World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article




Two Oreo cookies
Owner Nabisco (Mondelēz International) and Cadbury
Country United States
Introduced March 6, 1912 (1912-03-06)
Markets World
Tagline "Wonderfilled"
"Milk's favorite cookie"

Oreo is a sandwich cookie consisting of two chocolate wafers with a sweet creme filling in between, and (as of 1974) are marketed as "Chocolate Sandwich Cookies" on the package they are held in. The version currently sold in the United States is made by the Nabisco division of Mondelēz International. Oreo has become the best-selling cookie in the United States since its introduction in 1912.[1]


  • Etymology 1
  • History 2
    • Twentieth century 2.1
    • Twenty-first century 2.2
  • International distribution 3
  • Production 4
  • Varieties 5
    • Other shapes 5.1
    • Other flavors 5.2
    • Beyond sandwich cookies 5.3
  • Use as an ethnic slur 6
  • In popular culture 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10


The origin of the name Oreo is unknown, but there are many theories, including derivations from the French word 'Or', meaning gold (as early packaging was gold), or the Greek word 'Oreo', meaning beautiful, nice or well done.[2] Others believe that the cookie was named Oreo because it was short and easy to pronounce.[3]


The trademarked face of an Oreo cookie

Twentieth century

The "Oreo Biscuit" was first developed and produced by the National Biscuit Company (today known as Nabisco) in 1912[4][5] at its Chelsea, Manhattan factory in the current-day Chelsea Market complex, located on Ninth Avenue between 15th and 16th Streets.[6] Today, this same block of Ninth Avenue is known as "Oreo Way."[6] The name Oreo was first trademarked on March 14, 1912.[7] It was launched as an imitation of the Hydrox cookie manufactured by Sunshine company, introduced in 1908.[8]

The original design of the cookie featured a wreath around the edge of the cookie and the name "OREO" in the center.[9] In the United States, they were sold for 25 cents a pound (453 g) in novelty cans with clear glass tops. The first Oreo was sold on March 6, 1912 to a grocer in Hoboken, New Jersey.[10]

The Oreo Biscuit was renamed in 1921, to "Oreo Sandwich."[2] A new design for the cookie was introduced in 1924.[9] A lemon-filled variety was available briefly during the 1920s, but was discontinued.[9] In 1948, the Oreo Sandwich was renamed the "Oreo Creme' Sandwich"; it was changed in 1974 to the Oreo Chocolate Sandwich Cookie.[2] The modern-day Oreo design was developed in 1952 by William A. Turnier,[11] to include the Nabisco logo.

The modern Oreo cookie filling was developed by Nabisco's principal food scientist, Sam Porcello.[6][12] Porcello held five patents directly related to his work on the Oreo.[12] He also created a line of Oreo cookies covered in dark chocolate and white chocolate.[6][12] Porcello retired from Nabisco in 1993.[6] In the early 1990s, health concerns prompted Nabisco to replace the lard in the filling with partially hydrogenated vegetable oil.[13]

Twenty-first century

Starting in January 2006, Oreo cookies replaced the trans fat in the cookie with non-hydrogenated vegetable oil.[13][14][15][16]

Nabisco began a marketing program in 2008, advertising the use of Oreo cookies in a game called DSRL, which stands for "Double Stuf Racing League." The DSRL was introduced one week prior to Super Bowl XLII. This sport had also been endorsed by football brothers Peyton Manning and Eli Manning.[17] Sisters Venus and Serena Williams have also joined, and challenged the Mannings to a race, which aired in an ad on January 18, 2009.[18] Another campaign started for Golden Double Stuf Oreo cookies with the brothers being challenged by Donald Trump & "Double Trump" played by Darrell Hammond; the date for this competition was January 24, 2010. The Mannings won in both cases. A new ad campaign is currently revolving around a 'Hooded Menace' threatening to take over the Double Stuf Racing League, and Eli Manning and Stufy (the DSRL mascot) needing some help airing beginning on or around September 14, 2010. Six days later, it was announced that Shaquille O'Neal and Apolo Ohno joined Oreo Double Stuf Racing League vets Eli Manning and Venus Williams.

In April 2011, Oreo announced its special edition Oreo cookies with blue creme in promotion of the 2011 3D computer animated film Rio. The promotion included stickers inside each package of cookies. Two types of contests were also announced: first, by completing an album of stickers, consumers could win three movie passes and medium snack bar combos; second, by finding winning stickers in packages with prizes, including a trip to Rio de Janeiro, backpacks, cinema passes for a year, and 3D glasses. The promotion ended May 30, 2011,[19] and was available in Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia.[20]

The rainbow Oreo advertisement in support of Gay Pride month

In June 2012, Oreo posted an ad displaying an Oreo cookie with rainbow colored cream to commemorate Gay Pride month.[21] The cookie itself is not being manufactured or available for sale. The ad prompted some negative comments but Kraft stood by their promotion stating "Kraft Foods has a proud history of celebrating diversity and inclusiveness. We feel the Oreo ad is a fun reflection of our values."[22] The Gay Pride ad was followed during 2012 by a series of ads commemorating other holidays and events, including a red, white and blue cream Oreo for Bastille Day, a stream of cookie crumbs for the appearance of the Delta Aquarid meteor shower, and a cookie with a jagged bite taken out of it for Shark Week.

International distribution

Oreo cookies are distributed worldwide through a variety of sales and marketing means. In the United Kingdom, since May 2008, following stocking of Oreo (called Oreo biscuits in UK[23]) in the supermarket chain Sainsbury's, Kraft decided to fully launch the Oreo across the UK, repackaged in the more familiar British tube design, accompanied with a £4.5M television advertising campaign around the 'twist, lick, dunk' catchphrase.[24] Kraft recently partnered with McDonald's to bring the Oreo McFlurry (already on sale in many countries) to a few McDonald's locations during its yearly Great Tastes of America promotions. An Oreo flavored "Krushem" drink was also on sale in UK KFC stores. The UK Oreo website gives a slightly different ingredients list to that of the US product. Unlike the US version, UK Oreo cookies originally contained whey powder and so were not suitable for people who avoid milk products. As the whey powder was sourced from cheese made with calf rennet, UK Oreo cookies were also not suitable for vegetarians.[25][26] On 6 December 2011, Kraft announced that Oreo cookies would start to be produced in the UK. Their Cadbury factory at Sheffield in South Yorkshire was selected to manufacture Oreo cookies in the UK for the first time. Production started on May 2013.[27]

According to the Kraft Foods Company the Oreo is the ‘World’s Best Selling Cookie’.[28] As the popularity of Oreos continues to grow, so does the amount of distribution that comes with it. In March 2012 Times Magazine had reported that Oreos were available in more than 100 different countries. Overall, it is estimated that since the Oreo cookie’s inception in 1912 that over 450 billion Oreos have been produced worldwide. The United States, China, Venezuela, Canada, and Indonesia round out the top 5 countries in terms of sales.


According to a statement from Kim McMiller, an Associate Director of Consumer Relations, a two-stage process is used to make Oreo cookies. The base cake dough is formed into the familiar round cookies by a rotary mold at the entrance of a 300-foot-long oven. Much of current Oreo production is done at the Kraft/Nabisco factory in Richmond, Virginia. Oreo cookies for the Asian markets are manufactured in Indonesia, India and China, except for Japan where Oreo was manufactured locally under the brand "Yamazaki-Nabisco". Oreo cookies for Europe are made in Spain and in Ukraine for consumers in several CIS countries. Oreo cookies sold in Australia are manufactured in Indonesia (previously China) or Spain, depending on flavor. The Canadian produced version (sold under the Christie's brand) includes coconut oil and is sold only in that region. Manufacturing of Oreo biscuits in Pakistan began in early 2014 at the production plant of Continental Biscuits Limited in Sukkur, Pakistan in collaboration with Mondelez International of the United States and Continental Biscuits Limited of Pakistan.


In addition to their traditional design of two chocolate wafers separated by a cream filling, Oreo cookies have been produced in many different varieties since they were first introduced, and this list is only a guide to some of the more notable and recent types; not all are available in every country. Notable flavors in the US are:

Different sizes of Oreo cookies: mini, regular and Double Stuf

Other shapes

  • Double Stuf Oreo (introduced in 1974)[29] have about twice the normal amount of white creme filling. Available in peanut butter, original, cool mint, chocolate creme, and birthday cake. In the UK they are called Double Stuff Oreo (note the double 'f') and are currently only available in original.
  • Football Oreo football-shaped Oreo cookies, introduced in 1976
  • Big Stuf Oreo (introduced in 1987)[29] were several times the size of a normal Oreo. Sold individually, each Big Stuf contained 250 calories (1,000 kJ)[30] and 13 grams of fat. They were discontinued in 1991.
  • Mini Oreo, originally released in 1991,[31] are bite-sized versions of ordinary Oreo cookies. After being discontinued in the late 1990s they were re-released in 2000 along with the redesigned 2001 Dodge Caravan as part of a promotional tie-in with DaimlerChrysler[32] Their 1990s packaging consisted of a "miniaturized" version of the full-size cardboard tray and box used in packaging at the time. Their current packaging consists of an aluminum foil bag.. Mini Oreos are also available, in original and golden varieties, in Nabisco To-Go Cups, lidded plastic cups which fit into car cup-holders, along with other Nabisco snacks in miniature form, such as Nutter Butters. In 2015, a new flavor of the mini Oreo, mint, debuted.
  • Triple Double Oreo, for sale in the US in summer 2011, combine three wafers with two layers of creme, one vanilla and one chocolate.[33]
  • Triple Double Neapolitan Oreo, similar to the original triple double Oreo cookies, but are three vanilla Oreo cookies, with chocolate filling between the first and second cookies, and strawberry filling between the second and third.
  • 100 Calorie Pack Oreo (Oreo Thinsations in Canada) are miniature, thin, hexagonal versions of Oreo with no creme-filling, and come individually portioned into 100 calories (420 kJ) pouches.
  • Mega Stuf Oreo, introduced in February 2013, are similar to Double Stuf Oreo cookies, but with even more white cream filling. They come in both chocolate and golden varieties.
  • Oreo Thins, released in 2015, are thin versions of these cookies. They come in chocolate, golden and mint kinds. They have only 40 calories per cookie. At 66% thinner, and 33% less per bag at same cost.

Other flavors

Peanut butter and chocolate Oreos
  • Chocolate Oreo
  • Coconut Delight Oreo, introduced in Indonesia.
  • Strawberry Milkshake Oreo, introduced in Canada, and sold for a limited time in the United States, is an Oreo cookie with strawberry flavoring.[34]
    • Strawberry Oreo, introduced in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
  • Green Tea Oreo, introduced in China and Japan.[35]
  • Lemon Ice Oreo, introduced in Japan.
  • Organic Oreo, introduced in 2006, are plain Oreo cookies made with organic flavor and organic sugar.
  • Blueberry Ice Cream Oreo, introduced in Singapore, Indonesia and Malaysia in 2010. Also sold in Thailand and China.[35]
  • Orange Ice Cream Oreo, introduced in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand in 2011.
  • Golden Oreo, introduced in Indonesia in 2011. Oreo's chocolate cookies replaced by milk-flavored cookies
    • Double Stuf Golden Oreo, introduced in late August 2009. As the name indicates they are Double Stuf Oreo cookies with Golden Oreo biscuits instead of normal chocolate Oreo biscuits.
    • Golden Oreo series have vanilla biscuits with other fillings such as vanilla and chocolate as Uh-Oh Oreo until its re-branding in 2007. Introduced in Indonesia in 2011 with cookies and cream.
    • Oreo Heads or Tails have vanilla creme filling with a chocolate Oreo wafer on one side and a Golden Oreo wafer on the other.
    • Creamsicle Oreo have vanilla and orange creme filling with vanilla Oreo wafers.
    • Ice Cream Oreo Rainbow Shure Bert have rainbow sherbet filling with vanilla Oreo wafers.
  • Oreo DQ Blizzard Creme, a limited edition Oreo released in April–May 2010, celebrated the 25th anniversary of the Dairy Queen Blizzard
  • Double Delight Oreo, introduced in 1987, have chocolate cookies with two fillings, notably peanut butter and chocolate, mint and cream, and coffee and cream flavors.
    • Also there are ongoing fruit series: orange and mango, raspberry and blueberry, grape and peach in China.
  • Cool Mint Creme Oreo are a Double Stuf Oreo with a slight minty creme filling.[36]
  • Peanut Butter Oreo are a Double Stuf Oreo with a peanut buttery creme filling.
  • Pure Milk Chocolate Covered Mint Oreo are similar to Milk Chocolate Oreo but have a mint-flavored filling.
  • Banana Split Creme Oreo with a light yellow banana flavor filling, were available for a limited time in 2008.
  • Brownie Batter Oreo introduced in August 2015, two chocolate cookies with brownie batter flavored creme filling.
  • Sugar Free Oreo, introduced in 2006, cost over twice as much as regular Oreo cookies, and had only trace amounts of sugar, 10 fewer calories per serving, 0.5 grams more fat and 450% more fiber.[37]
  • Reduced Fat Oreo, introduced in 2006, cost the same as regular Oreo cookies, had as much sugar, 10 fewer calories per serving, about 35% less fat and the same amount of fiber.[37]
  • During springtime, around Halloween, and Christmas, special edition "Double Stuf Oreo" cookies are produced with colored frosting reflecting the current holiday (blue or yellow, orange, and red or green respectively). Also, one side of each seasonal cookie is stamped with an appropriate design: the spring cookies feature flowers, butterflies, etc., and the Hallowe'en Oreos bear a jack o'lantern, ghost, cat, flock of bats, and/or broom-riding witch.
Halloween Oreos, Fall 2013
  • Chocolate and Dulce de leche Oreo, sold in Chile and Argentina, has chocolate or Dulce de Leche instead of the usual creme.
  • Oreo cookies with red creme, introduced in 2010, as a promotion for the movie How To Train Your Dragon
  • Birthday Cake Oreo cookies were a limited-edition release in February–July 2012 to celebrate Oreo's 100th birthday, made up of two chocolate Oreo cookies with a birthday-cake flavored filling and sprinkles inside. This edition replaced the traditional design on one of the two cookies with a birthday candle and the words "OREO 100". The flavor has been reintroduced, with "double stuff" amount of cream filling, in both chocolate and golden Oreo varieties, except that the cookies no longer display the "OREO 100" print.[38]
  • Birthday Cake Oreo - Fudge Dipped Vanilla were a limited-edition release in February–July 2012 to celebrate Oreo's 100th birthday, made up of one vanilla Oreo cookie with a birthday-cake flavored filling and sprinkles inside. The cookie and frosting are then dipped in fudge so that the entire cookie is covered.
  • Candy Corn Oreo cookies are a Hallowe'en-related flavor, made up of two golden Oreo cookies with a flavored filling that was half yellow and half orange. They were a limited edition release in 2012 that returned in 2013.
  • Gingerbread Oreo cookies were a limited edition release made up of two golden Oreo cookies with a mild gingerbread flavored filling.
  • Lemon Twist Oreo cookies were a limited edition release in 2012 that returned in 2013, made up of two golden Oreo cookies with a lemon flavored filling.
  • Neapolitan Oreo cookies were a limited edition release in 2012, made up of three golden Oreo cookies with a double sandwich of chocolate and strawberry creme fillings.
  • Prime Berry Cream Oreo was released on June 13, 2013 in Manila, Philippines. They consisted of the usual two cookies, in between which was a layer of blueberry Ice Cream-flavored filling. They were Inspired by the Movie Transformers: Age of Extinction
  • Ice Cream Rainbow Sure, Bert! Oreo cookies were a limited edition release in 2013, made up of two golden Oreo cookies with a double stuf-thickness layer of tri-color raspberry and lime sherbert flavor creme filling.
  • Watermelon Oreo cookies are a limited edition release for the summer of 2013, consisting of two golden Oreo cookies with watermelon-flavoured filling.[39]
  • Banana Split Oreo cookies were a limited edition release in fall 2013, made up of one golden and one chocolate Oreo, with a double stuf-thickness layer of strawberry and banana flavor creme filling.[40]
  • Limeade Oreo released in 2014, two vanilla cookies with a lime flavored creme inside.[41]
  • SpongeBob Oreo limited edition release in 2014, featuring chocolate cookies with yellow creme and one side of each cookie donning a SpongeBob SquarePants character design.[42]
  • Fruit Punch Oreo limited edition release in 2014, featuring vanilla cookies with fruit punch flavored creme.
  • Cookie Dough Oreo limited edition release in March 2014, featuring chocolate cookies with cookie dough flavored creme.[43]
  • Caramel Apple Oreo limited edition release in August 2014 exclusively at Target stores, featuring vanilla cookies with caramel apple flavored creme.[44]
  • Pumpkin Spice Oreo limited edition release in September 2014. Golden Oreo cookies with pumpkin spice flavored filling.
  • Red Velvet Oreo limited edition release in February 2015. Red Oreo cookies with cream cheese flavored filling.
  • Reese's Peanut Butter Cup Oreo, introduced in May 2014, similar to peanut butter Oreos, but with half peanut butter and chocolate filling.
  • Cotton Candy Oreo limited edition release in April 2015 exclusively at Target stores, made of two golden Oreo cookies with cotton candy flavored pink and blue creme filling.
  • S'Mores Oreo limited edition release in May 2015, made of two graham flavored Oreo cookies filled with both chocolate and marshmallow flavored creme.[45]
  • Root Beer Float limited edition release in July 2014, made of two gold Oreo Cookies filled with root beer flavored creme.
  • Key Lime Pie limited edition release in July 2015, made of two graham flavored Oreo cookies filled with key lime creme.
  • Marshmallow Crispie limited edition release in March 2014, made of two gold Oreo Cookies filled with marshmallow flavored creme and rice crispies.
  • Cookies & Creme limited edition release in July 2015, featuring chocolate cookies with cookies & creme ice cream flavored filling.
  • Toasted Coconut Oreo limited edition release in September 2015, featuring vanilla cookies with toasted coconut flavored creme and flakes of toasted coconut.

Beyond sandwich cookies

Oreo Brownie
Oreo Fudge Cremes
  • Norwegian Freia milk chocolate with Oreo bites
  • Fudge Covered Oreo, White Fudge Oreo and Milk Chocolate Oreo are covered in either a layer of fudge, white fudge or milk chocolate respectively.
  • Coconut Delight Oreo Fudge Cremes are covered in chocolate and contain coconut flavoring in the middle.
  • Oreo Fudgees are rectangular "dipping" shaped Oreo cookies with a chocolate fudge filling (different from the Chocolate Creme Oreo).
  • Oreo Fudge Sundae Creme, a limited edition introduced in 2009, are chocolate ring cookies with traditional white cream filling on half a ring cookie, and fudge cream on the other half.
  • Oreo Fudge Rings are chocolate ring cookies with the traditional white cream filling drizzled over them.
  • Oreo Cakesters, introduced in 2007, are soft chocolate snack cakes with vanilla or chocolate creme in the middle.
  • Oreo WaferStix are long wafer sticks with a creamy filling and covered by chocolate.
  • Oreo Handi-Snacks are plastic holders with rectangular Oreo cookies and a little box of icing.
  • Oreo Sippers were Oreo flavored sticks that could be eaten or used as a straw; it was discontinued in 2012.
  • Oreo Star sold only in Asian Countries
  • Jell-O Oreo Pudding – Jell-O brand chocolate pudding at the bottom and on top, with vanilla in the middle.
  • Jell-O Oreo Instant Pudding – also named Cookies n' Cream. The box contains instant vanilla pudding with real cookie pieces.
  • There was a Post cereal called Oreo O's; it was discontinued in 2007.
  • Oreo Ice Cream. Licensed by Breyers, Good Humor, and Klondike in the US, and Nestlé in Canada. Flavors are:
    • Oreo Ice Cream (blended Oreo cookies in vanilla ice cream)
    • Oreo Ice Cream Sandwich (extra large Oreo wafers with vanilla ice cream in the middle)
    • Oreo Ice Cream Bar (vanilla light ice cream mixed with Oreo pieces with a chocolate flavored coating with Oreo bits)
    • Mint Oreo Ice Cream (blended Oreo cookies in mint ice cream)
    • Many notable fast-food restaurants, such as Dairy Queen and Baskin Robbins, serve Oreo-flavored ice cream desserts and milkshakes
    • Oreo Ice Cream is also called Cookies and Cream.
  • Easy-Bake Oreo Mix– two easy-bake chocolate cakes with a marshmallow filling topped with an Oreo cookie topping
  • Oreo Holiday Treats – Oreo cookies covered in dark chocolate
  • Oreo Chocolate Candy Bar- A chocolate candy bar with a rectangular Oreo cookie and Oreo cream filling covered in milk chocolate.
  • Oreo Pie Crust, a pie crust made of crushed Oreo cookies, sold around the U.S.
  • Banana Split Oreo, introduced in Canada, an Oreo cookie with banana flavoring.[46]
  • Oreo Milkshake[47] is a Kraft Foods recipe consisting of Oreo cookies, milk, vanilla ice-cream and chocolate syrup.
  • Oreo Cookie Cheesecake, manufactured by The Cheesecake Factory
  • Cadbury Dairy Milk 'with Oreo' - Cadbury milk chocolate with an Oreo filling.
  • Milka 'Milka & Oreo' - Milka milk chocolate with an Oreo filling.
  • Tim Hortons Canadian-based coffee chain released a 'Oreo' donut - chocolate donut with Vanilla Cream Filling, White Fondant frosting and Oreo cookie crumb topping.

Use as an ethnic slur

The term "Oreo" has been used to refer to a black person who acts in a "white manner", or who perpetuates the "un-level playing field for blacks" - someone who is, like the cookie, "black on the outside and white on the inside".[48]

In popular culture

  • In the 1978 Clint Eastwood film Every Which Way But Loose and its 1980 sequel Any Which Way You Can, Philo Beddoe's mother - Ma, played by Ruth Gordon - is involved in a long running battle with Clyde the Orangutan who continually hides her Oreos from her.
  • The song "The White Stuff" by "Weird Al" Yankovic, off his 1992 album Off the Deep End, is a tribute to Oreos.
  • In the 1998 movie Rounders, the main antagonist Teddy KGB (played by John Malkovich), is well known for his love for Oreo cookies, which he regularly eats even during poker games.
  • In the 2012 animated movie Wreck-It Ralph, Oreo cookies serve as royal guards in King Candy's castle. They continually sing the word "Oreo" in a manner similar to the guards of the castle of the Wicked Witch of the West in The Wizard of Oz.
  • The DC Comics character, Martian Manhunter has been shown to have a well known love for Oreo cookies.
  • The 2014 film Transformers: Age Of Extinction features an Oreo-themed Transformer that was destroyed by the Autobots in the KSI factory.

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ a b c
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^ a b c d e
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ a b c
  10. ^ Grossman, Samantha. 100 Years of Oreos: 9 Things You Didn't Know About the Iconic Cookie" Time (March 6, 2012)
  11. ^
  12. ^ a b c
  13. ^ a b
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^ Promo Gana - Peru: Concurso Promo Oreo, gana paquetes de cine, viaje a Rio, mochiles y mas, April 8, 2011 Retrieved April 8, 2011 (Spanish)
  20. ^ Official "Rio" Promotion Site Retrieved April 8, 2011
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ BBC News Magazine Can Oreo win over British biscuit lovers?, 2 May 2008
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^ a b
  30. ^
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^
  35. ^ a b
  36. ^
  37. ^ a b
  38. ^
  39. ^ Oreo's Latest Limited-Edition Flavor: Watermelon, Time Magazine Online. Published and retrieved 18 June 2013.
  40. ^ [1], The Impulsive Buy. August 13, 2013.
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^
  45. ^
  46. ^
  47. ^
  48. ^ Griffin, Michael and James, Joni (January 14, 1998). "UF President Apologizes For Remark". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved September 3, 2014.

External links

  • Official website
  • Snack Works (formerly NabiscoWorld website)
  • Official UK website
  • Additional history notes on Oreo cookies
  • Interview with the winners of the Oreo and Milk Jingle Contest Sing-off with FOX News Radio
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.