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Orange (colour)

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Orange (colour)

Spectral coordinates
Wavelength 590–620 nm
Frequency 505–480 THz
    Colour coordinates
Hex triplet #FF7F00
sRGBB  (rgb) (255, 127, 0)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 50, 100, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (30°, 100%, 100%)
Source HTML Colour Chart @30
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Orange is the colour between red and yellow on the spectrum of light, and in the traditional colour wheel used by painters. Its name is derived from the fruit orange.

In Europe and America, orange is commonly associated with amusement, the unconventional, extroverts, fire, activity, danger, taste and aroma, the autumn season, and Protestantism. In Asia, it is an important symbolic colour of Buddhism and Hinduism.[1]

The colour orange is named after the appearance of the ripe orange fruit.[2] The word comes from the Old French orenge, from the old term for the fruit, pomme d'orenge. That name comes from the Arabic naranj, through the Persian naranj, derived from the Sanskrit naranga.[3] The first recorded use of orange as a colour name in English was in 1512,[4][5] in a will now filed with the Public Record Office.

Before this word was introduced to the English-speaking world, saffron already existed in the English language.[6] Crog also referred to the saffron colour, so that orange was also referred to as ġaggarola spafintolba (yellow-red) for reddish orange, or ġeolucrog (yellow-saffron) for yellowish orange.[7][8][9] Alternatively orange things were sometimes described as red such as red deer, red hair, the Red Planet and robin redbreast.


  • In nature and culture 1
  • History and art 2
    • The House of Orange 2.1
    • 18th and 19th century 2.2
    • 20th and 21st centuries 2.3
  • Science 3
    • Optics 3.1
    • Pigments and dyes 3.2
    • Why carrots, pumpkins, oranges and autumn leaves are orange 3.3
    • Flowers 3.4
    • Animals 3.5
    • Foods 3.6
    • Food colourings 3.7
  • Culture, associations and symbolism 4
    • China 4.1
    • Hinduism and Buddhism 4.2
    • Colour of amusement 4.3
    • Colour of visibility and warning 4.4
    • Academia 4.5
    • Selected flags 4.6
    • Geography 4.7
    • Contemporary political and social movements 4.8
    • Religion 4.9
    • Metaphysics 4.10
    • In the military 4.11
    • Sports 4.12
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Notes 7
  • External links 8

In nature and culture

History and art

In ancient Egypt, artists used an orange mineral pigment called realgar for tomb paintings, as well as other uses. It was also used later by Medieval artists for the colouring of manuscripts. Pigments were also made in ancient times from a mineral known as orpiment. Orpiment was an important item of trade in the Roman Empire and was used as a medicine in China although it contains arsenic and is highly toxic. It was also used as a fly poison and to poison arrows. Because of its yellow-orange colour, it was also a favourite with alchemists searching for a way to make gold, both in China and the West.

Before the late 15th century, the colour orange existed in Europe, but without the name; it was simply called yellow-red. Portuguese merchants brought the first orange trees to Europe from Asia in the late 15th and early 16th century, along with the Sanskrit naranga, which gradually became "orange" in English. In parts of Germany, the Netherlands, and Russia, the orange fruit was and is still called the Chinese apple.

The House of Orange

The House of Orange-Nassau was one of the most influential royal houses in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. It originated in 1163 the tiny Principality of Orange, a feudal state of 108 square miles north of Avignon in southern France. The principality of Orange took its name not from the fruit, but from a Roman-Celtic settlement on the site which was founded in 36 or 35 BC and was named Arausio, after a Celtic water god;[10] however, the name may have been slightly altered, and the town associated with the colour, because it was on the route by which quantities of oranges were brought from southern ports such as Marseilles to northern France.

The family of the Prince of Orange eventually adopted the name and the colour orange. The colour came to be associated with Spain, a war that lasted for eighty years, until the Netherlands won its independence. Another member, William III of Orange, became King of England in 1689, after the downfall of the Catholic James II.

Due to William III, orange became an important political colour in Britain and Europe. William was a Protestant, and as such he defended the Protestant minority of Ireland against the majority Roman Catholic population. As a result, the Protestants of Ireland were known as Orangemen. Orange eventually became one of the colours of the Irish flag, symbolizing the Protestant heritage.

When the Orange Free State. In the United States, the flag of the City of New York has an orange stripe, to remember the Dutch colonists who founded the city. William of Orange is also remembered as the founder of William and Mary College, and Nassau County in New York is named after the House of Orange-Nassau.

18th and 19th century

In the 18th century, orange was sometimes used to depict the robes of Pomona, the goddess of fruitful abundance; her name came from the pomon, the Latin word for fruit. Oranges themselves became more common in northern Europe, thanks to the 17th century invention of the heated greenhouse, a building type which became known as an orangerie. The French artist Jean-Honoré Fragonard depicted an allegorical figure of "inspiration" dressed in orange.

In 1797, a French scientist, Louis Vauquelin, discovered the mineral crocoite, or lead chromate, which led in 1809 to the invention of the synthetic pigment chrome orange. Other synthetic pigments, cobalt red, cobalt yellow, and cobalt orange, the last made from cadmium sulfide plus cadmium selenide, soon followed. These new pigments, plus the invention of the metal paint tube in 1841, made it possible for artists to paint outdoors and to capture the colours of natural light.

In Britain, orange became highly popular with the Pre-Raphaelites and with history painters. The flowing red-orange hair of Elizabeth Siddal, the wife of painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti, became a symbol of the Pre-Raphaelite movement, Lord Leighton, the President of the Royal Academy, produced Flaming June, a painting of a sleeping young woman in a bright orange dress, which won wide acclaim. Albert Joseph Moore painted festive scenes of Romans wearing orange cloaks brighter than any the Romans ever likely wore. In the United States, Winslow Homer brightened his palette with vivid oranges.

In France, painters took orange in an entirely different direction. In 1872, Claude Monet painted Impression Sunrise, a tiny orange sun and some orange light reflected on the clouds and water in the centre of a hazy blue landscape. This painting gave its name to the impressionist movement.

Orange became an important colour for all the impressionist painters. They all had studied the recent books on colour theory, and they know that orange placed next to azure blue made both colours much brighter. Auguste Renoir painted boats with stripes of chrome orange paint straight from the tube. Paul Cézanne did not use orange pigment, but created his own oranges with touches of yellow, red and ochre against a blue background. Toulouse-Lautrec often used oranges in the skirts of dancers and gowns of Parisiennes in the cafes and clubs he portrayed. For him it was the colour of festivity and amusement.

The post-impressionists went even further with orange. Paul Gauguin used oranges as backgrounds, for clothing and skin colour, to fill his pictures with light and exoticism. But no other painter used orange so often and dramatically as Vincent van Gogh. who had shared a house with Gauguin in Arles for a time. For Van Gogh, orange and yellow were the pure sunlight of Provence. He created his own oranges with mixtures of yellow, ochre and red, and placed them next to slashes of sienna red and bottle green, and below a sky of turbulent blue and violet. He put an orange moon and stars in a cobalt blue sky. He wrote to his brother Theo of "searching for oppositions of blue with orange, of red with green, of yellow with violet, searching for broken colours and neutral colours to harmonize the brutality of extremes, trying to make the colours intense, and not a harmony of greys."[11]

20th and 21st centuries

In the 20th and 21st centuries, the colour orange had highly varied associations, both positive and negative.

The high visibility of orange made it a popular colour for certain kinds of clothing and equipment. During the Second World War, U.S. Navy pilots in the Pacific began to wear orange inflatable life jackets, which could be spotted by search and rescue planes. After the war, these jackets became common on both civilian and naval vessels of all sizes, and on aircraft that flew over water. Orange was also widely worn by workers on highways and by cyclists to avoid being hit by cars, and for the flights suits of the crews of the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station.

A herbicide called Agent Orange was widely sprayed from aircraft by the Royal Air Force during the Malayan Emergency and the U.S. Air Force during the Vietnam War to remove the forest and jungle cover beneath which enemy combatants were believed to be hiding, and to expose their supply routes. The chemical was not actually orange, but took its name from the colour of the steel drums in which it was stored. Agent Orange was toxic, and was later linked to birth defects and other health problems.

Orange also had a political dimension. In Ukraine in November–December 2004, it became the colour of the Orange Revolution, a popular movement which carried activist and reformer Viktor Yushchenko into the presidency.[12]



In traditional colour theory, orange is a range of colours between red and yellow

In optics, orange is the colour seen by the eye when looking at light with a wavelength between approximately 585–620 nm. It has a hue of 30° in HSV colour space.

In the traditional colour wheel used by painters, orange is the range of colours between red and yellow, and painters can obtain orange simply by mixing red and yellow in various proportions; though these colours will never be as vivid as a pure orange pigment

In the RGB colour model, the system used to create colours on a television or computer screen, orange is made by combining high intensity red light with a lower intensity green light, and the blue light turned off.

Orange is a tertiary colour numerically halfway between gamma-compressed red and yellow, as can be seen in the RGB colour wheel.

For painters, blue is the complementary colour of orange. As many painters of the 19th century discovered, blue and orange reinforce each other. The painter Vincent van Gogh wrote to his brother Theo that in his paintings he was trying to reveal "the oppositions of blue with orange, of red with green, of yellow with violet ... trying to make the colours intense and not a harmony of grey".[13] In another letter he wrote simply, "there is no orange without blue."[14] Van Gogh, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and many other impressionist and post-impressionist painters frequently placed orange against azure or cobalt blue, to make both colours appear brighter.

The actual complement of orange is azure a color 1/4 of the way between blue and green on the color spectrum. The actual complementary color of true blue is yellow.

Orange pigments are largely in the ochre or cadmium families, and absorb mostly greenish-blue light.

(See also shades of orange).

Pigments and dyes

Other orange pigments include:

  • Minium and massicot are bright yellow and orange pigments made since ancient times by heating lead oxide and its variants. Minium was used in the Byzantine Empire for making the red-orange colour on illuminated manuscripts, while massicot was used by ancient Egyptian scribes and in the Middle Ages. Both were toxic, and were replaced in the beginning of the 20th century by chrome orange and cadmium orange.[15]
  • Cadmium orange is a synthetic pigment made cadmium sulfide. It is a by-product of mining for zinc, but also occurs rarely in nature in the mineral greenockite. It is usually made by replacing some of the sulphur with selenium, which results in an expensive but deep and lasting colour. Selenium was discovered in 1817, but the pigment was not made commercially until 1910.[16]
  • Quinacridone orange is a synthetic organic pigment first identified in 1896 and manufactured in 1935. It makes a vivid and solid orange.
  • Diketo-pyrrolo pyrolle orange or DPP orange is a synthetic organic pigment first commercialized in 1986. It is sold under various commercial names, such as translucent orange. It makes an extremely bright and lasting orange, and is widely used to colour plastics and fibres, as well as in paints.[17]

Why carrots, pumpkins, oranges and autumn leaves are orange

The orange colour of carrots, pumpkins, sweet potatoes, oranges, and many other fruits and vegetables comes from carotenes, a type of photosynthetic pigment. These pigments convert the light energy that the plants absorb from the sun into chemical energy for the plants' growth. The carotenes themselves take their name from the carrot.[18] Autumn leaves also get their orange colour from carotenes. When the weather turns cold and the green chlorophyll stops flowing, the orange colour remains.

Before the 18th century, carrots from Asia were usually purple, while those in Europe were either white or red. Dutch farmers bred a variety that was orange; according to some sources, as a tribute to the stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland, William of Orange.[19] The long orange Dutch carrot, first described in 1721, is the ancestor of the orange horn carrot, one of the most common types found in supermarkets today. It takes its name from the town of Hoorn, in the Netherlands.


Orange is traditionally associated with the autumn season, with the harvest and autumn leaves. The flowers, like orange fruits and vegetables and autumn leaves, get their colour from the photosynthetic pigments called carotenes.



Orange is a very common colour of fruits, vegetables, spices, and other foods in many different cultures. As a result, orange is the colour most often associated in western culture with taste and aroma.[20] Orange foods include peaches, apricots, mangoes, carrots, shrimp, salmon roe, and many other foods. Orange colour is provided by spices such as paprika, saffron and curry powder. In the United States, with Halloween on 31 October, and in North America with Thanksgiving in October (Canada) and November (U.S.) orange is assoiated with the harvest colour, and also is the colour of the carved pumpkins, or jack-o-lanterns, used to celebrate the holiday.

Food colourings

Nacho cheese Doritos, like many popular snack foods, contain Yellow 6, Yellow 5 and Red 40 synthetic food colour.
Wrapped slices of American cheese are now often coloured with annatto, a natural food colour made from the seeds of the achiote tree.

People associate certain colours with certain flavours, and the colour of food can influence the perceived flavour in anything from candy to wine.[21] Since orange is popularly associated with good flavour, many companies add orange food colouring to improve the appearance of their packaged foods. Orange pigments and dyes, synthetic or natural, are added to many orange sodas and juices, cheeses (particularly cheddar cheese, Gloucester cheese, and American cheese); snack foods, butter and margarine; breakfast cereals, ice cream, yoghurt, jam and candy. It is also often added to children's medicine, and to chicken feed to make the egg yolks more orange.

The United States Government and the European Union certify a small number of synthetic chemical colourings to be used in food. These are usually aromatic hydrocarbons, or azo dyes, made from petroleum. The most common ones are:

Because many consumers are worried about possible health consequences of synthetic dyes, some companies are beginning to use natural food colours. Since these food colours are natural, they do not require any certification from the Food and Drug Administration. The most popular natural food colours are:

  • Annatto, made from the seeds of the achiote tree. Annato contains carotenoids, the same ingredient that gives carrots and other vegetables their orange colour. Annato has been used to dye certain cheeses in Britain, particularly Gloucester cheese, since the 16th century. It is now commonly used to colour American cheese, snack foods, breakfast cereal, butter and margarine. It is used as a body paint by native populations in Central and South America. In India, women often put it, under the name sindoor, on their hairline to indicate that they are married.
  • Turmeric is a common spice in South Asia, Persia and the Mideast. It contains the pigments called curcuminoids, widely used as a dye for the robes of Buddhist monks. It is also often used in curry powders and to give flavour to mustard. It is now being used more frequently in Europe and the U.S. to give an orange colour to canned beverages, ice cream, yogurt, popcorn and breakfast cereal. The food colour is usually listed as E100.
  • Paprika oleoresin contains natural carotenoids, and is made from chili peppers. It is used to colour cheese, orange juice, spice mixtures and packaged sauces. It is also fed to chickens to make their egg yolks more orange.

Culture, associations and symbolism


In Confucianism, the religion and philosophy of ancient China, orange was the colour of transformation. In China and India, the colour took its name not from the orange fruit, but from saffron, the finest and most expensive dye in Asia. According to Confucianism, existence was governed by the interaction of the male active principle, the yang, and the female passive principle, the yin. Yellow was the colour of perfection and nobility; red was the colour of happiness and power. Yellow and red were compared to light and fire, spirituality and sensuality, seemingly opposite but really complementary. Out of the interaction between the two came orange, the colour of transformation.[22]

Hinduism and Buddhism

A wide variety of colours, ranging from a slightly orange yellow to a deep orange red, all simply called saffron, are closely associated with Hinduism and Buddhism, and are commonly worn by monks and holy men across Asia.

In Hinduism, the divinity Krishna is commonly portrayed dressed in yellow or yellow orange. Yellow and saffron are also the colours worn by sadhu, or wandering holy men in India.

In Buddhism, orange (or more precisely saffron) was the colour of illumination, the highest state of perfection.[23] The saffron colours of robes to be worn by monks were defined by the Buddha himself and his followers in the 5th century BC. The robe and its colour is a sign of renunciation of the outside world and commitment to the order. The candidate monk, with his master, first appears before the monks of the monastery in his own clothes, with his new robe under his arm. and asks to enter the order. He then takes his vows, puts on the robes, and with his begging bowl, goes out to the world. Thereafter, he spends his mornings begging and his afternoons in contemplation and study, either in a forest, garden, or in the monastery.[24]

According to Buddhist scriptures and commentaries, the robe dye is allowed to be obtained from six kinds of substances: roots and tubers, plants, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits. The robes should also be boiled in water a long time to get the correctly sober colour. Saffron and ochre, usually made with dye from the curcuma longa plant or the heartwood of the jackfruit tree, are the most common colours. The so-called forest monks usually wear ochre robes and city monks saffron, though this is not an official rule.[25]

The colour of robes also varies somewhat among the different "vehicles," or schools of Buddhism, and by country, depending on their doctrines and the dyes available. The monks of the strict Vajrayana, or Tantric Buddhism, practiced in Tibet, wear the most colourful robes of saffron and red. The monks of Mahayana Buddhism, practiced mainly in Japan, China and Korea, wear lighter yellow or saffron, often with white or black. Monks of Hinayana Buddhism, practiced in Southeast Asia, usually wear ochre or saffron colour. Monks of the forest tradition in Thailand and other parts of Southeast Asia wear robes of a brownish ochre, dyed from the wood of the jackfruit tree.[24][26]

Colour of amusement

In Europe and America, orange and yellow are the colours most associated with amusement, frivolity and entertainment. In this regard, orange is the exact opposite of its complementary colour, blue, the colour of calm and reflection. Mythological paintings traditionally showed Bacchus (known in Greek mythology as Dionysus), the god of wine, ritual madness and ecstasy, dressed in orange. Clowns have long worn orange wigs. Toulouse-Lautrec used a palette of yellow, black and orange in his posters of Paris cafes and theatres, and Henri Matisse used an orange, yellow and red palette in his painting, the Joy of Living.[27]

Colour of visibility and warning

Orange is the colour most easily seen in dim light or against the water, making it, particularly the shade known as safety orange, the colour of choice for life rafts, life jackets or buoys. Highway temporary signs about construction or detours in the United States are orange, because of its visibility and its association with danger.

It is worn by people wanting to be seen, including highway workers and lifeguards. Prisoners are also sometimes dressed in orange clothing to make them easier to see during an escape. Lifeguards on the beaches of Los Angeles County, both real and in television series, wear orange swimsuits to make them stand out. Orange astronaut suits have the highest visibility in space, or against blue sea. An aircraft's two types of "black box," or flight data recorder and cockpit voice recorder, are actually bright orange, so they can be found more easily.

The Golden Gate Bridge at the entrance of San Francisco Bay is painted international orange to make it more visible in the fog. Next to red, it is the colour most popular for extroverts, and as a symbol of activity.[28]

Orange is sometimes used, like red and yellow, as a colour warning of possible danger or calling for caution. A skull against an orange background means a toxic substance or poison.

In the colour system devised by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security to measure the threat of terrorist attack, an orange level is second only to a red level. The U.S. Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices specifies orange for use in temporary and construction signage.


  • In the United States and Canada, orange regalia is associated with the field of engineering.[29]

Selected flags


Contemporary political and social movements

Because of its symbolic meaning as the colour of activity, orange is often used as the colour of political and social movements.


(See Orange in Hinduism and Buddhism above)

  • Orange, or more specifically deep saffron, is the most sacred colour of Hinduism.
  • Hindu and Sikh flags atop mandirs and gurdwaras, respectively, are typically a saffron coloured pennant.[32]
  • Saffron robes are often worn by Hindu swamis and Buddhist monks in the Theravada tradition.
  • In Christianity, orange represents the sin of gluttony.


  • The "New Age Prophetess", Alice Bailey, in her system called the Seven Rays which classifies humans into seven different metaphysical psychological types, the "fifth ray" of "Concrete Science" is represented by the colour orange. People who have this metaphysical psychological type are said to be "on the Orange Ray".[33]
  • Orange is used to symbolically represent the second (Swadhisthana) chakra.[34]

In the military

In the United States Army, orange has traditionally been associated with the dragoons, the mounted infantry units which eventually became the U.S. Cavalry. The 1st Cavalry Regiment was originally founded in 1833 as the United States Dragoons. The modern coat of arms of the 1st Cavalry features the colour orange and orange-yellow shade called dragoon yellow, the colours of the early U.S. dragoon regiments.[35] The U.S. Signal Corps, founded at the beginning of the American Civil War, adopted orange and white as its official colours in 1872. Orange was adopted because it was the colour of a signal fire, historically used at night while smoke was used during the day, to communicate with distant army units.


Orange, because of its common association with activity and visibility, is a popular colour for sports teams.

Dutch national sports teams
Major League Baseball

National Basketball Association

National Football League

Indian Premier League

National Hockey League

Australian Football League

National Rugby League

A league

Football League Championship

Conference Premier

Scottish Premier League

Ukrainian Premier League

Major League Soccer

Bulgarian A Professional Football Group

Norwegian Premier League

Canadian Football League

Gaelic Athletic Association

United Football League

Philippine Basketball Association

See also


  • Heller, Eva (2009). Psychologie de la couleur: effets et symboliques. Pyramyd (French translation).  
  • Zuffi, Stefano (2012). Color in Art. Abrams.  
  • Gage, John (2009). La Couleur dans l'art. Thames & Hudson.  
  • Gottsegen, Mark (2006). The Painter's Handbook: A Complete Reference. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications.  
  • Varichon, Anne (2000). Couleurs: pigments et teintures dans les mains des peuples. Paris: Editions du Seuil.  
  • Russo, Ethan; Dreher, Melanie C.; Mathre, Mary Lynn. (2003), Women and Cannabis: Medicine, Science, and Sociology (1st ed.), Psychology Press (published March 2003),  
  • Pat Willard (2002), Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice, Beacon Press (published 11 April 2002),  
  • Arvon, Henri (1951). Le bouddhisme. Presses Universitaires de France.  
  • Van Gogh, Vincent (2005). Lettres à Théo. Folioplus classiques.  
  • Van Gogh, Vincent (2010). Lettres de Provence 1888–1890. Auberon.  
  • Roelofs, Isabelle (2012). La couleur expliquée aux artistes. Group Eyrolles.  
  • Roy, Srirupa (August 2006). "A Symbol of Freedom: The Indian Flag and the Transformations of Nationalism, 1906–" (PDF). Journal of Asian Studies 65 (3).  


  1. ^ Eva Heller, Psychologie de la couleur: effets et symboliques, pp. 149–158
  2. ^ Paterson, Ian (2003). A Dictionary of Colour: A Lexicon of the Language of Colour (1st paperback ed.). London: Thorogood (published 2004). p. 280.  
  3. ^ Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 5th edition, 2002.
  4. ^ "orange colour – orange color, n. (and adj.)". Oxford English Dictionary. OED. Retrieved 19 April 2011. 
  5. ^ Maerz, Aloys John; Morris Rea Paul (1930). "A Dictionary of Color". New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 200 
  6. ^ "Saffron - Define Saffron at". Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  7. ^ Kenner, T.A. (2006). Symbols and their hidden meanings. New York: Thunders Mouth. p. 11.  
  8. ^ The Semantics of Colour. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  9. ^ The Power of Words. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  10. ^ Bunson, Matthew (1995). A Dictionary of the Roman Empire. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 23.  
  11. ^ Vincent van Gogh, Lettres a Theo, p. 184.
  12. ^ Foreign Policy: Theories, Actors, Cases Foreign Policy: Theories, Actors, Cases, Oxford University Press, 2008, ISBN 0199215294 (page 331)
  13. ^ Correspondance of Vincent van Gogh, No. 459A, cited in John Gage, Couleur et Culture: Usages et significations de la couleur de l'Antiquité à l'abstraction.
  14. ^ Eva Heller, Psychologie de la couleur: effets et symboliques, p. 152.
  15. ^ Isabelle Roelofs and Fabien Petillion, La couleur expliquée aux artistes, pp. 46–47.
  16. ^ Isabelle Roelofs and Fabien Petillion, La couleur expliquée aux artistes, p. 121.
  17. ^ Isabelle Roelofs and Fabien Petillion, La couleur expliquée aux artistes, pp. 66–67
  18. ^ "carotenoid". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  19. ^ "Are carrots orange for political reasons?". Washington Post. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  20. ^ Eva Heller, Psychologie de la couleur: effets et symboliques, p. 152
  21. ^ Jeannine Delwiche (2003). "The impact of perceptual interactions on perceived flavor" (PDF). Food Quality and Preference 14 (2): 137–146.  
  22. ^ Eva Heller, Psychologie de la couleur: effets et symboliques, pp. 155–56.
  23. ^ Eva Heller, Psychologie de la couleur: effets et symboliques, pp. 158
  24. ^ a b Henri Arvon (1951). Le bouddhisme (pp. 61–64)
  25. ^ |The Buddhanet- buddhist studies- the monastic robe (retrieved November 25, 2012)
  26. ^ Anne Varichon (2000), Couleurs: pigments et teintures dans les mains des peuples, p. 62
  27. ^ Eva Heller, Psychologie de la couleur: effets et symboliques, pp. 152–153.
  28. ^ Eva Heller, Psychologie de la couleur: effets et symboliques, pp. 154–155
  29. ^ Sullivan, Eugene (1997). "An Academic Costume Code and An Academic Ceremony Guide". American Council on Education. Retrieved 2010-06-26. 
  30. ^ Roy 2006, pp. 503–505
  31. ^ National Flag,, 2007. Retrieved on 11 June 2007.
  32. ^ "Hinduism". Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  33. ^  
  34. ^ Stevens, Samantha (2004). The Seven Rays: a Universal Guide to the Archangels. Insomniac Press. p. 24.  
  35. ^ "1st Cavalry Regiment". The Institute of Heraldry. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 

External links

  • Orange Spectrum Color Chart Listing
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