World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Rubber bullet

Article Id: WHEBN0000172198
Reproduction Date:

Title: Rubber bullet  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Plastic bullet, Riot control, Wax bullet, Non-lethal weapon, Second Intifada
Collection: British Inventions, Non-Lethal Projectiles, Projectiles, Riot Control Weapons
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Rubber bullet

37 mm British Army rubber bullet, as used in Northern Ireland

Rubber bullets (also called rubber baton rounds) are rubber or rubber-coated projectiles that can be fired from either standard firearms or dedicated riot guns. They are intended to be a non-lethal alternative to metal projectiles. Like other similar projectiles made from plastic, wax, and wood, rubber bullets may be used for short range practice and animal control, but are most commonly associated with use in riot control and to disperse protests.[1][2][3] These types of projectiles are sometimes called baton rounds.[4] Rubber projectiles have largely been replaced by other materials as rubber tends to bounce uncontrollably.[5]

Such "kinetic impact munitions" are meant to cause pain but not serious injury. They are expected to produce contusions, abrasions, and

  1. ^ a b Emily Yoffe (Oct 4, 2000). "What Are Rubber Bullets?". Slate. 
  2. ^ a b WILLIAM D. CASEY. "Meister Bullets, Inc. Purchases 'X-Ring' Primer powered rubber bullet company". Officer.com. 
  3. ^ Anthony G Williams. "Less-lethal Ammunition". 
  4. ^ Hogg (1985) p.67
  5. ^ Hogg, Ian V. (1985). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Ammunition. London: The Apple Press.  
  6. ^ Bozeman, William P.; Winslow, James E. (2005). "Medical Aspects of Less Lethal Weapons". The Internet Journal of Rescue and Disaster Medicine 5 (1). 
  7. ^ Millar, R.; Rutherford, W. H.; Johnston, S.; Malhotra, V. J. (1975). "Injuries caused by rubber bullets: A report on 90 patients". British Journal of Surgery 62 (6): 480–486.  
  8. ^ New Scientist – 3 February 1983. p.292
  9. ^ a b c A Chronology of the Conflict - August 1970. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN).
  10. ^ The Technology of political control, Carol Ackroyd, p.210
  11. ^ Hogg (1985) p87
  12. ^ Hogg (1985) p67
  13. ^ Williams, Anthony G. "Less-lethal ammunition". an amended version of an article which first appeared in Jane's Police Products Review, October/November 2007, and includes information from British 37mm Baton Rounds, which appeared in Small Arms Review in August 2008 
  14. ^ "Rubber bullets: Army kept real dangers in NI hidden". BBC. 11 June 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  15. ^ a b T. Lavy, S. Abu Asleh (2003). "Ocular rubber bullet injuries". Eye (Nature) 17 (7): 821–824.  
  16. ^ "Fiocchi Munizioni 12 gauge riot control ammunition (Italy), RIOT CONTROL EQUIPMENT". Jane's Police and Homeland Security Equipment (Jane's Information Group). 2005. 
  17. ^ "Перечень видов вооружения охранников... Сертифицированное в установленном порядке в качестве гражданского оружия... огнестрельное бесствольное оружие отечественного производства"
    Постановление Правительства РФ № 179 от 4 апреля 2005
  18. ^ "3.1.3. Огнестрельное бесствольное оружие отечественного производства с патронами травматического, газового и светозвукового действия, соответствующими нормам Министерства здравоохранения и социального развития Российской Федерации"
    Приказ Министерства внутренних дел РФ № 611 от 4 августа 2006 года "Об утверждении перечней специальных средств, видов, типов и моделей огнестрельного и газового оружия, патронов и боеприпасов к нему, норм обеспечения ими работников военизированных и сторожевых подразделений ФГУП "Охрана" МВД России"
  19. ^ "Суб'єкт охоронної діяльності має право: для забезпечення охоронної діяльності придбавати, зберігати та використовувати в установленому законодавством порядку спеціальні засоби, перелік яких визначається Кабінетом Міністрів України"
    Закон України № 4616-VI вiд 22 березня 2012 р. "Про охоронну діяльність"
  20. ^ Постанова Кабiнета Мiнiстрiв України № 97 від 11 лютого 2013 р. "Про затвердження переліку спеціальних засобів, придбання, зберігання та використання яких здійснюється суб’єктами охоронної діяльності"
  21. ^ "X-ring rubber pistol bullets". 

References

See also

Rubber bullets, powered by only a primer, are usually used for short-range indoor target practice or training, generally with handguns. They are intended for only target shooting, unlike paintballs or airsoft pellets, which are intended for use on suitably protected live targets. Rubber bullets, if used with a suitable backstop, can be recovered undamaged after firing, and reused numerous times.[2][21]

Recreational use

  •  Kazakhstan - non-lethal gas pistols with the ability to fire ammunition with rubber bullets are permitted to civil population, and they are also allowed for private security guards
  •  Russia - since 1999, the use of non-lethal weapons in Russia is permitted to civil population, and it is also used by private security[17] and law control forces.[18] A variety of handguns (OSA, "Makarych", HORHE, etc.) are carried with specially weakened construction and barrel with internal lugs, making use of full-power loads and/or firing hard projectiles impossible, while rubber bullets just compress when passing the lug and so may be fired. Most common calibers are 9 mm and 10 mm with muzzle velocity sometimes almost matching normal handguns and bullets as light as 0.7 g.
  •  Ukraine - non-lethal gas pistols with the ability to fire ammunition with rubber bullets are allowed for private security guards[19][20]

In some countries non-lethal guns firing rubber projectiles may be used by civilians for self-defence.

Self-defence use

Smaller rubber bullets are used in riot shotguns, and are available in a variety of types. One company, for example, makes both rubber buckshot rounds, containing 15 8.3mm diameter rubber balls per cartridge, and rubber baton rounds, containing a single 4.75 gram projectile.[16]

Rubber coated bullets used against protesters in Ni'lin, August 2013

The rubber riot control bullet is part of a long line of development of non-lethal riot control cartridges that dates back to the use of short sections of broom handle fired at rioters in Singapore in the 1880s.[1] The Hong Kong police developed wooden baton rounds, but they were liable to splinter and cause wounds. The British developed rubber rounds—the "Round, Anti-Riot, 1.5in Baton"—in 1970 for use against rioters in Northern Ireland.[10][11] A low power propelling charge gave them a muzzle velocity of about 60 m/s (200 ft/s) and maximum range of about 100 m (110 yd). The intended use is to fire at the ground so that the round bounces up and hits the target on the legs, causing pain but not injury.[12] From 1970 to 1975, about 55,000 rubber bullets were fired by the British Army in Northern Ireland.[9] Often they were fired directly at people from close range, which resulted in three people being killed and many more badly injured.[9] In 1975 they were replaced by plastic bullets. In Northern Ireland over 35 years (1970–2005) about 125,000 rubber and plastic bullets were fired—an average of ten per day—causing 17 deaths.[13] The baton round was made available to British police forces outside Northern Ireland from 2001. In 2013 however, Ministry of Defence papers declassified from 1977 revealed it was aware rubber bullets were more dangerous than was publicly disclosed. The documents contained legal advice for the MoD to seek a settlement over a child who had been blinded in 1972, rather than go to court which would expose problems with the bullets and make it harder to fight future related cases. The papers stated that further tests would reveal serious problems with the bullets, including that they were tested "in a shorter time than was ideal", that they "could be lethal" and that they "could and did cause serious injuries".[14] Israeli rubber bullets are produced in two main types. The older type, the standard rubber bullet, is a steel sphere coated in a thin layer of rubber, weighing 14 grams, while the new improved rubber bullet, introduced in 1989, is a rubber-coated metal cylinder 1.7 cm in diameter, weighing 15.4 grams.[15] Of the lethal injuries from this projectile, most are suffered to the head.[15]

Two rounds of Fiocchi 12 gauge rubber buckshot

Riot control use

Contents

  • Riot control use 1
  • Self-defence use 2
  • Recreational use 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

Rubber bullets were invented by the British Ministry of Defence for use against rioters in Northern Ireland during The Troubles.[8] They were first used in 1970 in Northern Ireland.[9]

[7]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.