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Qalqiliyah

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Qalqiliyah

Qalqilya (Arabic: قلقيليةQalqīlyaḧ; Hebrew קַלְקִילִיָה) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank. Qalqilyah serves as the administrative centre for the Qalqilya Governorate. In the official 2007 census it had a population of 41,739.[1] Qalqilya is surrounded by the Israeli West Bank barrier with a narrow gap in the east controlled by the Israeli military and a tunnel to Hableh.[2][3]

History

The region has been populated since prehistoric times, as attested to by the discovery of prehistoric flint tools.

In 1596, Qalqili appeared in Ottoman tax registers as a village in the Nahiya of Bani Sa'b in the Liwa of Nablus. It had a population of 13 Muslim households and paid taxes on wheat, barley, summercrops, olives, and goats or beehives.[4]

In 1882, Qalqilya was described as "A large somewhat straggling village, with cisterns to the north and a pool on the south-west. The houses are badly built."[5]

Qalqilya became an independent local council in 1909.

In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Qalqileh had a population of 2803, 9 Christians and 2,794 Muslims.[6]

At the time of the 1931 census, Qalqilya had 796 occupied houses and a population of 3855 Muslims and 12 Christians.[7]

In 1945, Qalqilya was recognized as a municipal council.

Arab-Israeli conflict

In 1948, refugees from the Arab villages of Kafr Saba and Abu Kishek settled in Qalqilya and received assistance from UNRWA. In the 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and Jordan, the town was included in the Jordanian-occupied area.

On the night of 10 October 1956 the Israeli army launched a raid against Qalqilya police station. The attack was ordered by Moshe Dayan and involved several thousand soldiers. During the fighting a paratroop company was surrounded by Jordanian troops and the survivors only escaped under close air-cover from four Israeli Air Force aircraft. The Israelis suffered 18 killed and 68 wounded; between seventy and ninety Jordanians were killed.[8]

After the conquest of Qalqilya in the Six Day War, the inhabitants were evicted and many buildings were razed. In his memoirs, Moshe Dayan described the destruction as a "punishment" that was designed to chase the inhabitants away. The villagers were eventually allowed to return and the reconstruction of damaged houses was financed by the military authorities.[9] In September 1967, a census found 8,922 persons, of whom 1,837 were originally from Israeli territory.[10]


In 2003, the Israeli West Bank barrier was built, encircling the town and separating it from agricultural lands on the other side of the wall.[11]

Local government

After the Oslo Accords, administration of Qalqilya was transferred to the Palestinian Authority. Hamas won the 2006 elections in the Qalqilya Governorate and Mayor Wajih Qawas was replaced by a member of Hamas. Qawas sees himself as a victim of a feud between the Islamist movement and Fatah.[12] Human rights groups have criticized both the PA and Hamas for their detentions without trial, dismissals of officials and closure of institutions and charitiesin, October 2012 after the seconed local government elections Othman Dawoud became the New Mayor.[12]

Economy

Between 1967-1995 almost 80 percent of Qalqilya's labor force worked for Israeli companies or industries in the construction and agriculture sectors. The other 20% engaged in trade and commerce, marketing across the Green Line. Many of the inhabitants are farmers.

Qalqilya Zoo, established in 1986, is the largest zoo in the West Bank and the city's major employer. It houses 170 animals and works closely with zoologists from the Jerusalem Biblical Zoo and the Ramat Gan Safari.[13]

Notable residents

References

Bibliography

  • (p. 176)
  • p. 76

External links

  • Welcome To The City of Qalqiliya
  • UNRWA Profile: Qalqilya Town Update 2004 (archived)
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