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Pseudomonas fluorescens

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Title: Pseudomonas fluorescens  
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Pseudomonas fluorescens

Pseudomonas fluorescens
Pseudomonas fluorescens under white light.
The same plate under UV light.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: Pseudomonadales
Family: Pseudomonadaceae
Genus: Pseudomonas
Species: P. fluorescens
Binomial name
Pseudomonas fluorescens
(Flügge 1886)
Migula, 1895
Type strain
ATCC 13525

CCUG 1253
CCEB 546
CFBP 2102
CIP 69.13
DSM 50090
JCM 5963
LMG 1794
NBRC 14160
NCCB 76040
NCIMB 9046
NCTC 10038
NRRL B-14678
VKM B-894

Synonyms

Bacillus fluorescens liquefaciens Flügge 1886
Bacillus fluorescens Trevisan 1889
Bacterium fluorescens (Trevisan 1889) Lehmann and Neumann 1896
Liquidomonas fluorescens (Trevisan 1889) Orla-Jensen 1909
Pseudomonas lemonnieri (Lasseur) Breed 1948
Pseudomonas schuylkilliensis Chester 1952
Pseudomonas washingtoniae (Pine) Elliott

Pseudomonas fluorescens is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium.[1] It belongs to the Pseudomonas genus; 16S rRNA analysis has placed P. fluorescens in the P. fluorescens group within the genus,[2] to which it lends its name.

Contents

  • General characteristics 1
    • The name 1.1
    • Genome sequencing projects 1.2
  • Biocontrol properties 2
  • Medical Properties 3
  • Disease 4
  • Metabolism 5
    • Biodegradation capacities 5.1
  • Further Reading 6
  • References 7
  • Further Reading 8
  • External links 9

General characteristics

P. fluorescens has multiple flagella. It has an extremely versatile metabolism, and can be found in the soil and in water. It is an obligate aerobe, but certain strains are capable of using nitrate instead of oxygen as a final electron acceptor during cellular respiration.

Optimal temperatures for growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens are 25-30 degrees Celsius. It tests positive for the oxidase test. Pseudomonas fluorescens is also a nonsaccharolytic bacteria.

Heat-stable lipases and proteases are produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens and other similar pseudomonads.[3] These enzymes cause milk to spoil, by causing bitterness, casein breakdown, and ropiness due to production of slime and coagulation of proteins.[4][5]

The name

The word Pseudomonas means 'false unit', being derived from the Greek words pseudo (germs. The name 'fluorescens' refers to the microbe's secretion of a soluble fluorescent pigment called pyoverdin, which is a type of siderophore.[6]

Genome sequencing projects

The genomes of P. fluorescens strains SBW25,[7] Pf-5[8] and PfO-1[9] have been sequenced.

Biocontrol properties

Some P. fluorescens strains (CHA0 or Pf-5, for example) present biocontrol properties, protecting the roots of some plant species against parasitic fungi such as Fusarium or Pythium, as well as some phytophagous nematodes.[10]

It is not clear exactly how the plant-growth promoting properties of P. fluorescens are achieved; theories include:

  • the bacteria might induce systemic resistance in the host plant, so it can better resist attack by a true pathogen
  • the bacteria might outcompete other (pathogenic) soil microbes, e.g., by siderophores, giving a competitive advantage at scavenging for iron
  • the bacteria might produce compounds antagonistic to other soil microbes, such as phenazine-type antibiotics or hydrogen cyanide

To be specific, certain P. fluorescens isolates produce the secondary metabolite Appanna, Varun P.; Auger, Christopher; Thomas, Sean C.; Omri, Abdelwahab (13 June 2014). "Fumarate metabolism and ATP production in Pseudomonas fluorescens exposed to nitrosative stress". Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 106 (3): 431–438.  

References

  1. ^ Palleroni, N.J. (1984) Pseudomonadaceae. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Krieg, N. R. and Holt J. G. (editors) Baltimore: The Williams and Wilkins Co., pg. 141 - 199
  2. ^ Anzai; Kim, H; Park, JY; Wakabayashi, H; Oyaizu, H; et al. (Jul 2000). "Phylogenetic affiliation of the pseudomonads based on 16S rRNA sequence". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50 (4): 1563–89.  
  3. ^ Frank, J.F. 1997. Milk and dairy products. In Food Microbiology, Fundamentals and Frontiers, ed. M.P. Doyle, L.R. Beuchat, T.J. Montville, ASM Press, Washington, p. 101.
  4. ^ Jay, J.M. 2000. Taxonomy, role, and significance of microorganisms in food. In Modern Food Microbiology, Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg MD, p. 13.
  5. ^ Ray, B. 1996. Spoilage of Specific food groups. In Fundamental Food Microbiology, CRC Press, Boca Raton FL, p. 220. I
  6. ^ C D Cox and P Adams (1985) Infection and Immunity 48(1): 130–138
  7. ^ Pseudomonas fluorescens
  8. ^ Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 Genome Page
  9. ^ Pseudomonas fluorescens PfO-1 Genome Page
  10. ^ Haas, D. and Keel, C. (2003) Regulation of antibiotic production in root-colonizing Pseudomonas spp. and relevance for biological control of plant disease. Annual Reviews of Phytopathology 41, 117-153 doi:10.1146/annurev.phyto.41.052002.095656 PMID 12730389
  11. ^ Bangera M. G., Thomashow L. S. (1999). "Identification and characterization of a gene cluster for synthesis of the polyketide antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol from pseudomonas fluorescens q2-87". Journal of Bacteriology 181: 3155–3163. 
  12. ^ Bangera M. G., Thomashow L. S. (1999). "Identification and characterization of a gene cluster for synthesis of the polyketide antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol from pseudomonas fluorescens q2-87". Journal of Bacteriology 181: 3155–3163. 
  13. ^ Moynihan J. A., Morrissey J. P., Coppoolse E. R., Stiekema W. J., O'Gara F., Boyd E. F. (2009). "Evolutionary history of the phl gene cluster in the plant-associated bacterium pseudomonas fluorescens". Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 2122–2131.  
  14. ^ Haas D, Defago G. (2005) Biological control of soil-borne pathogens by fluorescent pseudomonads. Nature Reviews in Microbiology 3(4):307-19 doi:10.1038/nrmicro1129 PMID 15759041
  15. ^ Alain Sarniguet; et al. (1995). "The sigma factor σs affects antibiotic production and biological control activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92: 12255–12259.  
  16. ^ Molloy, D. P., Mayer, D. A., Gaylo, M. J., Morse, J. T., Presti, K. T., Sawyko, P. M., Karatayev, A. Y., Burlakova, L. E., Laruelle, F., Nishikawa, K. C., Griffin, B. H. 2013. Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A – A biopesticide for the control of zebra and quagga mussels (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae). J. Invertebr. Pathol. 113(1):104-114.
  17. ^ Molloy, D. P., Mayer, D. A., Giamberini, L., and Gaylo, M. J. 2013. Mode of action of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A, a lethal control agent of dreissenid mussels (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae). J. Invertebr. Pathol. 113(1):115-121.
  18. ^ Molloy, D. P., Mayer, D. A., Gaylo, M. J., Burlakova, L. E., Karatayev, A. Y., Presti, K. T., Sawyko, P. M., Morse, J. T., Paul, E. A. 2013. Non-target trials with Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A, a lethal control agent of dreissenid mussels (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae). Manag. Biol. Invasions 4(1):71-79.
  19. ^ Bactroban
  20. ^ Gibb AP, Martin KM, Davidson GA, Walker B, Murphy WG (1995). in donated blood"Pseudomonas fluorescens"Rate of growth of . Journal of Clinical Patholology 48 (8): 717–8.  
  21. ^ [2]
  22. ^ Gershman MD, Kennedy DJ, Noble-Wang J, et al. (2008). "Multistate outbreak of Pseudomonas fluorescens bloodstream infection after exposure to contaminated heparinized saline flush prepared by a compounding pharmacy". Clin Infect Dis 47 (11): 1372–1379.  
  23. ^ Biosynthesis of Phloroglucinol. Jihane Achkar, Mo Xian, Huimin Zhao and J. W. Frost, J. AM. CHEM. SOC., 2005, volume 127, pages 5332-5333, doi:10.1021/ja042340g

Further Reading

Cabrefiga, J.; Frances, J.; Montesinos, E.; Bonaterra, A. (1 October 2014). "Improvement of a dry formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens EPS62e for fire blight disease biocontrol by combination of culture osmoadaptation with a freeze-drying lyoprotectant". Journal of Applied Microbiology 117 (4): 1122-1131.  

External links

  • www.pseudomonas.com, the Pseudomonas genome database
  • Migula's Systematic Bacteriology (in German)
  • UV fluorescent Pseudomonas video

Further Reading

4-Hydroxyacetophenone monooxygenase is an enzyme found in P. fluorescens that transform piceol, NADPH, H+ and O2 into 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, NADP+ and H2O.

Biodegradation capacities

Pseudomonas fluorescens produces phloroglucinol, phloroglucinol carboxylic acid and diacetylphloroglucinol.[23]

Metabolism

P. fluorescens is an unusual cause of disease in humans, and usually affects patients with compromised immune systems (e.g., patients on cancer treatment). From 2004 to 2006, there was an outbreak of P. fluorescens in the United States, involving 80 patients in six states. The source of the infection was contaminated heparinized saline flushes being used with cancer patients.[22]

Disease

United States Patents: 6489358, 4873012, 6156792

It is also used in milk to make yogurt.[21]

P. fluorescens demonstrates hemolytic activity and, as a result, has been known to infect blood transfusions.[20]

By culturing Pseudomonas fluorescens, Mupirocin (an antibiotic) can be produced, which has been found to be useful in treating skin, ear, and eye disorders.[19] Mupirocin free acid and its salts and esters are agents currently used in creams, ointments, and sprays as a treatment of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection.

Medical Properties

The strain referred to as Pf-CL145A has proved itself a promising solution for the control of invasive zebra mussels and quagga mussels (Dreissena). This bacterial strain is an environmental isolate capable of killing >90% of these mussels by intoxication (i.e., not infection), as a result of natural product(s) associated with their cell walls, and with dead Pf-145A cells killing the mussels equally as well as live cells.[16] Following ingestion of the bacterial cells mussel death occurs following lysis and necrosis of the digestive gland and sloughing of stomach epithelium.[17] Research to date indicates very high specificity to zebra and quagga mussels, with low risk of non-target impact.[18] Pf-CL145A has now been commercialized under the product name Zequanox, with dead bacterial cells as its active ingredient.

Several strains of P. fluorescens, such as Pf-5 and JL3985, have developed a natural resistance to ampicillin and streptomycin.[15] These antibiotics are regularly used in biological research as a selective pressure tool to promote plasmid expression.

There is experimental evidence to support all of these theories, in certain conditions; a good review of the topic is written by Haas and Defago.[14]

[13], many strains have lost the capacity, and it exists on different genomic regions among strains.P. fluorescens gene cluster is ancestral to phl But phylogenetic and genomic analysis has revealed that the entire [12]

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