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Title: Parkinsonism  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Parkinson's disease, Highlands Hospital, Wilson's disease, Antipsychotic, Dopamine
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Classification and external resources
ICD-10 G20-G21
ICD-9 332
DiseasesDB 24212
MedlinePlus 000759
MeSH D020734

Parkinsonism (also known as Parkinson's syndrome, atypical Parkinson's, or secondary Parkinson's) is a neurological syndrome characterized by tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, and postural instability.[1] Parkinsonism shares symptoms found in Parkinson's Disease, from which it is named; but parkinsonism is a symptom complex, and differs from Parkinson disease which is a progressive neurodegenerative illness. The underlying causes of parkinsonism are numerous, and diagnosis can be complex.[2][3] The neurodegenerative condition Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common cause of parkinsonism. However, a wide range of other etiologies may lead to a similar set of symptoms, including some toxins, a few metabolic diseases, and a handful of neurological conditions other than Parkinson's.[4]

About 7% of people with parkinsonism have developed their symptoms following treatment with particular medications. Side effect of medications, mainly neuroleptic antipsychotics especially the phenothiazines (such as perphenazine and chlorpromazine), thioxanthenes (such as flupenthixol and zuclopenthixol) and butyrophenones (such as haloperidol (Haldol)), piperazines (such as ziprasidone), and, rarely, antidepressants. The incidence of drug-induced parkinsonism increases with age. Drug induced parkinsonism tends to remain at its presenting level, i.e. does not progress like the parkinson disease.[5]

Differential diagnoses

Before Parkinson's disease is diagnosed the differential diagnoses include:


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External links

  • GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Perry syndrome
  • GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on X-Linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism
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