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Python (genus)

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Python (genus)

Python
Burmese python, Python bivittatus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Pythonidae
Genus: Python
Daudin, 1803
Synonyms

Python, from the Greek word (πύθων/πύθωνας), is a genus of nonvenomous pythons[2] found in Africa and Asia. Currently, 12 species are recognised.[2] A member of this genus, P. reticulatus, is among the longest snake species and extant reptiles in the world.

Contents

  • Geographic range 1
  • Species 2
  • Uses 3
    • As Pets 3.1
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Geographic range

Python anchietae

In Africa, members of the genus are found in the tropics south of the Sahara, but not in the extreme south-western tip of southern Africa (Western Cape) or in Madagascar. In Asia, they are found from Bangladesh, Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, including the Nicobar Islands, through Myanmar, east to Indochina, southern China, Hong Kong and Hainan, as well as in the Malayan region of Indonesia and the Philippines.[1]

Some suggest that P. molurus and P. sebae have the potential to be problematic invasive species in South Florida.[3] The United States Department of Agriculture reports that only Python molurus bivittatus is an invasive species in the United States.[4] More recent data suggest that these pythons would not withstand winter climates north of Florida, contradicting previous research suggesting a more significant geographic potential range.[5][6]

Species

Species[2][7] IUCN Status[8] Taxon author[2] Subsp.*[2] Common name Geographic range[1]
P. anchietae

LC (Bocage, 1887) 0 Angolan python Africa in southern Angola and northern Namibia.
P. bivittatus

VU (Kuhl, 1820) 0 Burmese python S Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, S China (S Yunnan east to Fujian, incl. Hainan and Hong Kong; Sichuan, Guangxi, Guangdong), Indonesia (Java, Bali)
P. breitensteini

LC (Steindachner, 1881) 0 Bornean python / Bornean short-tailed python Borneo, including Sarawak
P. brongersmai

LC (Stull, 1938) 0 Brongersma's short-tailed python / Blood python Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Bangka Island, Lingga islands, Riau islands, and Pinang
P. curtus

NE (Schlegel, 1872) 0 Sumatran short-tailed python / Sumatran blood python Southeast Asia in southern Thailand, Malaysia (Peninsular and Sarawak) (including Pinang) and Indonesia (Sumatra, Riau Archipelago, Lingga Islands, Bangka Islands, Mentawai Islands and Kalimantan).
P. kyaiktiyo [9]

VU (Zug, Gotte & Jacobs, 2011) 0 Myanmar short-tailed python West of the Tenghyo Range, Myanmar[10]
P. molurusT

LR/nt (Linnaeus, 1758) 0 Indian python / Black tailed Python Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, southern Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar.
P. regius

LC (Shaw, 1802) 0 Ball python / Royal python Africa from Senegal, Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Benin, Niger and Nigeria through Cameroon, Chad and the Central African Republic to Sudan and Uganda.
P. reticulatus

NE (Schneider, 1801) 0 Reticulated python Southeast Asia from the Nicobar Islands, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, east through Indonesia and the Indo-Australian Archipelago (Sumatra, Mentawai Islands, Natuna Islands, Borneo, Sulawesi, Java, Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores, Timor, Maluku, Tanimbar Islands) and the Philippines (Basilan, Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Palawan, Panay, Polillo, Samar, Tawi-Tawi).
P. sebae natalensis

NE (Smith, 1840 ) 0 Southern African rock python Southern Africa such as Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Mozambique, Swaziland, Lesotho, and South Africa.
P. sebae sebae

NE (Gmelin, 1788) 0 Northern African rock python Africa south of the Sahara from Senegal east to Ethiopia and Somalia, including Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta, Ghana, Togo, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania.
P. timoriensis

NE (Peters, 1876) 0 Timor python Indonesia on the Lesser Sunda Islands (Flores, Lombien and Timor Islands).
P. europaeus EX (Szyndlar & Rage, 2003) 0 - Extinct species from the Miocene era. Species knowledge established based on a holotype of a single vertebra found in present-day France.[11]

*) Not including the nominate subspecies.
T) Type species.[1]

Uses

Ball pythons commonly exhibit mutations, such as this "Spider" morph, and are popular among snake keepers.

Python skin is used to make clothing such as vests, belts, boots, shoes or fashion accessories such as handbags. It may also be stretched and formed as the sound board of some string musical instruments, such as the erhu spike-fiddle, sanxian and the sanshin lutes.[12][13]

As Pets

Many species of pythons, such as P. regius, P. brongersmai, P. bivittatus and P. reticulatus are popular to keep as pets due to their ease of care, docile temperament, and vibrant colors, with some rare mutations having been sold for several thousands of dollars. Despite controversy that has arisen from media reports, with proper safety procedures pet pythons are relatively safe to own,[14] and deaths associated with them are isolated compared to other domestic animals such as dogs and horses.[13][15]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  2. ^ a b c d e "Python".  
  3. ^ Python Snakes, An Invasive Species In Florida, Could Spread To One Third Of US at ScienceDaily. Accessed 18 October 2008.
  4. ^ Invasive Species: Animals. Invasivespeciesinfo.gov. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
  5. ^ Avery, M. L., Engeman, R. M., Keacher, K. L., Humphrey, J. S., Bruce, W. E., Mathies, T. C., & Mauldin, R. E. (2010). Cold weather and the potential range of invasive Burmese pythons. Biological invasions, 12(11), 3649-3652.http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/animals/main.shtml
  6. ^ Python Snakes, An Invasive Species In Florida, Could Spread To One Third Of US
  7. ^ http://www.catalogueoflife.org/col/browse/classification/kingdom/Animalia/phylum/Chordata/class/Reptilia/order/Squamata/family/Pythonidae/genus/Python/match/1
  8. ^ http://www.iucnredlist.org
  9. ^ http://novataxa.blogspot.com/2012/01/2011-python-kyaiktiyo-myanmar.html
  10. ^ http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/199854/0
  11. ^ "Annotated checklist of the recent and extinct pythons". 
  12. ^ http://erhuworld.com/
  13. ^ a b http://www.asovivasanshin.com/introduction.html
  14. ^ http://www.anapsid.org/handling.html
  15. ^ http://www.anapsid.org/pdv-boid.html

External links

  • Python at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 11 September 2007.
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