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Predecessors of sovereign states in Europe

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Title: Predecessors of sovereign states in Europe  
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Predecessors of sovereign states in Europe

This is a list of all present sovereign states in Europe and their predecessors. The borders of Europe are difficult to define. The borders between Europe and Asia are generally agreed to be the Caucasus Mountains, the Ural Mountains, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles.

Sovereign state Predecessors
Albania Epirus (1183-186 BC)
 Roman Republic (167–27 BC)
Roman Empire (27 BC – 357 AD)

 Diocese of Macedonia (357 – c. 842)

Roman Empire (357–476 AD)
Byzantine Empire (476 – c. 846)

 Theme of Dyrrhachium (c. 846–1190)

Byzantine Empire

Principality of Arbanon (1190–1255)

Byzantine Empire (1190–1204)
 Despotate of Epirus (1205–1255)

 Despotate of Epirus (1255–1337)
Kingdom of Albania (1272–1368)

Kingdom of Sicily

 Lordship of Berat (1335–1444)
Serbian Empire (1337–1356)
 Principality of Valona (1346–1417)

Serbian Empire (1346–1355)

 Despotate of Epirus (1356–1479)
Despotate of Angelokastron and Lepanto (1358–1374)
Despotate of Arta (1358–1416)
Princedom of Albania (1368–1444)
 Principality of Gjirokastër (1386–1418)
 Principality of Dukagjini (1387–1444)
Principality of Kastrioti (1389–1444)
 Venetian Albania (1420–1797)

Most Serene Republic of Venice

League of Lezhë (1444 – c. 1468)
Ottoman Empire (1479–1912)
Independent Albania (1912–1914)
Principality of Albania (1914–1925)
Albanian Republic (1925–1928)
Albanian Kingdom (1928–1939)
Kingdom of Italy (1939–1943)
Albanian Kingdom (1943–1944)
Democratic Government of Albania (1944–1946)
People's Republic of Albania (1946–1976)
Socialist People's Republic of Albania (1976–1992)
Republic of Albania (1992–present)

Andorra Roman Republic (100–27 BC)
Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
 Carolingian Empire (817–843)
County of Urgell (843–1133)
 Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell (1133–1208)
County of Foix (1208–1607/1610)
Principality of Andorra (1278–present)
Armenia Hayasa Azzi (1500-1290 BC)
Arme Shupria (1290-1190 BC)
Nairi (1114-860 BC)
Urartu (860-590 BC)
Achaemenid Empire (549 - 331 BC)
Kingdom of Armenia (321 BC- 428 AD)
Ottoman Empire (1586–1828)
Russian Empire (1828–1917)
Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (1918)
Democratic Republic of Armenia (1918–1920)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
Republic of Armenia (1991–present)
Austria Noricum (400-16 BC)
Roman Empire (16 BC–476 AD)
 Archduchy of Austria (1156–1804) within the Holy Roman Empire (962–1806)
German Confederation (1815–1866)
Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)
Republic of Austria (1918–1938)
Nazi Germany (1938–1945)
Allied-occupied Austria (1945–1955)
Republic of Austria (1955–present)
Azerbaijan Kara Koyunlu (1375–1468)
Aq Qoyunlu (1378–1501)
Safavid Empire (1501–1736)
Russian Empire (1813–1917)
Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (1918)
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918–1920)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
[1] (1991–present)
Belarus  Grand Duchy of Lithuania (13th century–1569)
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1793)
Russian Empire (1793–1917)
Belarusian People's Republic (1918–1919)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
Republic of Belarus (1991–present)
Belgium Roman Republic (509–27 BC)
Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
France (1797–1815)
United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1830)
Kingdom of Belgium (1830–present)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Duchy of Bosnia (753-1154)
Banate of Bosnia (1154–1377)
Kingdom of Bosnia (1377–1463)
Ottoman Empire (1463-1878)
Austria-Hungary (1878–1918)
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (1918)
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1991)
Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995)
[1] (1992–present)
Bulgaria  Thrace (1000 BC - 46 AD)
 First Bulgarian Empire (681–1018)
Byzantine Empire (1018–1185)
 Second Bulgarian Empire (1185–1396)
Ottoman Empire (1396–1908)
Principality of Bulgaria (1878–1908) (within Ottoman Empire)
Kingdom of Bulgaria (1908–1946)
People's Republic of Bulgaria (1946–1990)
Republic of Bulgaria (1990–present)
Croatia Littoral Croatian Duchy (7th century-925)
Kingdom of Croatia (925-1102)
Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg) (1102-1804)
Austrian Empire (1804–1867)
Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (1918)
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1991)
Republic of Croatia (1991–present)
Cyprus Alashiya (1450-1050 BC)
Assyrian Empire (811 - 669 BC)
Achaemenid Empire (550 - 330 BC)
Roman Republic (509–27 BC)
Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
Byzantine Empire (476–1190)
Kingdom of Cyprus (1192–1489 AD)
Ottoman Empire (?–1878)
British Empire (1878–1960)
Republic of Cyprus (1960–present)
Czech Republic  Great Moravia (833-902)

 Duchy of Bohemia (?–1198)
 Kingdom of Bohemia (1198–1804 (–1918)) within the Holy Roman Empire (?–1806)
Austrian Empire (1804–1867)
Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)
Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1948 (–1992))
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (1939–1945)
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1960–1990)
Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (1990–1992)
Czech Republic (1993–present)

Denmark Kalmar Union (1397–1523)
[2] (c. 965–present)
Estonia  Terra Mariana (1207–1561)
Swedish Empire (1561–1721)
Russian Empire (1721–1918)
[4]
Finland Kalmar Union (1397–1523)
Swedish Empire (c. 1210–1809)
Russian Empire (1809–1917)
Republic of Finland (1917–present)
France Roman Republic (123–27 BC)
Roman Empire (27 BC–260 AD)
 Gallic Empire (260-274 AD)
Roman Empire (274–285 AD)
Western Roman Empire(285–457 AD)
 Kingdom of Soissons (457–486 AD)
 Frankish Empire (481-800)
 Carolingian Empire (800–843)
 West Francia (843–987)
Kingdom of France (987–1791)
Kingdom of the French (1791–1792)
French Republic (1792–1804)
French Empire (1804–1814, 1815)
Kingdom of France (1814–1815, 1815–1830)
Kingdom of the French (1830–1848)
French Republic (1848–1852)
French Empire (1852–1870)
French Republic (1870–1940)
French State (1940–1944)
[5] (1944–present)
Georgia  Caucasian Iberia (c. 159 BC-580)

 Principality of Iberia (580-891)

 Kingdom of Iberia (mostly titular revival) (891-1008)
 Tao-Klarjeti (813-1008)

 Kingdom of Georgia (1008-1465)

 Kingdom of Imereti (1455-1810)
 Kingdom of Kartli (1484-1762)
 Kingdom of Kakheti (1465-1762)
Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti (1762–1801)

Russian Empire (1801–1917)
Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918–1921)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
Georgia (1991–present)

Germany  Carolingian Empire (800–843)
 East Francia (843–919)
 Kingdom of Germany (919-962)
Holy Roman Empire (962–1806)
Confederation of the Rhine (1806–1813) & Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1871)
German Confederation (1815–1866)
North German Confederation (1866–1871)
German Empire (1871–1918)
Saar (1920–1935)
Nazi Germany (1933–1945)
Flensburg Government (1945)
Allied-occupied Germany (1945–1949)
Saar (1947–1956)
Federal Republic of Germany (1990–present)
Greece Roman Republic (167–27 BC)
Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
Byzantine Empire
Ottoman Empire (?–1830)
Kingdom of Greece (1830–1967)
Hellenic Republic (1967–present)
Hungary Avar Khaganate (567-804)
Great Moravia (833-902)
Principality of Hungary (895-1000)
Kingdom of Hungary (1000–1918)
Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)
Hungarian Democratic Republic (1918–1919)
Hungarian Soviet Republic (1919–1920)
Kingdom of Hungary (1920-1946) (1920–1946)
Republic of Hungary (1946-1949) (1946–1949)
People's Republic of Hungary (1949–1989)
Republic of Hungary (1989–present)
Iceland  Icelandic Free State (930–1262)
Kingdom of Norway (1262–1814)
 Danish Crown (1380–1944)
Kalmar Union (1397–1523)
Denmark–Norway (1536–1814)
Kingdom of Denmark (1814–1918)
Kingdom of Iceland (1918–1944)
Iceland (1944–present)
Ireland Hibernia (300 BC - 100 AD)
Connachta (357-1439 AD)
Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1651)
Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1653–1659)
Kingdom of Ireland (1659–1800)
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922)
Irish Free State (1922–1937)
Ireland (1937–present)
Italy  Roman Kingdom
Roman Republic (509–27 BC)
Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
the Italian peninsula divided into many states c. 400–1861, among them the medieval Kingdom of Italy (774–1806) within the Holy Roman Empire
Duchy of Savoy (1416–1713)
Kingdom of Sardinia (1720–1861)
Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)
Italian Republic (1946–present)
Kazakhstan Golden Horde (1240s–1456)
Kazakh Khanate (1456-1847)
Russian Empire (1735/1860–1919)
Soviet Russia (1919–1922)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
[1] (1991–present)
Latvia  Terra Mariana (1207–1583)
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1583–1611)
Swedish Empire (1611–1721)
Russian Empire (1721–1772)
Russian Empire (1772–1918)
[4]
Liechtenstein German Confederation (?–1866)
Principality of Liechtenstein (1866–present)
Lithuania  Grand Duchy of Lithuania (13th century–1569)
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)
Russian Empire (1795–1918)
Kingdom of Lithuania (1918)
[4]
Luxembourg Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1890)
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (1890–present)
Macedonia Kingdom of Macedon (860 - 146 BC)
Achaemenid Empire (510 - 330 BC)
Byzantine Empire (330-1204, 1261–1453)

Second Bulgarian Empire (1185–1346)

Principality of Serbia (768-1217) &
Kingdom of Serbia (1217–1346)
Serbian Empire (1346–1371)
Kingdom of Prilep (1371–1395)
Ottoman Empire (1395-1913)
Kingdom of Serbia (1913–1918)
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1991)
Republic of Macedonia (1991–present)
Malta [6] Phoenicia (800-480 BC)
Carthaginian Empire (480-218 BC)
Roman province of Sicilia (218 BC-395 AD)
Goths 464-533)
Abbasid Caliphate 870-909
Fatimid Caliphate 909-1091
County of Sicily (1091-1130)
Kingdom of Sicily (1130-1530)
Order of Saint John (1530–1798)
Gozo (1798-1800)
British Protectorate of Malta (1800-1813)
Crown Colony of Malta (1813–1964)
State of Malta (1964–1974)
Republic of Malta (1974–present)
Moldova Byzantine Empire
Ottoman Empire between 1514–1812)
Russian Empire (1812–1918)
Kingdom of Romania (1918–1945)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1945–1991)
Republic of Moldova (1991–present)
Monaco Republic of Genoa (?–1297)
Principality of Monaco (1297–present)
Montenegro Principality of Serbia (768-1217)
Kingdom of Serbia (1217–1346)
Serbian Empire (1346–1371)
Principality of Zeta (1371–1402)
Serbian Despotate (1402–1540)
Ottoman Empire (1540-1852)
Principality of Montenegro (1852–1910) (within Ottoman Empire until 1878)
Kingdom of Montenegro (1910–1918)
Kingdom of Serbia (1918)
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1992)
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992–2003)
[7] (2003–2006)
[8] (2006–present)
Netherlands  Frankish Kingdom (5th to 10th centuries), Frisian Kingdom (600-734), Duchy of (Lower) Lorraine (903–1190) & County of Holland (880-1384)
Burgundian Netherlands (1384–1482)
Seventeen Provinces (1482–1581)
Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (1581–1795)
Batavian Republic (1795–1806)
Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810)
First French Empire (1810–1813)
United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1839)
Kingdom of the Netherlands (1839–present)
Northern Cyprus Alashiya (1450-1050 BC)
Assyrian Empire (811 - 669 BC)
Achaemenid Empire (550 - 330 BC)
Roman Republic (509–27 BC)
Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
Byzantine Empire (476–1190)
Kingdom of Cyprus (1192–1489 AD)
Ottoman Empire (?–1878)
British Empire (1878–1960)
Republic of Cyprus (1960–1983)
Northern Cyprus (1983–present)
Norway Kingdom of Norway (?–1397)
Kalmar Union (1397–1523)
Denmark–Norway (1536–1814)
Kingdom of Norway (1814)
United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway (1814–1905)
Kingdom of Norway (1905–present)
Poland  Poland in the Early Middle Ages (?–1025)
Kingdom of the Piasts (1025–1385)
Kingdom of the Jagiellons (1385–1569)
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)
Duchy of Warsaw (1807-1815)
Russian Empire (1795–1918)
Kingdom of Poland (1916–1918)
Republic of Poland (1918–present)
Portugal Roman Republic (197 BC–27 BC)
Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
 Suebic Kingdom (410-585)
 Visigothic Kingdom (418–711)
 Umayyad Caliphate (711-750)
 Emirate of Córdoba (756–868)
Kingdom of León (868–1139)
Kingdom of Portugal (1139–1189)
Kingdom of Portugal and Silves (1189–1191)
Kingdom of Portugal (1191–1249)
Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarve (1249–1471)
Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves (1471–1815)
United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1825)
Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves (1825–1910)
Portuguese Republic (1910–present)
Romania Dacia (700 - 82 BC)
Kingdom of Dacia (82 BC - 106 AD)
Roman Empire (106-271/275 AD)
Ottoman Empire between 1415–1859)
Ottoman Empire between 1514–1859)
Romanian United Principalities (1859–1866)
Principality of Romania (1866–1881)
Kingdom of Romania (1881–1947)
People's Republic of Romania
Socialist Republic of Romania
Romania (1862–present)
Russia Kievan Rus' (862-1283)
Grand Duchy of Moscow (1283–1547)
Tsardom of Russia (1547–1721)
Russian Empire (1721–1917)
Soviet Russia (1917–1922)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
Russian Federation (1991–present)
San Marino Roman Republic (509–27 BC)
Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
 Ostrogothic Kingdom (493–533)
Byzantine Empire (533–?)
Papal States (728–1600)
Republic of San Marino (1600–present)
Serbia Serbian Sklavinia(520s-768)
Principality of Serbia (768-1217)
Kingdom of Serbia (1217–1346)
Serbian Empire (1346–1371)
Moravian Serbia (1371–1402)
Serbian Despotate (1402–1540)
Kingdom of Serbia (1718–1739) 1718–1739 and 1788-1791
Ottoman Empire (1540–1817)
Principality of Serbia (1817–1882)
Kingdom of Serbia (1882–1918)
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1992)
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992–2003)
[7] (2003–2006)
Republic of Serbia (2006–present)
Slovakia  Great Moravia (833-902)
 Kingdom of Hungary (1000–1804)
Austrian Empire (1804–1867)
Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)
Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1948 (–1992)
Slovak Republic (1939–1945)
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (1918–) 1948–1992)
Slovak Republic (1993–present)
Slovenia Holy Roman Empire (955–1806)
Austrian Empire (1804–1867)
Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (1918)
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1991)
Republic of Slovenia (1991–present)
Spain Celtiberia (580 - 76 BC)
Carthaginian Iberia (576 - 206 BC)
Roman Republic (76–27 BC)
Roman Empire (27 BC - 285 AD)
Western Roman Empire (285-418)
Visigothic Kingdom (418–711)
Al-Andalus) (711-756)
Emirate of Córdoba (756–929)
Caliphate of Córdoba (929–1031)


Catalan_counties
Crown of Castile (?–1716)
Kingdom of Spain (1716–1873)
Spanish Republic (1873–1874)
Kingdom of Spain (1873–1931)
Spanish Republic (1931–1939)
Kingdom of Spain (1939–present)

Sweden Kalmar Union (1397–1523)
Kingdom of Sweden (c. 1210–present)
Switzerland Holy Roman Empire (?–1291)
 Old Swiss Confederacy (1291–1798)
Helvetic Republic (1798–1803)
Swiss Confederation (1803–present)
Turkey Hittite Empire (1600 - 1178 BC)
Phrygia (1200 - 700 BC)
Achaemenid Empire (550 - 330 BC)
Roman Republic (167–27 BC)
Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
Byzantine Empire (476–1453)
Seljuq Empire (1037–1194)
Seljuq Sultanate of Rum (1077–1307)
Karamanids (1250–1487)
Ottoman Empire (1299–1923)
Republic of Turkey (1923–present)
Ukraine Cimmeria (1300-625 BC)
Scythia (690-250 BC)
Sarmatia (450 BC - 400 AD)
Principality of Kiev (822-1471)
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia (1119-1349)
Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1349-1569)
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569-1648)
Cossack Hetmanate (1648-1764)
Russian Empire (1764-1917)
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria (1772-1918)
Ukrainian People's Republic (1917-1921)
West Ukrainian People's Republic (1918-1919)
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1919-1991)
Ukraine (1991-present)
United Kingdom Caledonia
Hibernia
Roman Empire (AD 43–410)
 Kingdom of Cantwara, Dál Riata, Kingdom of East Anglia, Kingdom of Mercia, Kingdom of Northumbria, Pictland, Kingdom of Strathclyde, Ireland, Principality of Wales & Kingdom of Wessex
Lordship of Ireland (1171–1541)
Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1651)
Commonwealth of England (1649–1653)
Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1653–1659)
Commonwealth of England (1659–1660)
Kingdom of England (1660–1707)
Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1800)
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927)
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1927–present)
Vatican City Roman Empire
 Ostrogothic Kingdom (493–533)
Byzantine Empire (533–?)
Roman Republic (1798–1799)
Roman Republic (1849)
Kingdom of Italy (1870–1929)
State of the Vatican City (1929–present)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c ISO 3166-1 NEWSLETTER No. V-4 changed the official name of Azerbaijan from "Azerbaijani Republic" to "Republic of Azerbaijan", removed "Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina" as the official name of Bosnia and Herzegovina and changed the spelling of "Kazakstan" to "Kazakhstan".
  2. ^ "Denmark". The World Factbook. CIA. 29 April 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c Talari, Pekka T. (1996). State Succession in Respect of Debts: The Effect of State Succession in the 1990's on the Rules of Law. The Finnish Yearbook of International Law 2. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 167. ISBN . 
  4. ^ a b c Bühler, Konrad G. (2001). State Succession and Membership in International Organizations. Legal Aspects of International Organization Series. Volume 38. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 177–9. ISBN . 
  5. ^ "France". The World Factbook. CIA. 29 April 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2010. 
  6. ^ TIMELINEOF MALTA HISTORY
  7. ^ a b ISO 3166-1 NEWSLETTER No. V-8 has the official name of Serbia and Montenegro as just "Serbia and Montenegro".
  8. ^ ISO 3166-1 NEWSLETTER No. V-12 has the official name of Montenegro as "Republic of Montenegro".
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