World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Protestant Church in the Netherlands

Article Id: WHEBN0000008659
Reproduction Date:

Title: Protestant Church in the Netherlands  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Kathleen Ferrier (politician), Ruth Peetoom, Mark Rutte, Netherlands, Protestantism in the Netherlands
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Protestant Church in the Netherlands

Protestant Church in the Netherlands
Logo of the Protestant Church in the Netherlands
Classification Protestant
Orientation Reformed and Lutheran
Polity Mixture of Presbyterian and Congregationalist
Associations Conference of European Churches
World Communion of Reformed Churches
Lutheran World Federation
World Council of Churches
Origin 1 May 2004
Netherlands
Merge of Dutch Reformed Church
Reformed Churches in the Netherlands
Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Separations Restored Reformed Church
Continued Reformed Churches in the Netherlands
(did not participate in the merger)
Congregations ca. 2,000
Members nearly 1.8 million or 10.8% of the population (2009)[1][2]
Official website .nl.pknwww

The Protestant Church in the Netherlands (Dutch: Protestantse Kerk in Nederland, abbreviated PKN) is the largest Protestant Christian denomination in the Netherlands. With 2,000 congregations and a membership of some 1.8 million (or 10.8% of the Dutch population, 2009),[1][2] it is the second largest church in the Netherlands after the Catholic Church. Historically the various Protestant churches had collectively formed the largest Christian denomination in the country, with about 60% of the population being Protestant in the early 20th century, but religiosity drastically declined after the 1960s. It is the traditional faith of the Dutch Royal Family – a remnant of the church's historical dominance.

The PKN was founded 1 May 2004 as the merger of the Reformed and Lutheran theological orientations.

Doctrine and practice

The doctrine of the Protestant Church in the Netherlands is expressed in its creeds. In addition to holding the Apostles', the Nicene and the Athanasian Creeds of the universal church, it also holds to the confessions of its predecessor bodies. From the Lutheran tradition are the unaltered Augsburg Confession and Luther's Catechism. From the Reformed, the Heidelberg and Genevan Catechisms along with the Belgic Confession with the Canons of Dordt. The Church also acknowledges the Theological Declaration of Barmen and the Leuenberg Agreement.[4] Ordination of women and blessings of same-sex marriages are allowed.

The PKN contains both liberal and conservative movements; although the liberal Remonstrants left talks when they could not agree with the unaltered adoption of the Canons of Dordt. Local congregations have far-reaching powers concerning "controversial" matters (such as admittance to holy communion or whether women are admitted as members of the congregation's consistory).

Organization

The polity of the Protestant Church in the Netherlands is a hybrid of [5]

The PKN has four different types of congregations:

  1. Protestant congregations: local congregations from different church bodies that have merged
  2. Dutch Reformed congregations
  3. Reformed congregations (congregations of the former Reformed Churches in the Netherlands)
  4. Lutheran congregations (congregations of the former Evangelical-Lutheran Church)

Lutherans are a minority (about 1 percent) of the PKN's membership. To ensure that Lutherans are represented in the Church, the Lutheran congregations have their own synod. The Lutheran Synod also has representatives in the General Synod.[5]

Secularization

Secularization, or the decline in religiosity, first became noticeable after 1960 in the Protestant rural areas of Friesland and Groningen. Then, it spread to Amsterdam, Rotterdam and the other large cities in the west. Finally the Catholic southern areas showed religious declines. A countervailing trend is produced by a religious revival in the Protestant Bible Belt, and the growth of Muslims and Hindu communities resulting from immigration and high birth rates.[6][7] Research in 2007 concludes that 42% of the members of the PKN is a non-theist[8] Furthermore, in the Protestant Church in the Netherlands (PKN) and several other smaller denominations of the Netherlands, 1 in 6 clergy are either agnostic or atheist.[9][10]A minister of the PKN, Klaas Hendrikse has described God as "a word for experience, or human experience" and said that Jesus may have never existed.[9][11]

Separations

History of the churches in the Netherlands

Only those congregations belonging to the former Reformed Churches in the Netherlands have the legal right to secede from the PKN without losing its property and church during a transition period of 10 years. Seven congregations have so far decided to form the Continued Reformed Churches in the Netherlands.[3] Two congregations have joined one of the other smaller Reformed churches in the Netherlands. Some minorities within congregations that joined the PKN decided to leave the church and associated themselves individually with one of the other Reformed churches.

Some congregations and members in the Dutch Reformed Church did not agree with the merger and have separated. They have organized themselves in the Restored Reformed Church. Estimations of their membership vary from 35,000 up to 70,000 people in about 120 local congregations.[12] They disagree with the pluralism of the merged church which maintains, as they see it, contradicting Reformed and Lutheran confessions. This group also considers same-sex marriages and female clergy unbiblical.

Involvement in the Middle East

A PKN supported organization, Kerk in Actie,[13] employs an individual to represent them in Israel who works at the [15] also involved in controversial activities critical of Israel.[16]

In a meeting of eight Jewish and eight Protestant Dutch leaders in Israel in May 2011, a statement of cooperation was issued, indicating, for the most part, that the Protestant Church recognizes the issues involved with the Palestinian Christians and that this is sometimes at odds with support for the State of Israel, but standing up for the rights of the Palestinians does not detract from the emphasis on the safety of the State of Israel and vice versa.[17]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b
  2. ^ a b Nieuwe kerncijfers van 5 kerken in Dutch, website Kerkbalans, retrieved 23 July 2011
  3. ^ a b GoDutch.com, "Three-way PKN Union Drastically Changes Dutch Denominational Landscape: Two Groups of Merger Opponents Stay Out", May 24, 2004. Accessed July 13, 2010.
  4. ^ Church Order of the Protestant Church in the Netherlands. Article I, p. 1. Accessed July 13, 2010.
  5. ^ a b Organisation of the PKN. Accessed July 14, 2010.
  6. ^ Hans Knippenberg, "Secularization in the Netherlands in its historical and geographical dimensions," GeoJournal (1998) 45#3 pp 209-220. online
  7. ^ Tomáš Sobotka and Feray Adigüzel, "Religiosity and spatial demographic differences in the Netherlands" (2002) online
  8. ^ God in Nederland' (1996-2006), by Ronald Meester, G. Dekker, ISBN 9789025957407
  9. ^ a b
  10. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n6TuZ9F-PGo
  11. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9eypysiJQgw
  12. ^ Official website Restored Reformed Church
  13. ^ Official Website for Kerk in Actie
  14. ^ Faith in Progress, 2009, page 24
  15. ^ Faith in Progress, 2009, pages 15-16
  16. ^ Bashing Israel on behalf of the Protestant Church
  17. ^ Encounter and dialogue

External links

  • Official Website
  • Three-way PKN union drastically changes Dutch denominational landscape (May 24, 2004)
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.