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Protests against the Iraq War

 

Protests against the Iraq War

Protests against the Iraq War
The February 15, 2003 anti-war protest in London.
Date Beginning in 2002
Location Global
Number
Over 10 million[1]

Beginning in 2002, and continuing after the 2003 invasion of Iraq, large-scale protests against the Iraq War were held in many cities worldwide, often coordinated to occur simultaneously around the world. After the biggest series of demonstrations, on February 15, 2003, New York Times writer Patrick Tyler claimed that they showed that there were two superpowers on the planet, the United States and worldwide public opinion.[2]

These demonstrations against the war were mainly organized by state. Europe saw the biggest mobilization of protesters, including a rally of three million people in Rome, which is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest ever anti-war rally.[3]

According to the French academic Dominique Reynié, between January 3 and April 12, 2003, 36 million people across the globe took part in almost 3,000 protests against the Iraq war.[1]

In the United States, even though pro-war demonstrators have been quoted as referring to anti-war protests as a "vocal minority",[4] Gallup Polls updated September 14, 2007 state, "Since the summer of 2005, opponents of the war have tended to outnumber supporters. A majority of Americans believe the war was a mistake."[5]

Contents

  • Scope and impact in the United States 1
  • Prior to the invasion of Iraq 2
    • April 2002 2.1
    • September 2002 2.2
    • October 2002 2.3
    • November 2002 2.4
    • January 2003 2.5
    • February 2003 2.6
    • March 2003 2.7
  • Invasion to the fall of Baghdad 3
    • March 20, 2003 3.1
    • March 21, 2003 3.2
    • March 22–23, 2003 3.3
    • March 24, 2003 3.4
    • March 25, 2003 3.5
    • March 27, 2003 3.6
    • March 28, 2003 3.7
    • March 29, 2003 3.8
    • March 30, 2003 3.9
    • April 7, 2003 3.10
  • After the fall of Baghdad 4
    • April 12, 2003 4.1
    • October 25, 2003 4.2
    • June 4, 2004 4.3
    • June 5, 2004 4.4
    • August 29, 2004 4.5
    • October 2, 2004 4.6
    • October 17, 2004 4.7
    • November 30, 2004 4.8
    • December 6, 2004 4.9
    • January 20, 2005 4.10
    • March 19, 2005 4.11
    • June 21, 2005 4.12
    • August 6, 2005 to August 31, 2005 4.13
    • September 24, 2005 4.14
    • November 4–5, 2005 4.15
    • March 18–20, 2006 4.16
    • April 1, 2006 4.17
    • April 29, 2006 4.18
    • May 22–31, 2006 4.19
    • August 9, 2006 4.20
    • September 23, 2006 4.21
    • October 5, 2006 4.22
    • November 3, 2006 4.23
    • January 4, 2007 4.24
    • January 10–11, 2007 4.25
    • January 27, 2007 4.26
    • March 11, 2007 4.27
    • March 16, 2007 4.28
    • March 17, 2007 4.29
    • September 15, 2007 4.30
    • September 29, 2007 4.31
    • March 19, 2008 4.32
    • March 21, 2009 4.33
    • April 4, 2009 4.34
    • March 20, 2010 4.35
    • March 19, 2011 4.36
    • May 20, 2012 4.37
  • See also 5
    • General anti-war 5.1
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7
  • External links 8
    • Specific demonstrations 8.1

Scope and impact in the United States

A March 2003 Gallup poll conducted during the first few days of the war showed that 5% of the population had protested or made a public opposition against the war compared to 21% who attended a rally or made a public display to support the war.[6] An ABC news poll showed that 2% had attended an anti-war protest and 1% attended a pro-war rally. The protests made 20% more opposed to the war and 7% more supportive.[7] A Fox News poll showed that 63% had an unfavorable view of the protesters, just 23% had a favorable view.[7] According to Pew Research, 40% said in March 2003 that they had heard "too much" from people opposed to the war against 17% who said "too little".[8]

Some observers have noted that the protests against the Iraq war have been relatively small-scale and infrequent compared to protests against the Vietnam War. One of the most often cited factors for this is the lack of conscription.[9][10]

Prior to the invasion of Iraq

These protests are said to be the biggest global peace protests before a war actually started; the peace movement is compared with the movement caused by the Vietnam War.

April 2002

The A.N.S.W.E.R. Coalition organized the first national anti-war demonstration after September 11 on April 20, 2002 in Washington D.C.[11]

September 2002

On September 12, 2002, U.S. President United Nations General Assembly. Outside the United Nations building, over 1,000 people attended a protest organized by Voter March and No Blood for Oil.

On September 24, Tony Blair released a document describing Britain's case for war in Iraq. Three days later, an anti-war rally in London drew a crowd of at least 150,000[12] and probably around 400,000.[13]

On September 29, roughly 5,000 anti-war protesters converged on Washington, D.C. on the day after an anti-International Monetary Fund protest.[14]

October 2002

On October 2, the day President Bush signed into law Congress' joint resolution authorizing the war,[15] a small-scale protest was held in Chicago, attended by a crowd of roughly 1,000[16] who listened to speeches by Jesse Jackson and then-Illinois State Senator Barack Obama. Obama's statement, "I am not opposed to all wars. I'm opposed to dumb wars," was barely noted at the time, but became famous during the 2008 Democratic presidential primaries when the Obama camp used it to demonstrate his courage and good judgment on the war.[17]

On October 7, Bush delivered a major speech justifying the invasion of Iraq at the Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal. Outside, approximately 3000 people gathered to protest the coming war. Later, a few hundred protesters blocking the Museum Center exits were dispersed by mounted police, and six people were arrested.[18]

On October 26, protests took place in various cities across the world. Over 100,000 people took part in a protest in Washington. 50,000 people took part in a demonstration in San Francisco. Both protests were called by the ANSWER Coalition.[19]

On October 31, around 150 protests took place across the United Kingdom, including Critical Mass bike rides, occupations, and mass demonstrations in Brighton, Manchester, Glasgow and London. Protests also took place in the US.[20]

November 2002

On November 9, demonstrations were held against the war at the end of the first

  • October 26, 2002: People, signs, more signs, and more signs, Police
  • March 20, 2006 Pentagon: Photos
  • October 27, 2007 New York: Slideshow
  • May 20, 2012 Chicago: Video of veterans relinquishing medals near NATO Summit

Specific demonstrations

  • Cities jammed in worldwide protest of war in Iraq CNN article. February 2003.
  • Thousands protest Iraq war on 3rd anniversary MSNBC article. March 2006.

External links

  • Stop the War: the story of Britain's biggest mass movement, Andrew Murray and Lindsey German, ISBN 1-905192-00-2
  • Augustinian Just War Theory and the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq: Confessions, Contentions and the Lust for Power edited by Craig J. N. de Paulo, Patrick A. Messina et al. (New York: Peter Lang, 2011.)

Further reading

  1. ^ a b
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b Dueling Demonstrations As Thousands March to Capitol to Protest Iraq Conflict, 189 Arrested; War Supporters Take on 'Vocal Minority' Michelle Boorstein, V. Dion Haynes and Allison Klein, The Washington Post, Sunday, September 16, 2007; Page A08. Retrieved September 16, 2007.
  5. ^ Gallup's Pulse of Democracy: The War in Iraq at the Wayback Machine (archived July 8, 2007), The Gallup Poll. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
  6. ^ Public Opinion and the war in Iraq P. 177
  7. ^ a b Public Opinion and the war in Iraq P. 178
  8. ^ Public Opinion and the war in Iraq P. 179
  9. ^ Op-ed
  10. ^
  11. ^ https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2002/04/demo-a20.html
  12. ^ "More than 150,000 march through London against Iraq invasion" (Audrey Woods, AP/Yahoo! News, 2002/09/28)
  13. ^
  14. ^ Indymedia DC at the Wayback Machine (archived November 17, 2002)
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  49. ^ footage from the Manchester demonstration.
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  63. ^ Graham Rayman, Lindsay Faber, Daryl Khan and Karen Freifeld, "Massive protest mostly peaceful," Chicago Tribune, August 30, 2004.
  64. ^ "500,000 March Against Bush in Largest Convention Protest Ever", Democracy Now!, August 30, 2004.
  65. ^ "NYPD Debates Civil Liberties Attorney Over Police Spying of Protesters". Democracy Now!. March 26, 2007.
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  87. ^ 6 arrested in antiwar protest, Boston Globe, January 14, 2007.
  88. ^ TrueMajority ("600 posted events"). MoveOn.org
  89. ^ Emergency Rallies to Stop Iraq Escalation ("close to 500")
  90. ^ [1] Archived February 14, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  91. ^
  92. ^
  93. ^ a b c
  94. ^
  95. ^
  96. ^ a b
  97. ^ a b Three days until the Sept. 15 March to Stop the War! pephost.org. Retrieved September 16, 2007.
  98. ^ More than 190 arrested at D.C. protestģ.
  99. ^ More than 190 arrested at D.C. protest, Mattew Barakat, Associated Press Writer, Yahoo News, September 16, 2007. Retrieved September 16, 2007.
  100. ^ Protesters march on Iraq anniversary. Retrieved March 20, 2008. Archived March 24, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  101. ^
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References

General anti-war

See also

At the intersection of Cermak and Michigan, Iraq Veterans Against the War convened a rally. For the second time in United States history, soldiers and marines relinquished their military medals.[106] The first time this occurred was in 1971.[107]

Veterans for Peace, Occupy Chicago and a slew of coalition partners convened the No-NATO protests in Chicago. About 8,000 marchers took Michigan Avenue the full length to Cermak, within several blocks of the NATO Summit at the Hyatt Regency.

May 20, 2012

Over 100 protesters were arrested outside the White House.[104] More protesters gathered in Hollywood.[105]

March 19, 2011

On March 20, 2010, a multi-city anti-war event was held in the United States to protest the U.S. wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. The event was organized by Hollywood Boulevard at 2 p.m. dressed as zombies and other undead.[103]

March 20, 2010

United for Peace and Justice held a march on Wall Street on April 4, 2009 against military spending in Iraq.

April 4, 2009

Thousands of protesters marched from the Mall in Washington D.C. to the grounds of the Pentagon, and then to the Crystal City district of Arlington, Virginia. This area of Arlington is the home to offices of several defense contractors, such as KBR and General Dynamics. Protesters carried mock coffins representing the victims of U.S. conflicts and placed them in front of the office buildings. Virginia State police and Arlington County police greeted the protesters and reported no arrests.

March 21, 2009

Several hundred anti-war protesters marched through Washington, D.C. on the fifth anniversary of the U.S.-led Dick Cheney and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice as war criminals. Others hurled balloons full of paint at a military recruiting station and smeared it on buildings housing defense contractors Bechtel and Lockheed Martin.[100]

March 19, 2008

Troops Out Now Coalition organized a rally and march starting from the encampment in front of the Capitol Building. TroopsOutNow.org estimated 5,000 marched. A group of protesters, mainly youth, blocked sections of Constitution and Pennsylvania Avenue, including portions not on the march route. As of 8:40 PM, September 29, the demonstrators had set up tents and had not moved, after occupying the street for over 4 hours.

September 29, 2007

Organizers estimated that nearly 100,000 people attended the rally and march. That number could not be confirmed; police did not give their own estimate. Associated press reported "several thousand." A permit for the march obtained in advance by the ANSWER Coalition had projected 10,000.[99]

A march took place from the White House to the Capitol on September 15, 2007. It was organized by Veterans for Peace and the Answer Coalition. Volunteers were recruited for a civil disobedience action, which included a die-in. Volunteers signed up to take on the name of a soldier or civilian who died because of the war, and lay down around the Peace Monument.[97] In attendance were politicians such as Ralph Nader.[97] Police arrested more than 190 demonstrators who crossed police lines in front of the Capitol.[98] Chemical spray was used by Capitol Police.[4]

Protesters march down Pennsylvania Avenue toward the Capitol.

September 15, 2007

October 2007, protest against the Iraq War in Seattle, Occidental Park sign on a giant puppet says "Why is the U.S. gov't so afraid of the International Criminal Court"

Approximately 10 000 to 20 000 anti-war protesters marched to The Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia,[93] with several thousand pro-war protesters lining the route.[94] Other protests and counter-demonstrations in the USA were held in Austin, Texas, Seattle, Washington, Chicago, Illinois,[95] Los Angeles, California (5 000 to 6 000),[96] San Francisco, California, San Diego, California, and Hartford, Connecticut.[93] Tens of thousands marched in Madrid, Spain, with smaller protests in Turkey, Greece,[93] Australia, Belgium, Britain, and Canada.[96]

August 2007 anti-war graffiti in Venice, Italy.

March 17, 2007

Roughly 100 protesters were arrested in front of the White House following a service at Washington National Cathedral in commemoration of the fourth anniversary of the Iraq War and a march to the White House.[92]

March 16, 2007

In Tacoma, Washington peace activists campaigned to prevent the military from shipping 300 Stryker armored vehicles to Iraq. 23 protesters were arrested including T.J. Johnson who serves in the City Council of Olympia.[91] The arrests came shortly after a small convoy of 12 to 15 Army vehicles arrived at a storage yard at the port. More vehicles, including Stryker armored fighting vehicles, arrived late Monday and early Tuesday, as protesters shouted the chants "You don't have to go" and "We are the majority."

March 11, 2007

The January 27, 2007 Iraq War protest drew anywhere from "tens of thousands" to "hundreds of thousands" Washington DC to protest.[90]

January 27, 2007

[89][88] Organizers from [87] Numerous groups organized demonstrations in response to a January 10 speech by George W. Bush, announcing an increase of U.S troop levels in Iraq by 21,500. A small number of protests occurred in the wake of the Wednesday night speech, including one in Boston which resulted in 6 arrests for blocking traffic.

January 10–11, 2007

The court martial of military resister Lt. Ehren Watada has been marked by protests. On January 4, 2007, Iraq Veterans Against the War Deployed established a protest camp called "Camp Resistance" at Fort Lewis in support of Watada. The same day, some 200 people protested his prosecution in San Francisco, with twenty-eight arrested after engaging in civil disobedience.[86]

January 4, 2007

Malachi Ritscher committed suicide by self-immolation on the side of the Kennedy Expressway near downtown Chicago during the morning rush hour of Friday, November 3, 2006, apparently as a protest against the Iraq war and more generally "for the mayhem and turmoil caused by my country".

November 3, 2006

Actions across the United States took place in nearly every state. An organization called World Can't Wait organized the nationwide event. Demonstrations took place in vicinities such as New York City, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago, Houston, and other places. Over 200 protests were organized.

October 5, 2006

A national anti-war demonstration took place in Manchester, England coinciding with the Labour Party Annual Conference which also took place in the city on this date. The organisers, the Stop the War Coalition, estimated 50,000 people on the march. Police estimates were initially 8,000 revised upwards to 20,000. The local Stop the War organisers considered that it was the largest demonstration in the history of the city since Chartist times in the mid-19th Century. The event was followed by a Stop the War Alternative conference (alternative, that is, to the stage-managed Labour Conference).

September 23, 2006

Nine members of the Derry Anti-War Coalition, based in Northern Ireland, entered the Derry premises of Raytheon. The occupation of the plant lasted for eight hours, after which point riot police entered the building and removed the occupants. Charges of aggravated burglary and unlawful entry were brought against all nine.[85]

August 9, 2006

Members of the Port Militarization Resistance in Olympia, WA protested the shipment of 300 Army Stryker vehicles to Iraq through the Port of Olympia. Dozens of arrests[84] resulted from the direct actions of protesters such as locking arms to block roads which the Army used to reach the port.

May 22–31, 2006

A coalition of United States-based groups, initiated by Friends of the Earth, U.S. Labor Against the War, Climate Crisis Coalition, People's Hurricane Relief Fund, National Youth and Student Peace Coalition, and Veterans for Peace held a national mobilization against the war in New York City on April 29.[83]

April 29, 2006

Thousands from around the south marched in April 1st Coalition and speakers included Dr. Joseph Lowery, Rev. Tim McDonald, and Damu Smith.

April 1, 2006

Turn-out for the United States events was damaged by splits between organizing groups such as UFPJ and ANSWER.[81][82]

In Washington, D.C., 200 people marched to The Pentagon to deliver a faux coffin and bag of ashes to United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld. Two dozen people were arrested for crossing over a barrier around the Pentagon in an act of civil disobedience. They were cited for "failure to obey lawful orders," according to Cheryl Irwin, a Pentagon spokeswoman.[79] Footage from the protest was incorporated into this scene from the movie The Identified.[80]

More than 500 antiwar events were planned for the week of March 15–21 in the United States; thousands or tens of thousands demonstrated in San Francisco, New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago. [78] Coordinated protests were held to mark the third anniversary of the invasion of Iraq. Major protests occurred in Baghdad,

Demonstrators in London
Protestors in Portland, Oregon on March 19, 2006

March 18–20, 2006

Massive popular demonstrations against the U.S.-led war in Iraq, in addition to U.S.-backed economic policies in Latin America, were held in Argentina surrounding the November 4–5 Fourth Summit of the Americas.

November 4–5, 2005

Protests were held in the USA and Europe. Police estimated that about 150,000 people took part in Washington, D.C., 15,000 in Los Angeles, California, 10,000 in London, 20,000 in San Francisco,[76] and more than 2,000 in San Diego, California. Additionally, in London, organizers claim 100,000 attended similar protests, but police place the figure at 10,000.[77]

Women dressed in red, white, and blue outfits with missiles strapped around their hips do cheers in the street during the September 24 protest in Washington DC.

September 24, 2005

Crawford, Texas. Sheehan, who previously met with Bush in a short encounter before the media that she described as dismissive and disrespectful, demanded that Bush meet with her and stop using the deaths of soldiers, including her son, as a justification for remaining in Iraq.

August 6, 2005 to August 31, 2005

An officer of the German army, Major Florian Pfaff, was exonerated by the Bundesverwaltungsgericht (German administrative court) after refusing to take part in the development of software likely to be used in the Iraq War.[75]

June 21, 2005

[74] an annual conference of the alternative globalization movement which took place in Porto Alegre, Brazil on 26 January – 31, and were supported by coalitions from all over the world.World Social Forum The protests had been called by the Anti-War Assembly of the 2005 [73] Protests to mark the second anniversary of start of the

Protesters on 19 March 2005, in London, where organizers claim over 150,000 marched

March 19, 2005

Thousands of people attended multiple protest rallies and marches held throughout Washington, D.C. on the day of George W. Bush's second inaugural to protest the war in Iraq and other policies of the Bush Administration.

January 20, 2005

On December 6, 2004, Craig J. N. de Paulo, a professor at Temple University, organized a symposium on “Just War Theory and the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq" to challenge some of the conservative Catholic voices in the hierarchy and among lay intellectuals in the American Church that were blatantly against the anti-war position of then Pope John Paul II and the US Conference of Catholic Bishops that were vehemently opposed to the wars. De Paulo’s symposium involved diverse panelists including liberal critics like John D. Caputo and Cardinal Avery Dulles, S.J. in addition to then Archbishop Edwin O'Brien, then Archbishop of military chaplains, and conservative columnist, George J. Marlin.

December 6, 2004

Two protests were held in Ottawa against George W. Bush's first official visit to Canada. A rally and march in the early afternoon was upwards of fifteen thousand (or 5,000 according to police). An evening rally on Parliament Hill drew another 15,000 and featured a speech by Brandon Hughey, an American soldier seeking refuge in Canada after refusing to fight in Iraq. Bush's stop on 1 December in Halifax, Nova Scotia drew between 4,000 and 5,000 protesters.

November 30, 2004

Approximately 10,000 people attending the Million Worker March in Washington, D.C. conducted a pro-labor demonstration, with a very heavy additional focus against the war in Iraq as well.

October 17, 2004

A large group of people assembled at the Women's Memorial at Arlington National Cemetery for the National Memorial Procession, described as "A Trail of Mourning and Truth from Iraq to the White House". The theme of the event was "Mourn the dead. Heal the wounded. End the war." Participants were encouraged to dress in black to symbolize mourning. Cindy Sheehan was among the participants at this demonstration. Speeches were made by veterans, members of military families, family members of fallen soldiers, and others. Following the speeches, participants marched from Arlington National Cemetery to the Ellipse in Washington, D.C., carrying cardboard coffins to symbolize the war dead. Following the march, another rally was held, where the coffins carried on the march were placed with more coffins placed at the Ellipse earlier. Following the second rally, 28 people, including Michael Berg (father of the American civilian contractor Nicholas Berg who was killed by insurgents in Iraq), were arrested while attempting to deliver the names of fallen heroes to the White House.[70][71]

October 2, 2004

Organizers held a pre-march press conference in front of thousands on 7th Avenue. Several people spoke in opposition to the Union Square. Disturbances were minor. New York Commissioner Raymond W. Kelly reported about 200 arrests with 9 felonies—most of them occurring after the march had concluded.

[65] Deputy Commissioner Paul Browne stated about the RNC protests: "You certainly had 800,000 on August 29th."NYPD In March, 2007 [64][63] As part of the

August 29, 2004

Signs outside the mobile Bushville in Brooklyn

ANSWER Coalition sponsored a demonstration in Washington, D.C., marching from the White House through working-class neighborhoods to the house of Donald Rumsfeld on Kalorama Road NW near Embassy Row. In addition, more than 10,000 citizens marched in San Francisco, as well as a counter-protest with hundreds of pro-war supporters.

A group of anti-war protesters approaches a police barricade. The procession reached back nearly three miles as marchers walked from San Francisco Civic Center to the Financial District.

June 5, 2004

More than 100,000 people demonstrated in Rome and other Italian cities during Bush's visit to Pope John Paul II, who had expressed his opposition to the war in numerous occasions. Ten thousand police patrolled the conference site.

June 4, 2004

A pro-war demonstration in Washington organized by Free Republic attracted only dozens (BBC estimate) of people.[62]

The Washington and San Francisco protests were jointly organized by ANSWER (Act Now to Stop War and End Racism) and United for Peace and Justice.

The Washington DC rally attracted 20,000 (BBC estimate) protesters. The protest ended with a rally at the Washington Monument, within sight of the White House. As well as opposing the invasion of Iraq protesters also called for the repeal of the USA PATRIOT Act.

Tens of thousands of people demonstrated in Washington, D.C., San Francisco, Reno, Nevada and other cities around the world, in opposition to the occupation of Iraq. Protesters also advocated for the return of American troops to the United States, and for the protection of civil liberties.

October 25, 2003

Protests sponsored by Bechtel and Halliburton.[61]

April 12, 2003

Following the period of combat in March–April 2003, both protests and armed combat experienced a temporary decline in intensity. Protests against the war as a whole continued, often on the occasion of anniversaries of the war and visits by members of the Bush administration to foreign cities. Within the United States, general anti-war protests were joined by protests focusing on particular issues or strategies including: opposition to torture and abuse (such as that in the Abu Ghraib prison), calls for withdrawal of members of the coalition from Iraq, counter-recruitment, support for military resisters such as Lt. Ehren Watada, and opposition to military and corporate contractors. The largest protests during this period have been national, multi-issue mobilizations such as those on August 30, 2004, and April 29, 2006.

After the fall of Baghdad

In Oakland, California, police fired rubber bullets and beanbags at protesters and dockworkers outside the port, injuring at least a dozen demonstrators and six longshoremen standing nearby. Protestors were protesting the Iraq War related action performed by American President Lines and defense contractor Stevedoring Services of America. Most of the 500 demonstrators were dispersed peacefully, but a crowd of demonstrators was blocking traffic on private property near the port and failed to disperse after police warnings. The Oakland Police Chief said demonstrators also threw objects and bolts at the police, and said the use of weapons was necessary to disperse the crowd. He indicated that the rubber bullets were used to respond to direct illegal action and the longshoremen were caught in the crossfire. A dockworker spokesman reported that police gave two minutes to disperse, then opened fire rather than making arrests. Demonstrators also claim that the police took direct aim at them, rather than firing in the air or at the ground. Thirty-one people were arrested. Demonstrators regrouped and marched to the Oakland Federal Building. In New York, United States, protesters targeted the Carlyle Group, an investment firm with deep connections to the war. About 20 protesters were arrested in a planned civil disobedience, but police then also surrounded and arrested close to 100 people who were simply watching the protest from across the street.[59][60]

April 7, 2003

100,000 people marched through the Indonesian capital, Jakarta. According to the BBC's Jonathan Head this was the biggest anti-war demonstration to take place so far in the world's most populous Muslim nation. The day also saw the first officially sanctioned demonstration in China, where a crowd of 200 made up mostly of foreign students were allowed to chant anti-war slogans as they marched past the US embassy in Beijing[57] but around 100 Chinese students had their banners confiscated and were blocked from entering a park where locals had gained permission to demonstrate. In Latin America there were rallies in Santiago, Mexico City, Montevideo, Buenos Aires and Caracas. In Germany at least 40,000 people formed a human chain between the northern cities of Munster and Osnabrueck 35 miles apart. Also about 23,000 took part in marches in Berlin, ending in a rally in Tiergarten park, protests took place in Stuttgart and Frankfurt, where 25 people were arrested as they tried to block the entrance to a US air base. Marches were also held in Paris, Moscow, Budapest, Warsaw and Dublin.[58]

March 30, 2003

[56] In Boston, Massachusetts, 50,000 people attended the largest rally in the city since the end of the

March 29, 2003

Global protests did not stop in the second week of war. Some 10,000 protested in Tehran, Iran. Protesters on the march, supported by the government, chanted "Death to Saddam" as well as "Death to America." 50,000 to 80,000 people protested in Cairo, Egypt after the Friday prayers. In Bogotá, Colombia there were violent conflicts in front of the US consulate. Protest marches and demonstrations happened also in Algiers, Algeria and in Bahrain, the Palestinian territories, South Korea, Indonesia and Pakistan. In Australia the police prevented protest marches. In Germany, protests by schoolchildren continued. In New Delhi and elsewhere in India, over 20,000 protested against the war. The largest demonstration comprised mainly Muslims, there was also a separate demonstration mainly made up of communists.[54]

March 28, 2003

Hundreds of protesters participated in a Rockefeller Center, protesting the cooperation between U.S. media and the government. Protesters also blocked traffic at various sites around the city in a coordinated protest with the theme of "No Business As Usual." Protests also took place across the UK. About 250 students (Police estimate) marched on the US embassy in central London. 200 people (South Wales Police estimate) brought Cardiff city centre traffic to a standstill leading to at least six arrests. There was a lunchtime anti-war demonstration on the Humber bridge in Hull which involved some friction between motorists and protesters. In Derry, up to a dozen anti-war protesters stormed the Raytheon defense technologies company building staging a sit-in until removed by police. Thousands joined a protest in Manchester.[53]

March 27, 2003

Some 100,000 people demonstrated in Syria against the United States, United Kingdom and Israel. This protest was endorsed by the Syrian government. In the Islamic country of Bangladesh, 60,000 people demonstrated. Media also reports protests in front of the South Korean parliament building, linked to plans to bring South Korean forces into the war.

March 25, 2003

Media reports state at least 20,000 school pupils protesting in Hamburg, Germany. After the protest march, conflicts between police and protesters broke out in front of a US building in Hamburg. Protesters who were pushed back by the police began to throw stones, who in turn reacted with Freiburg. In Rome, Milan, Turin and other Italian cities, thousands of pupils and schoolteachers stayed away from school to protest against the Iraq war. The teachers union reported that 60 percent of all schools were closed. The strike had been planned weeks ago as a signal against a school reform bill, but was converted to an anti-war protest. 400 anti-war protesters tried to enter the Australian parliament in Canberra to speak to the prime minister, but were stopped by police. In the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, Maoist protesters attacked shops selling Coca-Cola and US soft drinks. Protests in front of US buildings and in fast food shops were also held in Indonesia. In Egypt, 12,000 students of two universities in Cairo protested as well as 3,000 people in the Thai capital Bangkok. In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 150 people threw stones at the United States consulate.

March 24, 2003

Media report about 150,000 protesters in Barcelona (other sources say 1,000,000); more than 100,000 (other sources: up to 500,000) protesters in London; some 100,000 protesters in Paris; at least 150,000 protesters altogether in many German cities; between 35,000 and 90,000 in Lisbon; around 40,000 in Bern, the largest protest in Switzerland for decades; 10,000 to 20,000 in Greece, Denmark and Finland. 250,000 protesters demonstrated in New York City according to the German Spiegel Online magazine. There were protests in Washington, D.C.. In Chicago, protesters disrupted traffic by closing down George W. Bush upon receiving his award.

An elderly woman rests in Madrid in a demonstration on March 23. The poster says "PEACE" in Spanish.

March 22–23, 2003

Demonstrations were organized for a second day in a row in various US cities including Seattle, Portland, Oregon, Chicago, Atlanta, Georgia, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. In the last two cities, demonstrators closed parts of the city to traffic.

March 21, 2003

The day after the invasion of Iraq had begun, protests were held in cities around the world. In some U.S. cities, protesters attempted to shut their respective cities down. In Germany, students staged a massive walkout. In London, a massive demonstration was held in front of the Houses of Parliament.

March 20, 2003

Invasion to the fall of Baghdad

In Manchester, 300 (eye-witness Stop the War estimate) secondary school children, Further Education students and university students met at Albert Square at 12 noon. They marched to the BBC studios where they sat down in the road at around 1pm and blocked the traffic for over an hour where their numbers grew to around 1000 demonstrators. They were filmed by anti-war activists and video clips were distributed.[48] The students then marched around the city centre and ended up back at Albert Square at about 4pm where they remained demonstrating in front of the Town Hall for some hours. The whole of this event was filmed by anti-war activists accumulating two hours of footage.[49]

A large protest took place at Westminster where London school students gathered.

Demonstrations also took place in the city centre in Leeds and Horsforth.[47]

In West Yorkshire around 500 students (BBC estimate) walked out of Ilkley Grammar School, reportedly one-third of the student body. In Bradford up to 200 students (BBC estimate) gathered in Centenary Square.

In Birmingham 4,000 (BBC estimate) striking school students held a demonstration which ended at Victoria Square. Though there were some reports of some students throwing coins, West Midlands police said that the protests were "buoyant rather than boisterous" and no arrests were made. The demonstration later moved on to Cannon Hill Park. The son of Lord Hunt, a junior health Minister who quit his job over the march, was amongst the students in attendance.[46]

On March 19, across the United Kingdom tens of thousands of school students staged walkouts.

On March 16, more than 6,000 candlelight vigils for peace were held in more than a hundred countries.[45]

Many of the protests were said to be smaller than those in the same cities a month ago; exceptions were Montreal, which upped its turnout to 200,000 and Dublin where 130,000 demonstrated. The Montreal turnout may have been related to solidarity against American Associated Press estimated between 20,000 and 25,000 people attended, closer to the number in Portland who participated in the January 18 protest.[39] Thousands more marched in cities worldwide including Bangkok, Seoul, Hong Kong, Amman, Chicago, Calcutta, Melbourne, Christchurch, Dunedin, Paris, London, Portsmouth, Leeds, York, Exeter, Newcastle upon Tyne, Frankfurt, Nuremberg, Zürich, Copenhagen, Stockholm, Nicosia, Monaco, Santiago de Chile, Havana, Buenos Aires, Moscow, Seattle, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Vancouver, Halifax, Ottawa, and Toronto, as well as cities in Yemen, Turkey, Israel, and the Palestinian territories.[37][40][41][42][43][44]

On March 15, Spanish and Italian cities showed some of the largest turnouts against their governments' pro-war stance, with more than 400,000 protesters in Milan, more than 300,000 in Barcelona forming a mile-long human chain,[34] and more than 120,000 in Madrid.[35] Marches also took place in Seville, Aranjuez, Palencia, and in the Canary Islands.[36]

protesters in front of Complexe Guy-Favreau in Montreal

On March 8, three separate marches converged on Peterloo Massacre in 1819.[33]

March 2003

On February 15, millions of people protested, in approximately 800 cities around the world. Listed by the 2004 Guinness Book of Records as the largest protest in human history, protests occurred among others in the United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, Republic of Ireland, the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa, Syria, India, Russia, South Korea, Japan, and even McMurdo Station in Antarctica. Perhaps the largest demonstration this day occurred in London, with up to one million protestors gathering in Hyde Park; speakers included the Reverend Jesse Jackson, London mayor Ken Livingstone, and Liberal Democrat leader Charles Kennedy.[31][32] A large demonstration, also attended by perhaps around a million, took place in Barcelona.[31]

February 2003

The protests were planned to coincide with the January 15, birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr.[19]

In Washington, "at least tens of thousands",[29] or "several hundred thousand"[30] people demonstrated through the city, ending with a rally at The Mall. Among the speakers was Rev. Jesse Jackson who told the crowd that "We are here because we choose coexistence over coannihilation."[29]

In San Francisco, between 150,000 and 200,000 people attended the demonstration. The San Francisco police had originally estimated the crowd size at 55,000, but admitted later that they had badly underestimated the number and changed their estimate to 150,000. The day started with a waterfront rally at 11 am, followed by a march down Market Street to the Civic Center.

Lincoln, Nebraska.

On January 18, anti-war demonstrations, focusing particularly but not exclusively on the expected war with Iraq, took place in villages, towns, and cities around the world, including Tokyo, Moscow, Paris, London, Dublin, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Cologne, Bonn, Gothenburg, Florence, Oslo, Rotterdam, Istanbul and Cairo. In New Zealand, thousands rallied in Dunedin and Christchurch, while in Auckland protesters rallied at the Devonport naval base on January 28, opposing the deployment of the frigate HMNZS Te Mana to the Gulf.[28]

January 18 peace protest in Washington, D.C.

On January 16, 2003, protests were held worldwide in opposition to a war with Iraq, including in Turkey, Egypt, Pakistan, Japan, Belgium, the Netherlands, Argentina, and the United States, where Americans attended a rally in Washington, D.C. The Million Man March, but said that protest organizers only had a permit for 30,000 demonstrators.

January 2003

On November 17, a large anti-war coalition held a peace march in Vancouver marching from Peace Flame Park as part of a Cross-Canada Day of Action. In Vancouver, about 3,000 people gathered in the rain. Washington must take any complaints against foreign governments to the United Nations, they said. Many accused the White House of targeting Saddam Hussein in order to try to take control of valuable oil reserves. About 1,000 marched through a shower of ice pellets in Montreal, and about 500 showed up in a blur of white snow on Parliament Hill. Rallies were held in several other cities, including Halifax, Winnipeg and Edmonton.[24][25][26][27]

On Saturday, November 16, in Canada an anti-war demonstration of about 2,000 people occurred at Queen's Park in Toronto.[24][25][26][27]

[23][22][21]

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