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Politics of the Southern United States

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Politics of the Southern United States

Politics of the Southern United States (or Southern politics) refers to the political landscape of the Southern United States. Due to the region's unique cultural and historic heritage, the American South has been prominently involved in numerous political issues faced by the United States as a whole, including States' rights, slavery, Reconstruction and the American Civil Rights Movement. The region was a "Solid South" voting heavily for Democratic candidates for president, and for state and local offices, from the 1870s to the 1960s. Its Congressmen gained seniority and controlled many committees. In presidential politics the South moved into the Republican camp in 1968 and ever since, with exceptions when the Democrats nominated a Southerner. Since the 1990s control of state and much local politics has turned Republican in every state.

Contents

  • Definitions 1
  • After the Civil War 2
  • Twentieth-century 3
    • 1948: Dixiecrat revolt 3.1
    • The Civil Rights Movement 3.2
    • The South becomes Republican 3.3
  • Twenty-first century 4
    • LGBT rights 4.1
      • Marriage 4.1.1
        • Public opinion 4.1.1.1
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Bibliography 7

Definitions

The Southern United States as defined by the United States Census Bureau.[1] The "South" and its regions are defined in various ways, however.

According to the United States Census Bureau the following states are considered part of the "south."

Other definitions can be more exclusive or more expansive. This represents a region of the United States with a diverse physical and cultural geography.

After the Civil War

Most white ex-Confederate voters were disenfranchised for a while during the Reconstruction Era after the Civil War. White Democrats regained power by the late 1870s, and began to pass laws to restrict black voting in a period they came to refer to as Redemption. From 1890–1908 states of the former Confederacy passed statutes and amendments to their state constitutions that effectively disfranchised most blacks and tens of thousands of poor whites in the South through devices such as poll taxes, and literacy tests.[2]

In the 1890s the white South split bitterly, with poor cotton farmers moving to the Populist movement. In coalition with the remaining Republicans the Populists briefly controlled Alabama and North Carolina. The local elites, based in courthouse rings and including the townspeople and the landowners fought back, and regained control of the Democratic party by 1898. However they had to reject the pro-gold, pro-Cleveland Bourbon Democrats and anchor the South in favor of inflationary free silver and march to the tune of William Jennings Bryan, the Democratic presidential candidate in 1896, 1900 and 1908.[3]

Twentieth-century

During the 20th century, civil rights for blacks was a central issue of Southern politics. They were second class citizens with limited political rights before 1964.

1948: Dixiecrat revolt

Many Deep South Southern Democrats bolted the Democratic Convention over Harry's Truman's civil rights platform.[4] They met at E. H. Crump of Tennessee) refused to support the party. Despite being an incumbent President, Truman was not placed on the ballot in Alabama. In the states of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and South Carolina, the party was able to be labeled as the main Democratic Party ticket on the local ballots on election night.[6] Outside of these four states, however, it was only listed as a third-party ticket.[7]

The Civil Rights Movement

Between 1955 and 1968, a movement toward

  • Bartley, Numan V. The New South, 1945-1980 (1995), broad survey
  • Billington, Monroe Lee. The Political South in the 20th Century (Scribner, 1975). ISBN 0-684-13983-9.
  • Black, Earl, and Merle Black. Politics and Society in the South (1989) excerpt and text search
  • Bullock III, Charles S. and Mark J. Rozell, eds. The New Politics of the Old South: An Introduction to Southern Politics (2007) state-by-state coverage excerpt and text search
  • Cunningham, Sean P. Cowboy Conservatism: Texas and the Rise of the Modern Right. (2010).
  • Grantham. Dewey. The Democratic South (1965)
  • Guillory, Ferrel, “The South in Red and Purple: Southernized Republicans, Diverse Democrats,” Southern Cultures, 18 (Fall 2012), 6–24.
  • Key, V. O. and Alexander Heard. Southern Politics in State and Nation (1949), a famous classic
  • Perman, Michael. Pursuit of Unity: A Political History of the American South (2009)
  • Shafer, Byron E., and Richard Johnston. The End of Southern Exceptionalism: Class, Race, and Partisan Change in the Postwar South (2009) excerpt and text search
  • Steed, Robert P. and Laurence W. Moreland, eds. Writing Southern Politics: Contemporary Interpretations and Future Directions (2006); historiography & scholarly essays excerpts & text search
  • Tindall, George Brown. The Emergence of the New South, 1913-1945 (1967), influential survey
  • Twyman, Robert W. and David C. Roller, ed. Encyclopedia of Southern History (LSU Press, 1979) ISBN 0-8071-0575-9.
  • Woodard, J. David. The New Southern Politics (2006) 445pp
  • Woodward, C. Vann. The Origins of the New South, 1877-1913 (1951), a famous classic

Bibliography

  1. ^ Regions and Divisions—2007 Economic Census". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  2. ^ Michael Perman, Pursuit of Unity: A Political History of the American South (2009)
  3. ^ C. Vann Woodward, The Origins of the New South, 1877-1913 (1951)
  4. ^ Harvard Sitkoff, "Harry Truman and the Election of 1948: The Coming of Age of Civil Rights in American Politics", Journal of Southern History Vol. 37, No. 4 (Nov., 1971), pp. 597–616 in JSTOR
  5. ^ Jack Bass, and Marilyn W. Thompson, Strom: The Complicated Personal and Political Life of Strom Thurmond (2005).
  6. ^ http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-1366
  7. ^ Kari Frederickson, The Dixiecrat Revolt and the End of the Solid South, 1932–1968 (2001)
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ Randall Woods, LBJ: Architect of American Ambition (2006)
  10. ^ Taylor Branch, The King Years: Historic Moments in the Civil Rights Movement (2013)
  11. ^ Littlejohn, Jeffrey L., and Charles H. Ford. "Truman and Civil Rights." in Daniel S. Margolies, ed. A Companion to Harry S. Truman (2012) p 287.
  12. ^ Byron E. Shafer, The End of Southern Exceptionalism: Class, Race, and Partisan Change in the Postwar South (2006) ch 6
  13. ^ Herbert, Bob (October 6, 2005). "Impossible, Ridiculous, Repugnant". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 22, 2012. 
  14. ^ Boyd, James (May 17, 1970). "'"Nixon's Southern strategy: 'It's All in the Charts (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-08-02. 
  15. ^ Carter, Dan T. From George Wallace to Newt Gingrich: Race in the Conservative Counterrevolution, 1963-1994.
  16. ^ Branch, Taylor (1999). Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years 1963-65. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 242.  
  17. ^ Herbert, Bob (November 13, 2007). "Righting Reagan's Wrongs?". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 22, 2012. 
  18. ^ "Exit Polls".  
  19. ^ "Sweet Georgia Blue: Why Democrats Should Be Bullish on the Peach State".  
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i Beyond Red vs Blue
  21. ^ Erik Eckholmmarch, March 22, 2014New York Times"Wave of Appeals Expected to Turn the Tide on Same-Sex Marriage Bans,"
  22. ^ Washington Q: Overall, do you support or oppose allowing gays and lesbians to marry legally?

References

See also

A Washington Post/ABC News poll from February–March 2014 found 50% of Southerns support same-sex marriage, 42% oppose, and 8% have no opinion on the issue.[22]

Public opinion

In September 2004, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Oklahoma in November 2004, Texas in 2005, Alabama, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia in 2006, Florida in 2008, and finally North Carolina in 2012. North Carolina became the 30th state to adopt a state constitutional ban of same-sex marriage. Federal courts have repeatedly struck down state laws and state constitutional bans. Appeals are under consideration by the U.S. Supreme Court.[21]

As of October 27, 2014, same-sex marriage is currently legal in the following Southern jurisdictions: Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Virginia, and West Virginia. Judges in Arkansas, Florida, Kentucky, and Texas have struck down their state's same-sex marriage bans and those decisions are currently waiting on appeal.

Marriage

LGBT rights

Political views and affiliations in the South
Political views and affiliations % living in the South
Hard-Pressed Democrats[20] 48 48
 
Disaffected[20] 41 41
 
Bystander[20] 40 40
 
Main Street Republicans[20] 40 40
 
New Coalition Democrats[20] 40 40
 
Staunch Conservative[20] 38 38
 
Post-Modern[20] 31 31
 
Libertarian[20] 28 28
 
Solid Liberal[20] 26 26
 

While the general trend in the south has been increasing dominance of the Republican in the region, politics in the first quarter of the twenty-first century are just as contentious and competitive as any time in the region's history. States such as 2016 and Texas potentially joining them in the future. This can be explained by the fact that these states are experiencing a decline in their rural populations, an increase in their urban population, an influx of people from more liberal areas, as well as becoming more ethnically diverse.[19]

A map of the Southern United States, showing voter demographics
  40-49% Republican
  30-39% Republican
  40-49% Democratic
  50-59% Democratic
A map of the Southern United States, showing which party controls each Governorship and US state legislatures (as of 2013)
  States with Republican supermajorities in both state chambers and a Republican Governor
  States with Republican supermajorities in one chamber, one state chamber controlled by Republicans, and a Republican Governor
  States with Republicans controlling both state chambers and a Republican Governor
  States with Republicans controlling both state chambers and a Democratic Governor
  States with Republicans controlling one state chambers, one state chamber controlled by Democrats, and a Democratic Governor
  States with Republican supermajorities in one state chamber, one state chamber controlled by Democrats, and a Democratic Governor
  States with Democratic supermajorities in both state chambers and a Democratic Governor
  States with Democratic supermajorities in one state chamber, one state chamber controlled by Democrats, and a Democratic Governor
  States with Democratic controlling both state chambers and a Democratic Governor

Twenty-first century

In addition to its base among northern newcomers, businessmen and the white middle-class, Republicans attracted strong majorities among evangelical Christians, who prior to the 1980s were largely apolitical. Exit polls in the 2004 presidential election showed that Bush led Kerry by 70–30% among Southern whites, who comprised 71% of the voters. Kerry had a 90–9 lead among the 18% of Southern voters who were black. One-third of the Southern voters said they were white evangelicals; they voted for Bush by 80–20.[18]

Sensing an opening in the "Solid South," the Barbara Jordan of Texas. Just as Martin Luther King had promised, integration had brought about a new day in Southern politics.

Integration and the George Wallace of Alabama. These populist governors appealed to a less-educated, blue-collar electorate that on economic grounds favored the Democratic Party, but opposed desegregation.

By 1948 the national Democratic Party began to embrace the civil rights movement, and its argument that Southern whites had to vote Democratic to protect segregation grew weaker. Modernization had brought factories, national businesses, and larger, more cosmopolitan cities such as Atlanta, Dallas, Charlotte, and Houston to the South, as well as millions of migrants from the North and more opportunities for higher education. They did not bring a heritage of racial segregation, and instead gave priority to modernization and economic growth.[12]

The adoption of the strong civil rights plank by the 1948 convention and President Harry S. Truman's Executive Order 9981, which provided for equal treatment and opportunity for African-American servicemen, drove a wedge between the northern and southern wings of the party.[11]

For nearly a century after Reconstruction, the white South identified with the Democratic Party. The Democrats' lock on power was so strong the region was called the Solid South, although the Republicans controlled parts of the Appalachian mountains and they competed for statewide office in the border states. Before 1948, southern Democrats believed that their party, with its respect for states' rights and appreciation of traditional southern values, was the defender of the southern way of life. Southern Democrats warned against aggressive designs on the part of Northern liberals and Republicans and civil rights activists whom they denounced as "outside agitators."

The South becomes Republican

Legal changes came in the mid-1960s when President Lyndon B. Johnson pushed through Congress over the vehement objects of Southern Democrats the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It effectively ending segregation. He also pushed through the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which enabled the federal government to guarantee black voting rights.[9] The leading black spokesman was Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. continued his political activism, but his opposition to the Vietnam War brought him into conflict with President Johnson and the labor unions that had been powerful supporters.[10]

in 1963. March on Washington, and the Greensboro sit-in of 1960, the Birmingham campaign, the Selma to Montgomery marches, the Montgomery Bus Boycott laws, through such events as the [8]

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