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Rural area

The Barossa Valley in South Australia is an area noted for vineyards

In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside cities and the centers of towns.[1] The Health Resources and Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services defines the word "rural" as encompassing "...all population, housing, and territory not included within an urban area. Whatever is not urban is considered rural."[2]

Typical rural areas have a low population density and small settlements. Agricultural areas are commonly rural, though so are others such as forests. Different countries have varying definitions of "rural" for statistical and administrative purposes.

Contents

  • North America 1
    • Canada 1.1
    • United States 1.2
      • Rural schools 1.2.1
      • Rural health 1.2.2
  • Europe 2
    • Germany 2.1
    • Ireland 2.2
    • United Kingdom 2.3
      • Rural health 2.3.1
  • Asia 3
    • India 3.1
    • Pakistan 3.2
  • Africa 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7
  • External links 8

North America

Canada

In Canada, the rural community" has a population density less than 150 people per square kilometre. In Canada, the census division has been used to represent "regions" and census consolidated sub-divisions have been used to represent "communities". Intermediate regions have 15 to 49 percent of their population living in a rural community. Predominantly urban regions have less than 15 percent of their population living in a rural community. Predominantly rural regions are classified as rural metro-adjacent, rural non-metro-adjacent and rural northern, following Ehrensaft and Beeman (1992). Rural metro-adjacent regions are predominantly rural census divisions which are adjacent to metropolitan centres while rural non-metro-adjacent regions are those predominantly rural census divisions which are not adjacent to metropolitan centres. Rural northern regions are predominantly rural census divisions that are found either entirely or mostly above the following lines of parallel in each province: Newfoundland and Labrador, 50th; Quebec 54,Ontario, 54th; Manitoba, 53rd; Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, 54th. As well, rural northern regions encompass all of the Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut.

Statistics Canada defines rural for their population counts. This definition has changed over time (see Appendix A in du Plessis et al., 2002). Typically, it has referred to the population living outside settlements of 1,000 or less inhabitants. The current definition states that census rural is the population outside settlements with fewer than 1,000 inhabitants and a population density below 400 people per square kilometre (Statistics Canada, 2007).

United States

84 percent of the [5][7]

In 2014, the USDA updated their rural / non-rural area definitions based on the 2010 Census counts.[6][6]

Rural schools

National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) revised its definition of rural schools in 2006 after working with the Census Bureau to create a new locale classification system to capitalize on improved geocoding technology.

Rural health

Rural health definitions can be different for establishing under-served areas or health care accessibility in rural areas of the United States. According to the handbook, Definitions of Rural: A Handbook for Health Policy Makers and Researchers, "Residents of metropolitan counties are generally thought to have easy access to the relatively concentrated health services of the county's central areas. However, some metropolitan counties are so large that they contain small towns and rural, sparsely populated areas that are isolated from these central clusters and their corresponding health services by physical barriers." To address this type of rural area, "Harold Goldsmith, Dena Puskin, and Dianne Stiles (1992) described a methodology to identify small towns and rural areas within large metropolitan counties (LMCs) that were isolated from central areas by distance or other physical features." This became the Goldsmith Modification definition of rural. "Bhoomeet rural education The Goldsmith Modification has been useful for expanding the eligibility for federal programs that assist rural populations—to include the isolated rural populations of large metropolitan counties."

Health care delivery in rural areas of the United States can be challenging. From 2005-2011, the rate of potentially preventable hospitalizations for acute conditions was highest in rural areas (as compared to large metropolitan, small metropolitan, or micorpolitan areas).[8]

Europe

Germany

The country is divided into 402 administrative districts; these consist of 295 rural districts, and 107 urban chubackas. Germany is among the largest agricultural producers in the European Union. More than half of Germany's territory – almost 19 million hectares – is used for farming, and are located in the rural areas. German farmers and their work constitute a distinctive feature of its landscapes, so are considered to be an integral part of life in rural areas. They are important because there is hardly any other economic sector in which tradition and progress are so closely linked. Almost every tenth gainfully employed person in Germany has work linked directly or indirectly with the agricultural, forest and fisheries sectors; approximately a fifth of them are employed in primary production. This is why rural areas are considered to be important as urban areas, and all efforts are made to develop them equally. The implication is that, unlike in some other European countries, where rural areas are known for being backward when compared to urban areas, in Germany, the trend is changing. Due to the country's policy of equal living conditions, this is not the case in Germany. Rural areas receive nearly equivalent attention as the urban areas do. Also, through a special approach to rural development, usually referred to as Village Renewal, the challenges of rural Germany are taken care of.[9]

Ireland

Ireland is traditionally seen as a very rural country, despite its many vibrant and urban centres. Most of the work that occurs is agricultural work, with a varying landscape ranging from bogland to emerald meadows to green hills to rugged mountains.

United Kingdom

A typical countryside scene in rural Yorkshire Dales, England.

In Britain, "rural" is defined[10] by the government Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), using population data from the latest census, such as the United Kingdom Census 2001. These definitions have various grades, but the upper point is any local government area with less than 26% of its population living in a market town ("market town" being defined as any settlement which has permission to hold a street market). A number of measures are in place to protect the British countryside, including green belts.

Rural health

In England an NHS patient is defined as rural if they live more than 1.6 km (1 mi) from either a doctor or a dispensing chemist. In Scotland a different definition of rural is used. This is important for defining whether the patient is expected to collect their own medicines. While doctors' surgeries in towns will not have a medicines dispensary instead expecting patients to use a high-street chemist to purchase their prescription medicines, in rural village surgeries,[11] an NHS medicines dispensary will be built into the same building.

Asia

India

Rural areas are also known as 'countryside' or a 'village' in India. It has a very low density of population. In rural areas, agriculture is the chief source of livelihood along with fishing, cottage industries, pottery etc. The quest to discover the real rural India still continues in great earnest. Almost every economic agency today has a definition of rural India. Here are a few definitions: According to the Planning Commission, a town with a maximum population of 15,000 is considered rural in nature. In these areas the panchayat takes all the decisions. There are five people in the panchayat. The National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) defines ‘rural’ as follows:

  • An area with a population density of up to 400 per square kilometer,
  • Villages with clear surveyed boundaries but no municipal board,
  • A minimum of 75% of male working population involved in agriculture and allied activities.[12]

RBI defines rural areas as those areas with a population of less than 49,000 (tier -3 to tier-6 cities).[12] It is generally said that the rural areas house up to 70% of India’s population. Rural India contributes a big chunk to India’s GDP by way of agriculture, self-employment, services, construction etc. As per a strict measure used by the National Sample Survey in its 63rd round, called monthly per capita expenditure, rural expenditure accounts for 55% of total national monthly expenditure. The rural population currently accounts for one -third of the total Indian FMCG sales.[12]

Pakistan

Pakistan has also a large population living but in rural areas, some rural areas are now developing as well.

Africa

The novel Three Sisters[13] attempts a detailed description of semi-rural living in the world's tropical regions. Dominant themes are women, boredom, religion, and underdevelopment.

See also

References

  1. ^ "WordNet Search - 3.1". Wordnetweb.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2013-04-25. 
  2. ^ "Defining the Rural Population". Hrsa.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-25. 
  3. ^ Yen, Hope (2011-07-28). "Rural US Disappearing? Population Share Hits Low". ABC News. Associated Press. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  4. ^ "Howarth, William. "The Value of Rural Life in American Culture." Rural Development Perspectives. Vol. 12 No. 1
  5. ^ a b c CRS Report for Congress: Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws, 2005 Edition - Order Code 97-905
  6. ^ a b c "GreatData.com". Retrieved 8 February 2013. 
  7. ^ What is Rural? USDA, National Agricultural Library, Rural Information Center.
  8. ^ Torio CM, Andrews RM (September 2014). "Geographic Variation in Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations for Acute and Chronic Conditions, 2005-2011". HCUP Statistical Brief #178. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 
  9. ^ Chigbu, Uchendu Eugene (2012). "Village renewal as an instrument of rural development: evidence from Weyarn, Germany". Community Development 43 (2): 209–224.  
  10. ^ Defra, UK
  11. ^ http://www.dispensingdoctor.org/about.php?pid=43
  12. ^ a b c http://www.dhanbank.com/pdf/reports/InFocus-December%201,%202010.pdf
  13. ^ t. "life liberty happiness". lifelib.blogspot.com. 

Further reading

  • Definitions of Rural: A Handbook for Health Policy Makers and Researchers. PDF (6.12 MB) Thomas C. Ricketts, Karen D. Johnson-Webb, Patricia Taylor. Chapel Hill: North Carolina Rural Health Research Program, Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina, 1998. 13 p.

External links

  • Census 2000 Urban and Rural Classification
  • North West Rural Affairs Forum (England)
  • Canadian Rural Partnership
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