World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Panasonic

Article Id: WHEBN0000095171
Reproduction Date:

Title: Panasonic  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Micro Four Thirds system, List of UPnP AV media servers and clients, Mitsubishi Electric, Kyocera, Ricoh
Collection: 1918 Establishments in Japan, Battery Manufacturers, Companies Based in Osaka Prefecture, Companies Established in 1918, Companies Formerly Listed on the London Stock Exchange, Companies Formerly Listed on the New York Stock Exchange, Companies Listed on the New York Stock Exchange, Companies Listed on the Osaka Securities Exchange, Companies Listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, Computer Printer Companies, Consumer Battery Manufacturers, Cycle Manufacturers of Japan, Defense Companies of Japan, Display Technology Companies, Electronics Companies of Japan, Headphones Manufacturers, Home Appliance Manufacturers, Hvac Manufacturing Companies, Japanese Brands, Lighting Brands, Medical Equipment Manufacturers, Microphone Manufacturers, Military Equipment of Japan, Mobile Phone Manufacturers, Multinational Companies, Panasonic, Photography Companies of Japan, Point of Sale Companies, Portable Audio Player Manufacturers, Power Tool Manufacturers, Robotics Companies, Semiconductor Companies
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Panasonic

Panasonic Corporation
Native name
パナソニック 株式会社
Formerly called
Matsushita Electric
Public
Traded as
Industry
Founded March 13, 1918 (1918-03-13)
Osaka, Japan
Founder Konosuke Matsushita
Headquarters Kadoma, Osaka, Japan
Coordinates
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Products See products listing
Revenue Decrease ¥7.736 trillion (2014),[* 1]
US$ 64 billion [* 2]
Increase ¥305.1 billion (2014)
US$ 2.52 billion[* 2]
Profit Increase ¥120.4  billion (2014)
US$ 998 million[* 2]
Total assets Decrease ¥5.212 trillion (2014)
US$ 22.02 billion[* 2]
Total equity Decrease ¥1.586 trillion (2014)
US$ 13.16 billion[* 2]
Number of employees
Decrease 271,789 (27 June 2014)[* 3]
Divisions Panasonic Corporation of North America (US)
Subsidiaries
Website .netPanasonic
Footnotes / references
  1. ^
  2. ^ a b c d e
  3. ^

Panasonic Corporation (パナソニック株式会社 Panasonikku Kabushiki-gaisha), formerly known as Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. (松下電器産業株式会社 Matsushita Denki Sangyō Kabushiki-gaisha), is a Japanese multinational electronics corporation headquartered in Kadoma, Osaka, Japan.[1]

The company was founded in 1918 and has grown to become one of the largest Japanese electronics producers alongside Sony, Hitachi, Toshiba and Canon Inc. In addition to electronics, it offers non-electronic products and services such as home renovation services. Panasonic is the world's fourth-largest television manufacturer by 2012 market share.[2]

Panasonic has a primary listing on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the Nikkei 225 and TOPIX indices. It has a secondary listing on the Nagoya Stock Exchange.

Contents

  • Name 1
  • History 2
    • 1918 to 2000 2.1
    • 2000 to present 2.2
  • Current operations 3
    • Panasonic Automotive Systems 3.1
    • Panasonic Avionics Corporation 3.2
    • Panasonic Mobile Communications 3.3
    • Panasonic Corporation of North America 3.4
    • Panasonic Corporation in Europe 3.5
    • Panasonic Corporation of India 3.6
    • Panasonic Corporation in Indonesia 3.7
  • Former operations 4
    • Universal Studios 4.1
  • Products 5
  • Brand names 6
  • Sponsorships 7
    • Football 7.1
    • Other 7.2
  • Environmental record 8
  • Slogans 9
  • See also 10
  • References 11
  • Further reading 12
  • External links 13

Name

From 1935 to October 1, 2008, the company name was "Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd."[3][4] On January 10, 2008, the company announced that it would change its name to "Panasonic Corporation", in effect on October 1, 2008, to conform with its global brand name "Panasonic".[5] The name change was approved at a shareholders' meeting on June 26, 2008 after consultation with the Matsushita family.[6]

History

1918 to 2000

Panasonic was founded in 1918 by Konosuke Matsushita as a vendor of duplex lamp sockets.[7] In 1927, it began producing bicycle lamps, the first product which it marketed under the brand name National.

During World War II the company operated factories in Japan and other parts of Asia which produced electrical components and appliances such as light fixtures, motors, electric irons, wireless equipment and its first vacuum tubes.[8]

After the war, Panasonic regrouped as a Keiretsu and began to supply the post war boom in Japan with radios and appliances, as well as bicycles. Matsushita's brother-in-law, Toshio Iue, founded Sanyo as a subcontractor for components after World War II. Sanyo grew to become a competitor to Panasonic, but was later acquired by Panasonic in December 2009.

In 1961, Konosuke Matsushita traveled to the United States and met with American dealers. The company began producing television sets for the U.S. market under the Panasonic brand name, and expanded the use of the brand to Europe in 1979.[9]

The company used the National brand outside of North America from the 1950s to the 1970s (the trademark could not be used in the United States because it was already in use by the National Radio Company in a closely related product area). It sold televisions, VHS VCRs, high fidelity stereo receivers, multi-band shortwave radios and marine radio direction finders, often exported to North America under various U.S. brand names, such as Technics, Emerson, Curtis Mathes and of course Panasonic. The company also developed a line of home appliances such as rice cookers for the Japanese and Asian markets. Rapid growth resulted in the company opening manufacturing plants around the world.

The company debuted a hi-fidelity audio speaker in Japan in 1965 with the brand Technics. This line of high quality stereo components became worldwide favorites. The most famous products being its turntables, such as the SL-1200 record player, known for its high performance, precision and durability. Throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, Panasonic continued to produce high-quality specialized electronics for niche markets such as shortwave radios, as well as developing a successful line of stereo receivers, CD players and other components.

In 1973, Matsushita formed a joint venture with Anam Group, Anam National.

In 1983, Matsushita launched the Panasonic Senior Partner, the first fully IBM PC compatible Japanese-made computer.[10]

In November 1990, Matsushita agreed to acquire the American media company MCA Inc. for US$6.59 billion.[11][12] Matsushita subsequently sold 80% of MCA to Seagram Company for US$7 billion in April 1995.[13][14]

2000 to present

A 152-inch Panasonic plasma display on show at IFA 2010

On May 2, 2002, Panasonic Canada marked its 35th anniversary in that country by giving $5-million to help build a "music city" on Toronto's waterfront.[15]

On January 19, 2006, Panasonic announced that it would stop producing analog televisions (then 30% of its total TV business) from the next month, in order to concentrate on digital televisions.[16]

On November 3, 2008, Panasonic and Sanyo announced that they were holding merger talks, which eventually resulted in the acquisition of Sanyo by Panasonic.[17][18] The merger was completed in December 2009, and resulted in a corporation with revenues of over ¥11.2 trillion (around $110 billion).[19]

With the announcement that Pioneer would exit the production of its Kuro plasma HDTV displays, Panasonic purchased many of the patents and incorporated these technologies into its own plasma displays.

In April 2011, it was announced that Panasonic would cut its work force by 40,000 by the end of fiscal 2012 in a bid to streamline overlapping operations. The curtailment is about 10 percent of its group work force.[20]

In October 2011, Panasonic announced that it would trim its money-losing TV business by ceasing production of Plasma TVs at its plant in Amagasaki, Hyogo Prefecture by March 2012, cutting 1,000 jobs in the process.[21]

In January 2012, Panasonic announced that it had struck a deal with Myspace on its new venture, Myspace TV.[22] Myspace TV will allow users to watch live television while chatting with other users on a laptop, tablet or the television itself. With the partnership, Myspace TV will be integrated into Panasonic Viera televisions.[23]

On May 11, 2012, Panasonic announced plans to acquire a 76.2% stake in FirePro Systems, an India-based company in infrastructure protection and security solutions such as fire alarm, fire suppression, video surveillance and building management.[24]

In line with company prediction of a net loss of 765 billion yen, on November 5, 2012, the shares fell to the lowest level since February 1975 to 388 yen. In 2012, the shares plunged 41 percent.[25] On November 14, 2012, Panasonic said it will cut 10,000 jobs and make further divestments.[26]

On May 18, 2013, Panasonic announced that it would invest $40 million in building a factory in Binh Duong, Vietnam which is expected to be completed in 2014.[27]

In July 2013, Panasonic agreed to acquire a 13% stake in the Slovenian household appliance manufacturer Gorenje for around €10 million.[28]

In a press release following its announcement at IFA 2013, Panasonic announced that it had acquired the "Cameramanager video surveillance service" with the intention of expanding its reach to cloud-based solutions.[29]

In July 2014, it was announced that Panasonic has reached a basic agreement with Tesla Motors to participate in the Gigafactory, the huge battery plant that the American electric vehicle manufacturer plans to build in the U.S.[30] In August 2014, Tesla said the plant would be built in the Southwest or Western United States by 2020. The $5 billion plant would employ 6,500 people, and reduce Tesla's battery costs by 30 percent. The company said it was looking at potential sites in Nevada, Arizona, Texas, New Mexico and California.[31]

In October 2014, Panasonic announced its initial investment in Tesla Motors’ battery factory would amount to "tens of billions" of yen, according to the firm’s CEO.[32]

In November 2014, Panasonic announced its partnership with Photon Interactive to create customized and personalized digital signs in stores.[33]

In January 2015, Panasonic announced it has stopped making TVs in China and plans to liquidate its joint venture in Shandong.[34]

In March 2015, Panasonic announced plans to buy Houston-based satellite communication service provider ITC Global.[35]

In April 2015, Panasonic announced its new range of products and relaunched its brand in South Africa. The company intends to use South Africa as a springboard into Africa, with Nigeria and Egypt as its initial targets.[36]

In June 2015, Panasonic struck agreements with three Australian energy utilities (Red Energy, Ergon Energy and ActewAGL) to trial its home-based battery storage options.[37]

Current operations

As of March 31, 2012, Panasonic employed around 330,000 staff and had around 580 subsidiary companies.[38] Panasonic had total revenues of ¥7,846,216 million in 2012, of which 53 percent were generated in Japan, 25 percent in Asia (excluding Japan), 12 percent in the Americas and 10 percent in Europe.[38]

Panasonic's operations are organised into three broad "business fields" - Consumer, Solutions and Components & Devices - and nine "domain companies" - AVC Networks (which generated 17% of Panasonic's total 2012 revenues), Eco Solutions (15% of revenues), Appliances (15% of revenues), Industrial Devices (14% of revenues), Systems and Communications (8% of revenues), Automotive Systems (7% of revenues), Energy (6% of revenues), Healthcare, and Manufacturing Solutions.[38]

Panasonic invested a total of ¥520,216 million in research and development in 2012, equivalent to 6.6 percent of its revenues in that year.[38] As of March 31, 2012, Panasonic held a total of 140,146 patents worldwide.[38]

The Panasonic Center in Tokyo, Japan 
The Panasonic IMP Building in Osaka, Japan 
The Panasonic R&D facility at Yokosuka Research Park, Japan 

Panasonic Automotive Systems

Panasonic Automotive Systems is an original equipment manufacturer of factory installed mobile audio equipment such as headunits, speakers and navigation modules. It is a subcontractor to most major auto manufacturers, supplying virtually every Japanese automaker, along with Europe's largest automaker, Volkswagen and America's largest automaker, General Motors.

Panasonic also formerly manufactured aftermarket vehicle audio products such as head units and speakers.

Panasonic Avionics Corporation

Panasonic Avionics Corporation (PAC), a subsidiary of Panasonic Corporation of North America, is a supplier of in-flight entertainment (IFE) and communication systems.[39] Headquartered in Lake Forest, California where engineering, development and testing is performed while system installation, field engineering, major quality functions, certification and program management are performed at the Bothell, Washington facility - Panasonic Avionics Corporation employs approximately 3,300 employees based in over 70 locations worldwide, with major facilities in London, Toulouse, Hamburg, Dallas, Dubai and Singapore. A majority of the component manufacturing is carried out in Osaka, Japan.

Panasonic Mobile Communications

Panasonic Mobile Communications manufactures mobile phone handsets and related equipment. As of 2012, it had around a 20 per cent share of the Japanese handset market.[40] Panasonic used to market mobile phone handsets worldwide, but in December 2005 announced its withdrawal from overseas markets due to poor sales. Panasonic returned to the overseas market in 2012, with the release of the Panasonic Eluga Android-powered smartphone. In July 2013, Panasonic announced the company will not supply a new model of smartphone to NTT DoCoMo Inc., because NTT DoCoMo will focus with Sony and Samsung products. In Q2 2013, Panasonic Mobile Communications booked a 5.4 billion yen operating loss.[41]

Panasonic Corporation of North America

Panasonic Corporation of North America is Panasonic's principal subsidiary in the United States. It has been headquartered in Newark, New Jersey since 2013, after being previously headquartered in Secaucus, since the 1980s;[42] both Newark and Secaucus are located within New Jersey's Gateway Region.

Founded in New York City at the MetLife Building in September 1959, it was known as Matsushita Electric Corporation of America (MECA) prior to 2005.

Panasonic Corporation in Europe

Panasonic's principal subsidiaries in Europe are Panasonic Europe Ltd.[43] and Panasonic Marketing Europe GmbH.[44] Panasonic employs around 12,000 people in Europe, and the region generates around 10 per cent of its total revenues.[45] In 2012, Panasonic had around a 10 per cent share of the consumer electronics market in Europe, ranking third behind Samsung Electronics (with 26 per cent) and LG Electronics (with 12 per cent).[45]

Panasonic operates a chain of stores in the United Kingdom and Ireland called "Panasonic Store" which exclusively sell Panasonic products. Prior to 2008 the chain was named "shop@Panasonic".

In November 2010, Panasonic Electric Works established Panasonic Electric Works Vossloh-Schwabe Serbia d.o.o, a new company in Svilajnac, Serbia, to manufacture energy-efficient electronic devices (ballasts) for lighting fixtures. Volume production commenced in January 2011.[46]

In May 2015, Panasonic launched its virtual solar service to UK consumers.The service allows users to run a simulation to provide an estimate of how much a rooftop solar installation would produce if it were installed in their home.[47]

Panasonic Corporation of India

Mr. Deepak of NPS Mandanpur Baheri, Bareilly Ito serves as Group President for Panasonic Regional Headquarters India at Panasonic India Pvt.

Panasonic Corporation in Indonesia

PT Panasonic Gobel Indonesia (formerly known as PT National Gobel Indonesia) is the name of the company's Indonesia division based in Cawang, East Jakarta. Hiroyoshi Suga is the current President Director and Rachmat Gobel is the current Commissioners. Rachmat Gobel also Commissioners of Indosat. Panasonic Gobel Indonesia is a joint venture company between Panasonic Corporation Japan and Gobel Group of Indonesia.

Former operations

Universal Studios

Panasonic used to own Universal Studios, then known as the Music Corporation of America, since acquiring the company in 1990 but sold it to Seagram in 2000. Universal Studios is now a unit of NBCUniversal, which is now owned by Philadelphia-based Comcast.

Panasonic 3DO

Panasonic used to manufacture 3DO Gaming systems alongside Goldstar (Now LG Electronics) but stopped a few years later, as the system was not a success.

Products

Panasonic offers a wide range of products and services, including air conditioners, refrigerators, washing machines, compressors, lighting, televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, audio equipment, cameras, broadcasting equipment, projectors, automotive electronics, aircraft in-flight entertainment systems, semiconductors, batteries, electrical components, optical devices, bicycles and electronic materials.[48] Ventilation appliances such as electric fans are manufactured under KDK and rebranded as Panasonic.

A Panasonic Lumix camera 
A Panasonic Toughbook field computer 
A Panasonic mobile phone 
A display of Panasonic televisions 
Technics headphones 
Panasonic F-40DYP (left) resembles much with KDK D40Y (right) 

Brand names

Panasonic's current and historic brands

Panasonic Corporation sells virtually all of its products and services worldwide under the Panasonic brand, having phased out the Sanyo brand in the first quarter of 2012.[49] The company has sold products under a number of other brand names during its history.

In 1927, the company founder adopted the brand name "National" (ナショナル Nashonaru) for a new lamp product.[50] In 1955, the company began branding audio speakers and lamps for markets outside Japan as "PanaSonic", which was the first time it used the "Panasonic" brand name.[51] The company began to use the brand name "Technics" (テクニクス Tekunikusu)" in 1965 for audio equipment.[51] The use of multiple brands lasted for some decades.[51]

KDK, Panasonic's manufacturer of ventilation products such as electric fans, range hoods, air doors (air curtains), hand dryers, dehumidifiers, and subterranean air blowers, became part of the Matsushita Conglomerate in 1956. KDK also manufactures all ventilation products sold under the Panasonic name.

In May 2003, the company announced that "Panasonic" would become its global brand, and launched the global tagline "Panasonic ideas for life."[52] The company began to unify its brands to "Panasonic" and, by March 2004 replaced "National" for products and outdoor signboards, except for those in Japan.[52] In January 2008, the company announced that it would phase out the brand "National" in Japan, replacing it with the global brand "Panasonic" by March 2010.[5] In September 2013, the company announced a revision of the decade-old tagline to better illustrate the company vision: "A Better Life, A Better World." [53]

Rasonic is a brand name of Shun Hing Electric Works and Engineering Co. Ltd (信興電工工程有限公司), a company that has imported Panasonic and National branded product since Matsushita Electric Industrial era, and has also sold MEI/Panasonic products under the original brand names. In June 1994, Panasonic Shun Hing Industrial Devices Sales (Hong Kong) Co., Ltd. (松下信興機電(香港)有限公司) and Panasonic SH Industrial Sales (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd. (松下電器機電(深圳)有限公司) were established by joint venture between Matsushita Electric Industrial and Shun Hing Group respectively,[54][55] making Rasonic a product brand for MEI and subsequent Panasonic Corporation.

In September 2014, Panasonic announced they will revive the Technics brand.

Sponsorships

Football

Panasonic sponsors the German football player Marco Reus, who plays for Bundesliga club Borussia Dortmund and Germany.[56]

Panasonic owns Gamba Osaka, a club from the J. League, the main Japanese Professional Football League.

Panasonic is an official partner and sponsor of AFC Champions League and Major League Soccer.[57]

Between 1981 and 1983, Panasonic was the shirt sponsor of English football club Nottingham Forest F.C.

On January 16, 2010, Panasonic signed a three-year, Rs. 4.7 crores (US$1 million) jersey sponsorship deal for the India national football team.[58]

Other

Panasonic was the principal sponsor of the now-defunct Toyota Racing Formula One team

Panasonic were a primary sponsor of Toyota's Formula One program, Panasonic Toyota Racing.[59] Hiro Matsushita, grandson of the company founder, is a former race car driver who ran a company overseeing sponsorship arrangements for the company.

Panasonic was also a sponsor in NASCAR's Busch Series in 2005, sponsoring the No. 67 Smith Brothers Racing Dodge for Ken Schrader,[60] Bryan Reffner,[61] C.W. Smith,[62] and Johnny Benson, Jr..[63] In 2007, Panasonic became a technology partner with Hendrick Motorsports, and will serve as a primary sponsor of the team's No. 24 car with Jeff Gordon for two races in 2014 and through 2016.[64]

Panasonic has sponsored some professional filmmakers by allowing them to borrow a camera for their projects. One such Panasonic Lumix DMC-GH1 model camera was used to film the pilot of the Swedish horror film Marianne.[65]

Panasonic has been a top level sponsor of the Olympic Games since the Seoul Olympics in 1988.[66]

Panasonic was the official partner and sponsor of the Boston Celtics from 1975 to 1989, along with Technics. Various Panasonic ads appeared at the old Boston Garden during the 1980s.

Environmental record

Panasonic is ranked in joint 9th place (out of 15) in Greenpeace’s Guide to Greener Electronics, which ranks electronics manufacturers on policies and practices to reduce their impact on the climate, produce greener products, and make their operations more sustainable.[67] The company is one of the top scorers on the Products criteria, praised for its good product life cycles and the number of products which are free from polyvinyl chloride plastic (PVC). It also scores maximum points for the energy efficiency of its products with 100 percent of its TVs meeting the latest Energy Star standards and exceeding the standby power requirement.

However, Panasonic's score is let down by its low score on the Energy criteria, with the Guide stating it must focus on planned reductions of greenhouse gases (GHG), set targets to reduce GHG emissions by at least 30% by 2015 and increase renewable energy use by 2020.[67]

In 2014, an article in The Guardian reported that Panasonic will compensate its expatriate workers in China a "hazard pay" as compensation for the chronic air pollution they are subjected to as they work.[68]

Slogans

  • "Just slightly ahead of our time" (1970s-1980s)[69]
  • "What's on Panasonic" (1990-1996)
  • "Panasonic, The One That I Want" (1996-2003)
  • "What's New Panasonic" (1996-2003)
  • "Ideas for Life" (2003-2013)
  • "A Better Life, A Better World" (2013–present)

See also

References

  1. ^ "Corporate Profile." Panasonic Corporation. Retrieved on February 15, 2011. "Head Office Location 1006, Oaza Kadoma, Kadoma-shi, Osaka 571-8501, Japan" (PDF Map, GIF Map (Direct link))
  2. ^
  3. ^ 松下電器産業株式会社が「パナソニック株式会社」に社名変更, Panasonic Corporation. 2008-10-01. Retrieved on 2008-10-03.(Japanese).
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ Panasonic expands use of Panasonic brand name globally in April, 2003. /* Introduction */ Shahid Kapoor was the brand ambassador for Panasonic India from 2005 to 2010. Now Ranbir Kapoor has taken over along with Katrina Kaif Archived June 22, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^ Junko Yoshida, EE Times. "3-D TV or Myspace TV?." January 10, 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^
  31. ^
  32. ^ Panasonic says initial investment in Tesla battery factory will be 'tens of billions' of yen. Reuters, 6 October 2014
  33. ^ By Anothony Ha, TechCrunch. "Panasonic Partners With Photon To Build Smarter Signs In Stores." November 16, 2014. November 17, 2014.
  34. ^ Ritsuko Ando and Lisa Twaronite, Reuters. "Panasonic withdraws from TV production in China: source." January 31, 2015. February 10, 2015.
  35. ^ By Takashi Mochizuki, The Wall Street Journal. “Panasonic to Buy Houston-Based ITC Global.” March 16, 2015. April 6, 2015.
  36. ^ BizCommunity.com. “Panasonic...big plans for Africa and SA.” April 21, 2015. April 21, 2015.
  37. ^ Giles Parkinson, Renew Economy. “Panasonic signs battery storage deal with 3 Australian utilities.” June 2, 2015. June 3, 2015.
  38. ^ a b c d e
  39. ^
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^
  45. ^ a b
  46. ^
  47. ^ By Liam Stoker, Solar Power Portal. “Panasonic launches virtual solar service to UK consumers.” May 14, 2015. May 14, 2015.
  48. ^
  49. ^ Sanyo name to cease by April 1, 2012, Panasonic tells partners | AV Interactive | Pro AV news, analysis and comment from Europe’s leading Audio Visual title | AV Magazine. AV Interactive (2013-06-06). Retrieved on 2013-07-26.
  50. ^
  51. ^ a b c
  52. ^ a b
  53. ^
  54. ^ PSIDS (China (Guangdong), Hong Kong, Macau)
  55. ^ PSIDS(中国(广东),香港,澳门)
  56. ^
  57. ^
  58. ^
  59. ^
  60. ^
  61. ^
  62. ^
  63. ^
  64. ^
  65. ^
  66. ^
  67. ^ a b
  68. ^
  69. ^

Further reading

External links

  • Panasonic Global
  • Panasonic Manuals
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.