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Republics in the Commonwealth of Nations

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Title: Republics in the Commonwealth of Nations  
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Republics in the Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth republics, shown in pink

A republic in the Commonwealth of Nations is any one of the 32 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations with a republican form of government. Though, with the exception of the former Portuguese possession of Mozambique and the former Belgian trust territory of Rwanda, they are all former British possessions, in contrast to the 16 Commonwealth realms they do not have Elizabeth II or another monarch as their Head of state. Elizabeth II is still the titular Head of the Commonwealth in a personal capacity, but this role does not carry with it any power, but acts as a symbol of the free association of Commonwealth members.[1]

Twenty-nine of the republics are former British (or partly British) self-governing colonies, that have evolved into republics by various means. In most cases, the countries achieved independence as Commonwealth realms, and later became republics within the Commonwealth. In some instances, the countries became republics after achieving independence from other former British colonies (as Bangladesh did from Pakistan in 1971).

History

Republics have been allowed as members of the Commonwealth since 1949, following the London Declaration made on 28 April of that year. 10 days before the declaration was made, the Republic of Ireland had been declared, ensuring Ireland's self-exclusion from the Commonwealth as republics were not allowed in the Commonwealth at that time. Ireland did not re-apply for membership of the Commonwealth, despite being eligible to do so under the London Declaration.

The declaration was made by India to allow it to continue its membership of the Commonwealth despite its decision to soon become a republic; at the behest of Pakistan, set a precedent that all other countries were free to follow, as long as they each recognised the position of Head of the Commonwealth. A compromise between the Indian government and those, such as Jan Smuts,[2] that wished not to allow republics membership, the Declaration read:

The Government of India have ... declared and affirmed India's desire to continue her full membership of the Commonwealth of Nations and her acceptance of the King as the symbol of the free association of its independent member nations and as such the Head of the Commonwealth.[1]

Following their independence from the United Kingdom, most Commonwealth countries retained Elizabeth II as head of state, the Monarch adopting a title to indicate sovereignty of their own respective nations (such as "Queen of Barbados", rather than "Queen of the United Kingdom"). With time, many Commonwealth realms moved to become republics, passing constitutional amendments or holding referendums to remove the monarch as their head of state, and replacing the Governor-General with an elected or appointed president. This was especially true in post-colonial Africa. Most African realms became republics within a few years of independence, and usually followed the Presidential system. Some states became Parliamentary republics, such as Malta or Fiji.

In Fiji, the change to a republic in 1987 came as a result of a military coup, rather than out of any republican sentiment. Even when Fiji was not a member of the Commonwealth, symbols of the monarchy remained, including the Queen's portrait on banknotes and coins, and, unlike in the United Kingdom, the Queen's Official Birthday is a public holiday. When Fiji was readmitted to the Commonwealth, the issue of reinstating the Queen as Head of State was raised, but not pursued, although the country's Great Council of Chiefs reaffirmed that the Queen was still the country's 'Paramount Chief'.

Some republics within the Commonwealth became republics on gaining independence from the United Kingdom; again, this was particularly true in Africa.

While the move to both independence and republican status has broken the remaining constitutional links to the United Kingdom, a number of Commonwealth countries have retained a right of appeal directly to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council; for example, Dominica, Mauritius, and (if the case involves constitutional rights) Kiribati. In contrast with Commonwealth realms and British overseas territories, however, such appeals are made directly to the Judicial Committee, rather than formally being made to "Her Majesty in Council".

Commonwealth membership

Within the Commonwealth, there is no differentiation in status between republics, Commonwealth realms or the members with their own monarchs (Brunei, Lesotho, Malaysia, Swaziland, and Tonga).

Membership of the Commonwealth is by common assent of the existing members, and this principle applies equally to territories gaining independence or to outside territories requesting membership. Until 2007, Commonwealth members that changed their internal constitutional structure to that of a republic had to re-apply for membership also.[3] Widespread objection to the racial policies in South Africa resulted in that country deciding not to pursue a re-application for Commonwealth membership when it became a republic in 1961. South Africa was subsequently readmitted as a member of the Commonwealth after democratic elections in 1994. Fiji and the Maldives also did not apply for continued membership after becoming republics (Fiji was likely to be suspended in any case, since a coup had overthrown the democratically elected government), and thus their membership lapsed too.

Current republics in the Commonwealth

In some former Commonwealth realms, including Malta, Trinidad and Tobago, and Mauritius, the new office of President was a ceremonial post, usually held by the last Governor-General, each respective country being a Parliamentary republic. In others, such as Ghana, Malawi and Gambia, the Presidency was an executive post, usually first held by the last Prime Minister, with each respective country being a Presidential republic. In the latter cases not only was the monarchy abolished, but so was the entire Westminster system of parliamentary government as well.

List of Commonwealth republics

Former Commonwealth realms

Republics on independence

Member state Year of independence Republic created through Type of president First president
1  Cyprus 19601 New constitution Executive New appointment
2  Cameroon 19612 New constitution Executive New appointment
3 19623 New constitution Ceremonial New appointment
4 19624 New constitution Executive New appointment
5 1964 New constitution Executive Incumbent Prime Minister
6 19655 Referendum (90% for republic) Executive New appointment
7 19656 New constitution Ceremonial Incumbent Governor (as a state of Malaysia)
8 1966 New constitution Executive Incumbent Prime Minister
9 19687 New constitution Executive New appointment
10 19718 New constitution Ceremonial New appointment
11 19759 New constitution Executive New appointment
12 1976 New constitution Executive New appointment
13 1978 New constitution Ceremonial Incumbent Governor (interim)
14 1979 New constitution Executive Incumbent Chief Minister
15 1980 New constitution Ceremonial New appointment
16 199010 New constitution Executive New appointment

1. Cyprus became a member of the Commonwealth in 1961.
2. Cameroon became a member of the Commonwealth in 1995.
3. Samoa became a member of the Commonwealth in 1970, but its heads of state were originally two traditional chiefs, but was de jure a republic; after the death of the last traditional chief, the new head of state was chosen for a five-year term by Samoa's parliament.
4. Rwanda's independence as a republic was attained from Belgium in 1962. It became a member of the Commonwealth in 2009.
5. The Maldives became a republic in 1968 (prior to which it had been an independent sultanate), but had never been a member of the Commonwealth; the Maldives joined in 1982.
6. Singapore was formerly part of Malaysia.
7. Nauru became an independent republic in 1968, but did not become a full member of the Commonwealth until 2000.
8. Bangladesh was formerly East Pakistan (1955–1971), previously a part of India as East Bengal, upon independence it became part of Pakistan as part of the Partition Plan in 1947.
9. Mozambique's independence as a republic was attained from Portugal in 1975. It became a member of the Commonwealth in 1995.
10. Namibia was formerly a League of Nations Mandated Territory administered by South Africa and continued to be de facto administrated by South Africa until independence.

Other republics in the Commonwealth

Member state Year of independence Became a republic Government type
1 19701 1987 Parliamentary republic
2 19571 1960 Presidential republic
3 19661 1970 Semi-presidential republic
4 19471 1950 Parliamentary republic
5 19631 1964 Presidential republic
6 19641 1966 Presidential republic
7 19641 1974 Parliamentary republic
8 19681 1992 Parliamentary republic
9 19601 1963 Presidential republic
10 19471 1956 Parliamentary republic
11 19611 1971 Presidential republic
12 19311 1961 Parliamentary republic
13 19481 1972 Semi-presidential republic
14 19621 1976 Parliamentary republic
15 19621 1963 Semi-presidential republic

1. Gained independence as a Commonwealth realm before becoming a republic at a later date.

Republics formerly in the Commonwealth

Currently, the only former Commonwealth republics are:

  • is a republic and a former member of the Commonwealth; however, it does not fit neatly into a category as such. In 1922, as the Irish Free State it became a Dominion in the British Commonwealth. In 1937, the present-day Irish state, Ireland was established. Its constitution established it as a de facto republic with little reference to a monarchy but equally no reference to a republic either. The Commonwealth chose at the time to continue to regard it as a member. In 1949 Ireland proclaimed that it was a republic but no new Irish state was established. It was deemed by the Commonwealth to have ceased to be part of the Commonwealth. The same state established in 1937 continued in being. Hence Ireland did become a republic since independence and was a member of the Commonwealth but was never a Commonwealth republic.
  • , republic since 1980, left the Commonwealth in 2003.
  • was a Commonwealth realm from 1965 until 1970, when it became a republic within the Commonwealth. The Gambia was withdrawn from the Commonwealth in October 2013 by Yahya Jammeh the Gambian president.

Potential republican candidates for the Commonwealth

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b
  2. ^
  3. ^
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