Orazietti (Liberal).

See also Neighbourhoods in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario.


Shingwauk Hall, Algoma University
Ontario Forest Research Institute

The city is home to Sault College, a college of applied arts and technology, and to Algoma University. While the vast majority of programs at Algoma University and Sault College are delivered on the respective campuses, both institutions also offer joint programs with Lake Superior State University in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. On June 18, 2008, Algoma University became an independent university, ending their longtime affiliation with Laurentian University in Sudbury. A new school, Shingwauk Kinoomaage Gamig (University), is poised to launch as a federated school of Algoma University. It will offer courses in Anishinaabe culture and language.

Sault Ste. Marie is home to both the Algoma District School Board and the Huron-Superior Catholic District School Board, and is part of the Conseil scolaire de district du Grand Nord de l'Ontario and the Conseil scolaire de district catholique du Nouvel-Ontario. It is also home to the following high schools:

Sault Ste. Marie is also home to the Ontario Forest Research Institute and the federal Great Lakes Forestry Centre.

Sault Ste. Marie has over 30 elementary schools between both school boards.


Essar Centre, formerly the Steelback Centre
Former Sault Memorial Gardens, the memorial tower now forms part of the new Essar Centre
Plaque dedicating Phil Esposito Park

The Sault Ste. Marie Greyhounds are the city's most recognized sports team having existed since the formation of the Northern Ontario Hockey Association in 1919. The Hounds won national championships twice including the 1993 Memorial Cup and the 1924 Allan Cup. The Greyhounds play in the Essar Centre, a state-of-the-art downtown arena that replaced the Sault Memorial Gardens in 2006. The current Hounds have retired five jerseys since joining the Ontario Hockey League in 1972: #1 John Vanbiesbrouck, #4 Craig Hartsburg, #10 Ron Francis, #5 Adam Foote, and #99 Wayne Gretzky.

Sault Ste. Marie also had a team in hockey's first professional league. The Sault Ste. Marie Marlboros or 'Canadian Soo' team played in the International Professional Hockey League from 1904 to 1907.

Sault Ste. Marie hockey teams have boasted a number of Marty Walsh.

National Hockey League All-Stars Joe Thornton & Jeff Carter played their entire OHL careers as members of the Greyhounds. Current NHL players from the Sault Ste. Marie area include New Jersey Devils right wing Matt D'Agostini, San Jose Sharks centre Tyler Kennedy, Los Angeles Kings centre Jordan Nolan and Winnipeg Jets centre Chris Thorburn.

Two Sault natives currently coach in the NHL. Former Greyhound player and coach Ted Nolan (Jordan Nolan's father) has coached parts of 5 seasons in the NHL with the Buffalo Sabres & the New York Islanders, winning the Jack Adams Trophy as the NHL Coach of the Year in 1998 with the Sabres (who he currently coaches.) Fellow Sault Ste. Marie native Paul Maurice has also been an NHL coach for parts of 16 seasons with the Hartford/Carolina franchise, Toronto Maple Leafs, and Winnipeg Jets, becoming the league's youngest ever coach at the age of 28 in 1995, and taking Carolina to the Stanley Cup Finals in 2002.

Other notable athletes from Sault Ste. Marie include Canadian Football Hall of Fame inductee Rocky DiPietro, Paralympic swimmer Jessica Tuomela, softball pitcher Darren Zack, and mixed martial artist Antonio Carvalho.

The Sault has been host to many national and international sporting events including the 2003 Eco-Challenge North American Championship, an expedition-length (350–500 km) adventure race through unmarked wilderness by biking, trekking, paddling and using ropes.

Sault Ste. Marie was the host of the 1990 Brier, the Canadian men's curling championship. In 2010, it hosted the Scotties Tournament of Hearts, which serves as Canada's women's curling championship. At the 2013 Tim Hortons Brier held in Edmonton, Alberta, Brad Jacobs and his team from the Soo Curlers Association won the Tim Hortons Brier, and the honour of representing Canada in the 2013 Ford World Men's Curling Championship, where they won silver. The team later won the 2013 Canadian Olympic Curling Trials, earning them the right to represent Canada at the 2014 Winter Olympics, where they won gold. The local curling clubs are the Soo Curlers Association and the Tarentorus Curling Club.

The 2007 and 2009 Sault Steelers captured the Canadian Senior Football Championship.

Walk of Fame

The Sault Ste. Marie Walk of Fame marker for Francis H. Clergue

The Walk of Fame was created in 2006 as a joint project between the city of Sault Ste. Marie and its Downtown Association, and honours those from the city or the Algoma District who have made outstanding contributions to the community or significant contributions in their chosen field of work. Inductees are added on an annual basis.


Sault Ste. Marie is home to the

  • City of Sault Ste. Marie

External links

  1. ^ a b "Sault Ste. Marie census profile".  
  2. ^ a b "Sault Ste. Marie (Census agglomeration) census profile".  
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Canadian Climate Normals 1971–2000". Environment Canada. Retrieved 2012-05-06. 
  4. ^ "Time to say goodbye to seven-digit calls", Sootoday
  5. ^ "History", Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan website
  6. ^ "Sault Ste. Marie – history" , The North View, accessed 20 Dec 2008
  7. ^ "Sault Ste. Marie – history" , The North View, accessed 20 Dec 2008
  8. ^ Mary Ellen Perkins (ed.) 'Discover your heritage: A Guide to Provincial Plaques in Ontario' Natural Heritage (Jun 30 1989) ISBN 0920474500 – plaque on eastern end of Canadian locks, Huron Street, Saint Ste. Marie
  9. ^ Mary Ellen Perkins (ed.) 'Discover your heritage: A Guide to Provincial Plaques in Ontario' Natural Heritage (Jun 30 1989) ISBN 0920474500 – plaque near Canadian locks, Huron Street, Saint Ste. Marie
  10. ^ Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online: Angelina Napolitano. By Franca Iacovetta. University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2004. page accessed June 2008
  11. ^ Dziuban, Stanley W. (1970). Military Relations Between the United States and Canada 1939–1945.  
  12. ^ Canadian Annual Review of Politics and Public Affairs, 1990, David Leyton-Brown (ed.), p.135. "On the language front, a major headache for the government began when the Sault Ste Marie City Council, under pressure from the Alliance for the Preservation of English in Canada, declared English as its official language."
  13. ^ Crosswords: Language, Education and Ethnicity in French Ontario, Monica Heller, p. 79
  14. ^ Crosswords: Language, Education and Ethnicity in French Ontario, Monica Heller, p. 80
  15. ^ "Sault Ste. Marie A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010.  
  16. ^ "Genesee & Wyoming Reports Results for the Second Quarter of 2010 Aug 3, 2010 (Press release)". GWI Press Release. Genesee & Wyoming, Inc. 2010-08-03. Archived from the original on 2010-08-04. Retrieved 2010-08-04. GWI has continued to operate HCRY under a temporary operating agreement that terminates in mid-August 2010, unless renewed by the affected parties. 
  17. ^ Wording of Sault Ste. Marie referendum question yet to be decided". Sudbury Star, February 18, 2010.
  18. ^ "Boxing Day Vote – The People Have Spoken"., October 26, 2010.
  19. ^ Sault Ste. Marie Economic Development Corporation. "Renewable Energy". Retrieved 28 May 2013. 
  20. ^ Sprott Power. "Goulais". Retrieved 28 May 2013. 
  21. ^ BluEarth Renewables Inc. "Bow Lake Wind Project". Retrieved 28 May 2013. 
  22. ^ Elementa Group. "Commercial Demonstration Plant". Retrieved 28 May 2013. 
  23. ^ "Sault Ste. Marie Transit". Retrieved 2011-03-09. 
  24. ^ "Passenger rail service to Sudbury needed: Sault MP". Retrieved 2011-03-09. 
  25. ^ a b Statistics Canada National Household Survey 2011. "NHS Profile, Sault Ste. Marie, CY, Ontario, 2011". Retrieved 28 May 2013. 
  26. ^ "2011 Community Profiles".  
  27. ^ "2006 Community Profiles".  
  28. ^ "2001 Community Profiles".  
  29. ^ "Sault Ste. Marie (City) community profile".  
  30. ^ "Sault Ste. Marie (Census agglomeration) community profile".  
  31. ^ "Ethno-Cultural Portrait of Canada, Table 1". Retrieved 2011-03-09. 
  32. ^ Debbie Amaroso is our first female mayor!, October 26, 2010.
  33. ^
  34. ^ Miramar Design Studio. "Rotaryfest". Rotaryfest. Retrieved 2011-03-09. 
  35. ^ "'"Premiere: Kalle Mattson's 'A Love Song to the City. 
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^ City of Sault Ste. Marie (Ontario)
  39. ^ [1] Purvis, Michael (17 August 2012) Saults now sisters, Sault Star
  40. ^ Контакты с иностранными городами Внешние связи – официальный сайт администрации города Красноярска (Russian)(English)(German)


Sister cities


Notable residents and groups

Sault Ste. Marie was the focus of Kalle Mattson's 'A Love Song to the City', whose music video premiered on USA Today.[35]


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