Political parties in Germany

This is a list of political parties in Germany.

The Parliament of Germany, the Bundestag, has a plural multi-party system, with two major parties, the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), with its sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU) in the same parliamentary group, also known as CDU/CSU or the Union.

Furthermore, Germany has three minor parties, the Free Democratic Party (FDP), The Left, and Alliance '90/The Greens. The federal government of Germany usually consists of a coalition of a major and a minor party, most typically CDU/CSU and FDP, or a 'red-green alliance' of the SPD and Greens. From 1966 to 1969, and again from 2005 to 2009, the federal government consisted of a Grand Coalition.[1]

Coalitions in the Bundestag and state legislators are often described by party colors. Party colors are the Social Democratic Party being red, the Alliance '90/The Greens green, the Free Democratic Party yellow, the Left dark red or purple, and the CDU/CSU black or blue.[2][3]

The parties

Parties represented in the Bundestag or the European Parliament

Logo Name Abbr. Leader Ideology MdBs MEPs Notes
Christian Democratic Union of Germany
Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands
CDU Angela Merkel Christian democracy,[4] Liberal conservatism,[4] Economic liberalism[5] 255 34 [A]
style="background-color: " | 60px Christian Social Union of Bavaria
Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern
CSU Horst Seehofer Christian democracy,[4] Conservatism,[4] Regionalism[4] 56 8
Social Democratic Party of Germany
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands
SPD Sigmar Gabriel Social democracy,[4] Third Way[4] 193 23
The Left
Die Linke
LINKE Katja Kipping and Bernd Riexinger Democratic socialism[4] 64 8
60px Alliance '90/The Greens
Bündnis 90/Die Grünen
GRÜNE Simone Peter and Cem Özdemir Green politics[4] 63 14
Free Democratic Party
Freie Demokratische Partei
FDP Philipp Rösler Liberalism,[4] Classical liberalism[6][7] 0 12
A The CDU and CSU form the CDU/CSU faction in the Bundestag; CSU runs only in Bavaria, CDU elsewhere.

Parties represented in state parliaments

Logo Name Abbr. Leader Ideology Elected in State (Seats) Notes
Pirate Party Germany
Piratenpartei Deutschland
PIRATEN Bernd Schlömer Pirate politics, Direct democracy Berlin (15), North Rhine-Westphalia (20), Saarland (4) and Schleswig-Holstein (6)
Free Voters
Freie Wähler
FW Hubert Aiwanger Populism, Localism, Euroscepticism Bavaria (19)
National Democratic Party of Germany
Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands
NPD Holger Apfel Right-wing extremism, Neo-Nazism Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (5) and Saxony (8)
South Schleswig Voter Federation
Südschleswigscher Wählerverband
SSW Flemming Meyer Regionalism, ethnic minority politics, social liberalism Schleswig-Holstein (3) [A]
Citizens in Rage
Bürger in Wut
BIW Jan Timke Right-wing populism Bremen (1)
Alternative for Germany
Alternative für Deutschland
AfD Bernd Lucke and Frauke Petry and Konrad Adam Right-wing populism, Euroscepticism,[4] National conservatism,[4] Economic liberalism[4] Hesse (1) [B]
A Represents the Danish and Frisian minorities. Not subject to the general requirement of passing a 5% vote threshold. B The AfD representative was elected on a list of FDP, but then switched to AfD before the end of term in January 2014. AfD has not managed to pass the 5% threshold and will not be represented, as soon as the new Landtag will be constituted

Minor parties

Defunct parties

Historical parties

Parties existing up to World War I

Parties in Weimar Republic

Defunct parties in (former) West Germany

Parties banned by the Constitutional Court

Parties in (former) East Germany

Bloc parties in the socialist state (1949–1989)

During transition (1989–90)

See also


External links

  • Political Parties (Germany) - List of German political parties since 1949

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