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Ontario Highway 401

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Title: Ontario Highway 401  
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Subject: List of bridges in Toronto, List of north–south roads in Toronto, Ontario Highway 403, Ontario Highway 400, List of former provincial highways in Ontario
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Ontario Highway 401

Highway 401 shield A Macdonald–Cartier Freeway reassurance marker

Highway 401
Macdonald–Cartier Freeway
Highway 401 runs along southern Ontario connecting Windsor, Toronto and the Quebec border.
Highway 401 within Ontario, Canada
Route information
Maintained by the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario
Length: 817.9 km[1][1] (508.2 mi)
  • Proposed 1938
  • Opened December 1947 – October 11, 1968[2]
Major junctions
West end:  Highway 3 to Windsor
East end: A-20 towards Montreal, QC
Major cities: Windsor, London, Kitchener, Mississauga, Toronto, Oshawa, Kingston and Cornwall
Highway system
Highway 400 Highway 402

King's Highway 401, also known by its official name as the Macdonald–Cartier Freeway and colloquially as the four-oh-one,[3] is a 400-series highway in the Canadian province of Ontario. It stretches 817.9 kilometres (508.2 mi) from Windsor to the Quebec border. The part of Highway 401 that passes through Toronto is the busiest highway in the world,[4][5] and one of the widest.[6][7] Together with Quebec Autoroute 20, it forms the road transportation backbone of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, along which over half of Canada's population resides. The entire route is maintained by the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) and patrolled by the Ontario Provincial Police. The posted speed limit is 100 km/h (62 mph) throughout its length.

By the end of 1952, three individual highways were numbered "Highway 401": the partially completed Toronto Bypass between Weston Road and Highway 11 (Yonge Street); Highway 2A between West Hill and Newcastle; and the Scenic Highway between Gananoque and Brockville, now known as the Thousand Islands Parkway. These three sections of highway were 11.8, 54.7 and 41.2 km, (7.3, 34.0 and 25.6 mi), respectively. In 1964, the route became fully navigable from Windsor to the Quebec border. In 1965 it was given a second designation, the Macdonald–Cartier Freeway, in honour of the Fathers of Confederation. At the end of 1968, the Gananoque–Brockville section was bypassed and the final intersection grade-separated near Kingston, making Highway 401 a freeway for its entire 817.9-km length. On August 24, 2007, the portion of the highway between Glen Miller Road in Trenton and the Don Valley Parkway / Highway 404 Junction in Toronto was designated the Highway of Heroes, as the road is travelled by funeral convoys for fallen Canadian Forces personnel from CFB Trenton to the coroner's office in Toronto. On September 27, 2013, the Highway of Heroes designation was extended west to Keele Street in Toronto, to coincide with the move of the coroner's office to the new Forensic Services and Coroner’s Complex at the Humber River Hospital.

In 2011, construction began on a westward extension that will be known as the Right Honourable Herb Gray Parkway. This new route will follow, but not replace, former Highway 3 between the current end of the freeway and the E.C. Row Expressway, at which point it will turn and follow that route to a new international bridge, the New International Trade Crossing (previously named the Detroit River International Crossing).

Elsewhere in Ontario, plans are under way to widen the remaining four-lane sections between Windsor and London to six lanes and to widen the route between Cambridge and Milton as well as through Oshawa. The expansive twelve-plus-lane collector–express system will also be extended west through Mississauga to Milton and east through Ajax and Whitby.

Route description

Highway 401 just east of Highway 400 in Toronto, one of the highway's busiest segments

Highway 401 extends across I-75 in Atlanta.[7][9] The just-in-time auto parts delivery systems of the highly integrated automotive industry of Michigan and Ontario have contributed to the highway's status as the busiest truck route in the world,[10] carrying 60 percent of vehicular trade between Canada and the US.[7]

Highway 401 also features the busiest multi-structure bridge in North America, located at Hogg's Hollow in Toronto.[10] The four bridges, two for each direction with the collector and express lanes, carried an average of 373,700 vehicles daily in 2006.[1] The highway is one of the major backbones of a network in the Great Lakes region, connecting the populous Quebec City–Windsor corridor with Michigan, New York and central Ontario's cottage country.[11] It is the principal connection between Toronto and Montreal, becoming Autoroute 20 at the Quebec border.[12]

Southwestern Ontario

Highway 401 does not yet extend the last few kilometres to Detroit;[1][15] an extension to Brighton Beach (at the US border in Windsor) is scheduled for completion in 2015, after which a proposed Windsor–Detroit border crossing will extend Highway 401 across the Canada–United States border through Delray to Interstate 75 in Michigan by 2019.[16][17] At present, Highway 401 begins at Huron Church Road (formerly Highway 3) in Windsor,[18] with four lanes diverging north and leaving Talbot Road (Highway 3) at Howard Avenue. At the Dougall Parkway, the highway turns east, widens to six lanes and exits Windsor.[13] From here, Highway 401 mostly parallels the former route of Highway 98 from Windsor to Tilbury.[18]

Highway 401 widens to six lanes at Highway 402 in London.

Southwestern Ontario is flat, primarily agricultural land, that takes advantage of the fertile clay soil deposited throughout the region.[19][20] The main river through the region is the Thames River, which drains the second largest watershed in southern Ontario and largely influences the land use surrounding the highway;[21] It parallels the route to the north between Tilbury and Woodstock.[13]

Near Tilbury, Highway 401 loses its tall wall median barrier and narrows to four lanes, following lot lines laid between concession roads in a plan designed to limit damage to the sensitive agricultural lands through which the highway runs.[22] Here the highway's flat and straight route is notorious for leading to driver inattention.[23] The section from Windsor to London (especially west of Tilbury) has become known for deadly car accidents and pile-ups, earning it the nickname Carnage Alley.[24] As the highway approaches London, Highway 402 merges in,[13] resulting in a six-lane cross-section.[25][26] Within London, it intersects the city's two municipal expressways, Highbury Avenue and the Veterans Memorial Parkway.[27]

The section between London and Woodstock generally parallels the former Highway 2 but lies on the south side of the Thames River.[13] This area is not as flat but the highway is generally straight. This part of Highway 401 often experiences heavy snowsqualls in early winter, sometimes extending as far east as Toronto. To the south of Woodstock, Highway 401 curves northeast and encounters the western terminus of Highway 403.[27] The highway heads towards Kitchener and Cambridge, where it encounters Highway 8 and returns to its eastward orientation.[13][28] East of Kitchener, the highway meanders towards Milton, passing through hills and cut rock along the way.[29]

Greater Toronto Area

As Highway 401 approaches the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), it descends through the ecologically protected Niagara Escarpment to the west of Milton.[30][31] Upon entering the town, it enters the first urbanized section of the GTA, passing through two rural areas between there and Oshawa.[13][32] The first rural gap is the western side of Toronto's Greenbelt, a zone around Toronto protected from development.[30] After this 10 km (6.2 mi) gap, the highway interchanges with the Highway 407 Express Toll Route. Within the GTA, the highway passes several major shopping malls including Yorkdale Shopping Centre, Scarborough Town Centre and Pickering Town Centre.[33][34][35]

Highway 401 between Highway 410 and Highway 403 in Mississauga

Highway 401 widens into a collector-express system[36] as it approaches Hurontario Street in Mississauga, a concept inspired by the Dan Ryan Expressway in Chicago.[8] The system divides each direction of travel into collector and express lanes,[37] giving the highway a wide span and four carriageways. To avoid confusion between carriageways, blue signs are used for the collector lanes and green signs for the express lanes. Unlike the collector lanes, which provide access to every interchange, the express lanes only provide direct access to a select few interchanges. Access between the two is provided by transfers, which are strategically placed to prevent disruptions caused by closely spaced interchanges.[38] The overall purpose of the collector-express system is to maximize traffic flow for both local and long-distance traffic. In addition, Highway 401 was equipped with a traffic camera system called COMPASS in early 1991.[39] Using closed-circuit television cameras, vehicle detection loops and LED changeable-message signs, COMPASS enables the MTO Traffic Operations Centre to obtain a real-time assessment of traffic conditions and alert drivers of collisions, congestion and construction.[40] The system currently stretches from the Highway 403 / 410 interchange in Mississauga to Harwood Avenue in Ajax.[41]

"The Basketweave", located just east of the Highway 400 interchange, is a free-flowing crossover between the collector and express lanes.

Two sets of collector-express systems exist in the GTA. The first set is 6.6 km (4.1 mi) long and connects Highway 403, Eglinton Avenue and the never-built Richview Expressway.[43] East of the interchange with Renforth Drive, the collector lanes diverge to become the on-ramps to Highway 427 northbound and southbound. The second 43.7 km (27.2 mi) system passes through the centre of Toronto and ends in Pickering to the east.[44] The 5 km (3.1 mi) gap between the two systems is a traffic bottleneck. However, the interchange cannot currently accommodate future widening of Highway 401.[9]

Highway 401 widens to 18 lanes south of Toronto Pearson International Airport.[7] Progressing eastward, eight lanes are carried beneath the large spaghetti junction at Highway 427. The highway curves northeast and follows a power transmission corridor to Highway 409, which merges with the mainline and forms the collector lanes. It returns to its eastward route through Toronto, now carrying 12–16 lanes of traffic on four carriageways.[36][45] Highway 401 is often congested in this section, with an average of 442,900 vehicles passing between Weston Road and Highway 400 per day as of 2008.[1][7] In spite of this congestion, it is the primary commuting route in Toronto; over 50 percent of vehicles bound for downtown Toronto use the highway.[46]

A wide angle image of Highway 401 completely occupied by cars. A city, Toronto, surrounds the freeway, but is walled off from it by green noise barriers. Each direction on the freeway is divided into two sets of lanes, referred to as a collector-express system.
Different signs on Highway 401's collector-express system are utilized to avoid confusion. The express lanes use green signs and the collector lanes use blue. These particular signs are located at The Basketweave.
A video camera mounted on a tall cement pole on the side of a roadway. The camera is not pointing at the roadway visible at the bottom-right of the picture, but to the left.
Traffic cameras are mounted at every exit within Toronto and form one part of the COMPASS system.

East of Highway 400 is The Basketweave, a criss-crossing transfer between the express and collectors carriageways,[36] beyond which is Yorkdale Centre. Twelve lanes pass beneath a complicated interchange with Allen Road, built to serve the cancelled Spadina Expressway. Further east, the highway crosses Hogg's Hollow, over the West Don River and Yonge Street in the centre of Toronto. It then crosses the East Don River and climbs toward the Don Valley Parkway, which provides access to downtown Toronto and Highway 404, which provides access to the suburbs to the north. Progressing eastward, the highway continues through mostly residential areas in Scarborough, eventually reaching the Rouge Valley on the city's eastern edge and crossing into Pickering.[36]

West of Pickering, Highway 401 again meets former Highway 2, which thereafter parallels it to the Quebec border.[13] As the highway approaches Brock Road in Pickering, the collector and express lanes converge, narrowing the 14-lane cross-section to 10, divided only at the centre.[45] It remains this width as it passes into Ajax,[36] before narrowing back to six lanes at Salem Road.[47]

East of Ajax, the highway passes through the second 3.5 km (2.1 mi) rural gap, and enters Whitby. The stretch of Highway 401 through Whitby and Oshawa features several structures completed during the initial construction of the highway in the 1940s.[9] Several of these structures are to be demolished, either due to their age, or to prepare for the planned widening of Highway 401 through this area.[48] A former Canadian National Railway overpass, which was fenced off but commonly used by pedestrians during Highway of Heroes repatriations, was demolished on the night of June 11, 2011. A second structure in Bowmanville was demolished during two overnight closures on July 9 and 16.[49] At Harmony Road, the suburban surroundings quickly transition to agricultural land. The highway curves around the south side of Bowmanville and travels towards Highway 35 and Highway 115.[32]

Eastern Ontario

A four-lane divided highway among short hills travels into the background and curves to the right. The two divided halves are separated by a depressed swampy median.
East of Highway 416, Highway 401 is a low-volume rural freeway with a grass median.

From east of Highway 35 and Highway 115 to Cobourg, Highway 401 passes through a mix of agricultural land and forests, maintaining a straight course.[50] As the highway passes through Cobourg, it narrows to four lanes and the terrain becomes undulating, with the highway routed around hills and through valleys along the shores of Lake Ontario.[51] At Trenton, the highway crosses the Trent Canal and returns to an agricultural setting. It then crosses the Moira River as it goes through Belleville before heading eastward to Kingston.[12] The Kingston portion of the highway, originally named the Kingston-Bypass, was one of the first sections of the highway to be completed;[2] it is now mostly three lanes each way.

East of Kingston, the highway continues through a predominantly agricultural area alongside the Saint Lawrence River to Gananoque, where it splits with the Thousand Islands Parkway.[52] The current Highway 401 runs parallel to the parkway several kilometres inland from the river. The Canadian Shield, an ancient geological formation, appears through this heavily forested section of the highway. Highway 401 rejoins the Thousand Islands Parkway immediately southwest of Brockville, now heading northeast.[53]

The remainder of the highway runs parallel to the former Highway 2 along the shore of the Saint Lawrence River within the Saint Lawrence Valley. Northeast of Brockville is the interchange with Highway 416, which heads north towards Ottawa.[54] At the Quebec border, Highway 401 becomes Autoroute 20 and continues to Montreal.[55]


The MTO publishes yearly traffic volume data for provincial highways, expressed as an average daily vehicle count over the span of a year (AADT).[56] The table below compares the AADT at several locations along Highway 401 using data from 1969, 1988 and 2008.

Traffic volumes
Location Windsor London Woodstock Cambridge Mississauga Toronto Oshawa Belleville Kingston Brockville Cornwall
Section Dougall Parkway –
Essex County Road 46
Highbury Avenue –
Veterans Memorial Parkway
Oxford County Road 59 –
Highway 403
Highway 8 –
Highway 24
Mississauga Road –
Hurontario Street
Weston Road –
Highway 400
Park Road –
Simcoe Street
Highway 62 –
Highway 37
Frontenac County Road 38 –
Sydenham Road
Highway 29 –
North Augusta Road
Highway 138 –
McConnell Avenue
Traffic volume (AADT) 1969[57] 9,550 17,450 16,700 19,900 28,450 106,850 29,000 13,750 12,000 10,050 10,300
1988[1] 13,200 33,800 35,100 50,400 97,100 319,600 79,000 22,500 20,700 15,300 12,900
2008[1] 16,700 64,500 67,100 125,600 177,300 442,900 120,700 43,500 45,400 29,100 18,400
Average annual daily traffic counts of selected sections of Highway 401 over 40 years

Lane count
Location Highway 3 to Dougall Parkway Dougall Parkway to Essex County Road 42 Essex County Road 42 to Highway 402 Highway 402 to Highway 403 / 410 Highway 403 / 410 to Highway 427 Highway 427 to Highway 27 Highway 27 to Highway 409 Highway 409 to Brock Road Brock Road to Salem Road Salem Road to Burnham Street Burnham Street to Frontenac County Road 38 Frontenac County Road 38 to Montreal Street Montreal Street to Quebec border
Lane count 4 lanes[18] 6 lanes[13] 4 lanes[29] 6 lanes[13] 18-lane collector-express system[7] 8 lanes[9] 10 lanes[36] 12–16-lane collector-express system[45] 10 lanes[45] 6 lanes[47] 4 lanes[12] 6 lanes[58] 4 lanes[58]
Distance[1] 2.5 km (1.6 mi) 43.1 km (26.8 mi) 127.5 km (79.2 mi) 161.3 km (100.2 mi) 5.8 km (3.6 mi) 0.8 km (0.50 mi) 3.9 km (2.4 mi) 43.3 km (26.9 mi) 6.0 km (3.7 mi) 68.3 km (42.4 mi) 138.2 km (85.9 mi) 8.2 km (5.1 mi) 209.0 km (129.9 mi)
Number of through lanes on Highway 401 (excludes ongoing or planned widening projects)


A map with legend of
Highway 401 colour-coded by the year each section opened to traffic


Highway 401's history predates its designation by over two decades. As automobile use in southern Ontario grew in the early 20th century, road design and construction advanced significantly. Following frequent erosion of Lake Shore Road, then macadamized,[59] a concrete road known as the Toronto–Hamilton Highway was proposed in January 1914. Construction began on November 8 of that year, following the onset of World War I.[60][61] The highway was designed to run along the lake shore, instead of Dundas Street to the north, because the numerous hills encountered along Dundas would have increased costs without improving accessibility. Middle Road, a dirt lane named because of its position between the two, was not considered since Lake Shore and Dundas were both overcrowded and in need of serious repairs.[62] The road was formally opened on November 24, 1917,[59][60] 5.5 m (18 ft) wide and nearly 64 km (40 mi) long. It was the first concrete road in Ontario, as well as one of the longest stretches of concrete road between two cities in the world.[63]

Over the next decade, vehicle usage increased substantially, and by 1920 Lakeshore Road was again congested, particularly during weekends.[64] In response, the Department of Highways examined improving another road between Toronto and Hamilton. The road was to be more than twice the width of Lakeshore Road at 12 m (39 ft) and would carry two lanes of traffic in either direction.[65] Construction on what was then known as the Queen Street Extension west of Toronto began in early 1931.[66]

Before the highway could be completed, Thomas McQuesten was appointed the new minister of the Department of Highways, with Robert Melville Smith as deputy minister, following the 1934 provincial elections.[9] Smith, inspired by the German autobahns—new "dual-lane divided highways"—modified the design for Ontario roads,[67] and McQuesten ordered that the Middle Road be converted into this new form of highway.[68][69][70] A 40 m (130 ft) right-of-way was purchased along the Middle Road and construction began to convert the existing sections to a divided highway. Work also began on Canada's first interchange at Highway 10.[65]

A highway passes beneath the camera and continues straight into the horizon. It is surrounded by forests on either side and contains no guardrail to separate opposite flows of traffic.
The former Highway 2A near Highland Creek, aside from a resurfaced pavement, has not been altered since it opened in 1947.

Beginning in 1935, McQuesten applied the concept of a dual-highway to several projects along Highway 2, including along Kingston Road in Scarborough Township.[9][71] When widening in Scarborough reached the Highland Creek ravine in 1936, the Department of Highways began construction on a new bridge over the large valley, bypassing the former alignment around West Hill.[72] From here the highway was constructed on a new alignment to Oshawa, avoiding construction on the congested Highway 2.[8] As grading and bridge construction neared completion on the new highway between West Hill and Oshawa in September 1939, World War II broke out and gradually tax revenues were re-allocated from highway construction to the war effort.[9] At the same time, between September 6 and 8, 1939, the Ontario Good Roads Association Conference was held at Bigwin Inn, near Huntsville,[73] drawing highway engineers from across North America to discuss the new concept of "Dual Highways". On the first day of the convention, McQuesten announced his vision of the freeway: an uninterrupted drive through the scenic regions of Ontario, discouraging local business and local traffic from accessing the highway except at infrequent controlled-access points.[74] It was announced in the days thereafter that this concept would be applied to a new "trans-provincial expressway", running from Windsor to the Quebec border.[75]

A four-leaf clover shaped highway junction, located in the midst of developing suburbs.
The Highway 400 interchange in 1953. Today, the former cloverleaf has been replaced with a multilevel interchange.

Highway engineers evaluated factors such as grading, curve radius and the narrow median used along the Middle Road (which was inaugurated on August 23, 1940, as the Queen Elizabeth Way),[76] and began to plan the course of a new dual highway mostly parallel to Highway 2, with precedence given to areas most hampered by congestion. Unlike the Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW), this highway would not be built along an existing road, but rather on a new right-of-way, avoiding the need to provide access to properties.[9][74]

Along with immense improvements to machinery and construction techniques over its six-year course, the war provided planners an opportunity to conduct a survey of 375,000 drivers, asking them about their preferred route to travel to their destination. Using this information, a course was plotted from Windsor to Quebec, bypassing all towns along the way.[8][77]

Highway 2S (S for Scenic), was the first completed section of new roadway. Built to connect with the Thousand Islands Bridge at Ivy Lea and opened as a gravel road in late 1941 or early 1942,[78] the road followed the shore of the Saint Lawrence River and connected with the western end of the twinned Highway 2 near Brockville.[13] In addition, the highway between Highland Creek and Oshawa was opened as a gravel-surfaced road in May 1942.[79]

Bird's-eye view of a highway at night. The highway starts at the bottom centre, turning to the right as it progresses into the background. Streams of light show the movement of cars along the highway. Tall poles support lit bulbs. Many buildings and lights are visible in the distance.
Heavy traffic traverses Highway 401 within Toronto 24 hours a day.

Following the war, construction resumed on roadways throughout Ontario. The expressway between Highland Creek and Oshawa was completed in December 1947,[8] while other sections languished. The Toronto–Barrie Highway was the primary focus of the Department of Highways at the time, and the onset of the [9] Work on the most important link, the Toronto Bypass, began in 1951,[9] but it would not open with that name.


In July 1952 (possibly July 1, the same day Highway 400 was numbered),[2][80] the Highland Creek to Oshawa expressway and Highway 2S were designated Controlled-Access Highway No 401,[8] a move scorned by one critic because of the lack of thought into the numbered name.[81] Construction was completed for several sections of the Toronto Bypass; between Highway 400 and Dufferin Street in August, west to Weston Road in September, east to Bathurst Street in October and finally to Yonge Street in December.[2] Extensions east and west began in 1953; the eastern extension to Bayview Avenue would open in April 1955,[2] the western extension was delayed by the damage caused by Hurricane Hazel on October 15, 1954, which nearly destroyed the new bridge over the Humber River. The reconstruction would take until July 8, 1955,[82] and the highway was opened between Weston and Highway 27 in September 1955.[2]

A bird's-eye view of a large highway interchange under construction. Several bridges are complete, but nothing is paved, aside from one highway crossing horizontally, which detours between the bridges.
The widening of Highway 401 from four to twelve lanes in Toronto took nine years and was accomplished with at least four lanes open at all times. Shown here is the Highway 401 / Don Valley Parkway / Highway 404 interchange under construction in 1965.

The entire bypass, including the widening of Highway 27 into an expressway south of Highway 401,[8][83] was completed in August 1956.[2][8] Upon its opening, the bypass was described by one reporter as "a motorist's dream" providing "some of the most soothing scenery in the Metropolitan area". The reporter continued, with regard to the eastern section through Scarborough, that it "winds smoothly through pastures across streams and rivers, and beside green thickets. It seems a long way from the big city."[8] By 1959 however, the bypass was a lineup of cars, as 85,000 drivers crowded the roadway, designed to handle a maximum of 48,000 vehicles, on a daily basis.[8] Motorists found the new road to be a convenient way of travelling across Toronto; this convenience helped influence the suburban shift in the city and continues to be a driving force of urban sprawl today.[80]

Meanwhile, beyond Toronto, the highway was being built in a patchwork fashion, focusing on congested areas first.[9] Construction west from Highway 27 began in late 1954,[84] as did the Kingston Bypass in Eastern Ontario.[85] Work began to connect the latter with the Scenic Highway in 1955.[84] After the 1954 New York State Thruway opened from Buffalo to New York City,[86] Michigan officials encouraged Ontario to bypass Highway 3 as the most direct path from Detroit to Buffalo.[87] By 1956, construction had begun on a segment between Highway 4 in London and Highway 2 in Woodstock, as well as on the section between Windsor and Tilbury.[88]

A plaque near Brockville commemorates the official completion of the highway.

In 1958, a section bypassing Morrisburg was opened to accommodate traffic displaced from a portion of Highway 2 through The Lost Villages of the Saint Lawrence Seaway.[89] Highway 2 would ultimately be reopened on a new alignment which followed the CN rail right-of-way.

By the end of 1960, the Toronto section of the highway was extended both eastwards and westwards: first, to the east between Newcastle and Port Hope on June 30, then later to the west between Highway 25 in Milton and Highway 8 south of Kitchener on November 17.[2] By mid-1961, the section between Brighton and Marysville had opened.[90] The gap to the east, from Highway 28 in Port Hope to Highway 30 in Brighton was opened on July 20, 1961.[91]

The gap between Woodstock and Kitchener was completed on November 9, 1961, while the gap between Tilbury and London was completed two lanes at a time; the northbound lanes on October 22, 1963, the southbound on July 20, 1965.[2] The gap between Marysville and Kingston was opened by 1962.[90] The final sections, from west of Cornwall to Lancaster, were opened between 1962 and 1964;[90][92] two lanes opened to Lancaster on September 11, 1962, but the other two were not completed until July 31, 1964. The last segment, to the Quebec border, was opened on November 10, 1964.[2] Finally, on October 11, 1968, the Thousand Islands Bypass opened.[8] This final piece was commemorated with a plaque to signify the completion of Highway 401.[9]

Throughout the Greater Toronto Area, Highway 401 uses a collector-express roadway configuration to manage high traffic volumes. Highway 401's widest segment has 18 through lanes, located near Toronto Pearson Airport and includes The Transfer.

In Toronto, engineers and surveyors were examining the four-lane bypass, while planners set about designing a way to handle the commuter highway. In 1963, transportation minister Charles MacNaughton announced the widening of Highway 401 in Toronto from four to a minimum of 12 lanes between Islington Avenue and Markham Road. The design was taken from the Dan Ryan Expressway in Chicago, which was widened into a similar configuration around the same time.[8] Construction began immediately. While the plan initially called for construction to end in 1967, it continued for nearly a decade. At least four lanes were always open during the large reconstruction project, which included complex new interchanges at Highway 27, Highway 400, the planned Spadina Expressway and the Don Valley Parkway. The system was completed in 1972, along with the Highway 27 (renamed Highway 427) bypass between the QEW and Pearson Airport. Most of the interchanges in Toronto were reconstructed as partial cloverleafs and a continuous lighting system was installed.[9]

On January 11, 1965, at the dinner celebration of Fathers of Confederation.[93][94] Unlike other names later applied to the highway, the Macdonald–Cartier Freeway designation covers the entire length of Highway 401. Signs designating the freeway and shields with the letters 'M-C' were installed, but these had been removed by 1997.[95] In 2003, 38 years after Robarts' naming of the highway, a Member of Provincial Parliament attempted to get the Macdonald-Cartier Freeway highway name enshrined into law; the bill only passed first reading and was not enacted.[96]

A black and white photo shows a four lane freeway divided by a grass median. In the oncoming lanes, traffic is congested into the distance. With few exceptions, the freeway is surrounded by farmland.
Within years after opening, the four-lane Toronto Bypass was congested, prompting the Department of Highways to widen this section to 12 lanes beginning in 1963.

In the 1970s, Highway 401 was widened to six lanes in Durham, but otherwise saw little improvement.[9] The 1980s saw more sections widened, as well as a new collector-express system between Highway 403 / 410 and Highway 427 completed in mid-1985.[97] Plans were made to extend the eastern system from Neilson Road to Brock Road in Pickering in the late 1980s,[98] but took over a decade to reach fruition by 2000.[99][100] This was followed shortly thereafter by the widening of the highway through Ajax and a new interchange at Pickering Beach Road (renamed Salem Road) and Stevenson Road.[101]

The 1990s also saw the first step in widening the highway to six lanes from Toronto to London.[102] A project in the mid-1990s brought the highway up to a minimum of six lanes between Highway 8 in Kitchener and Highway 35 / 115 in Newcastle.[103] Other projects prepared sections for eventual widening.[104]

In 1993, the stretch of Highway 401 eastbound near Milton and westbound near Whitby had chevrons painted in each lane in an effort to reduce tailgating, a concept borrowed from France and Britain. Signs advised motorists to keep at least two chevrons apart, in essence warning them not to follow too closely.[105] Some of these chevrons remain intact in the westbound lanes in Whitby, though the signs stating their use have since been removed.[106]

Driving down a six-lane highway during the day. In front is a concrete bridge. The highway curves to the right as it passes beneath the bridge.
Highway 401 at Meadowvale Road in 1989, before being widened to a 14-lane collector-express system

Beginning in 1998, several projects were initiated on Highway 401 within Toronto. These included the addition of one lane through the Highway 427 interchange in 2005, as well as the resurfacing of the pavement through the city.[6]

Advantage I-75

Between June 1990 and 1998, Highway 401 and Interstate 75 were used for a pilot project named Advantage I-75 to test the reliability and versatility of an automated tracking system for transport trucks. Termed MACS for Mainline Automated Clearance System, it would allow a truck to travel from Florida to Ontario without a second inspection.[107] MACS was initially tested out at two truck inspection stations in Kentucky, with transponders installed in 220 trucks. Exact time, date, location, weight and axle data were logged as a truck approached an equipped station.[108] Following initial tests, MACS was deployed at every inspection station along I-75 from Miami to Detroit and along Highway 401 from Windsor to Belleville in 1994.[107] The project demonstrated the effectiveness of electronic systems in enforcing freight restrictions without delaying vehicles, while alleviating security fears that such systems could be easily compromised. The concept has since been applied to many parts of Canada, including Highway 407's electronic tolling system.[109]

"Carnage Alley"

The 87-vehicle pile up on September 3, 1999

The section of Highway 401 between Windsor and London has often been referred to as Carnage Alley, in reference to the numerous crashes that have occurred throughout its history. The term became more commonplace following several deadly pileups during the 1990s.[9] The narrow and open grass median was an ineffective obstacle in preventing cross-median collisions. The soft shoulders consisted of gravel with a sharp slope which was blamed for facilitating vehicle rollovers.[110] The nature of that section of highway, described as largely a straight road with a featureless agricultural landscape, was said to make drivers feel less involved and lose focus on the road. In winter, the area between Woodstock and Chatham is also subject to sudden snow squalls from lake-effect snow.[111] Several collisions have resulted from motorists deviating from their lane and losing control of their vehicles.[112][113]

Various other names, including The Killer Highway circulated for a time,[114] but Carnage Alley became predominant following an 87-vehicle pile-up on September 3, 1999 (the start of Labour Day weekend), the worst in Canadian history, that resulted in eight deaths and 45 injured individuals.[115]

Only a few days prior, then-Transportation Minister David Turnbull had deemed the highway "pleasant" to drive.[116] On the morning of September 3, the local weather station reported clear conditions due to a malfunction,[115] while a thick layer of fog rolled onto the highway. Dozens of vehicles including several semi-trailers quickly crashed into each other shortly after 8 a.m., one following another in the dense fog, and the accumulating wreckage caught traffic traveling in the opposite direction.[117][118] Immediately following the crash, the MTO installed paved shoulders with rumble strips[119] and funded additional police to patrol the highway, a move criticized as being insufficient.[120]

A Highway of Heroes reassurance marker with a red poppy flower in place of a number. Above that is the text Highway of Heroes, and below it SUPPORT OUR TROOPS.
The route marker for the Highway of Heroes

A Highway of Heroes reassurance marker with a red poppy flower in place of a number. Above that is the text Highway of Heroes, and below it SUPPORT OUR TROOPS.

Beginning in 2004, 46 km (29 mi) of the highway was widened from four asphalt lanes to six concrete lanes, paved shoulders were added, a concrete Ontario Tall Wall median was installed,[121] which was the solution that the Canadian Automobile Association promoted in 1999.[113] Interchanges were improved and signage was upgraded as part of a five-phase project to improve Highway 401 from Highway 3 in Windsor to Essex County Road 42 (formerly Highway 2) on the western edge of Tilbury.[25]

Highway of Heroes

On August 24, 2007, the MTO announced that the stretch of Highway 401 between Glen Miller Road in Trenton and the intersection of the Don Valley Parkway and Highway 404 in Toronto would bear the additional name Highway of Heroes (French: Autoroute des héros), in honour of Canadian soldiers who have died,[122] though Highway 401 in its entirety remains designated as the Macdonald–Cartier Freeway.[123] This length of the highway is often travelled by a convoy of vehicles carrying a fallen soldier's body, with his or her family, from CFB Trenton to the coroner's office at the Centre for Forensic Sciences in Toronto. Since 2002, when the first fallen Canadian soldiers were repatriated from Afghanistan, crowds have lined the overpasses to pay their respects as convoys pass.[124]

A bridge showcased against the sky, with the ground not visible. Lining the bridge are people, some holding Canadian flags.
Canadians line overpasses along the Highway of Heroes to pay their respects to fallen soldiers.

The origin of the name can be traced to an article in the [125] Warmington described the gathering of crowds on overpasses to welcome fallen soldiers as a "highway of heroes phenomena".[126] This led a Cramahe Township volunteer firefighter to contact Fisher on July 10 about starting a petition, leading Fisher to publish an article which was posted to the Northumberland Today website.[127] The online article eventually caught the attention of London resident Jay Forbes. Forbes began a petition, which received over 20,000 signatures[122] before being brought to the Minister of Transportation on August 22.[128] Following the announcement on August 24, the provincial government and MTO set out to design new signs. The signs were erected and unveiled on September 7,[123] and include a smaller reassurance marker (shield), as well as a larger billboard version.[129]

An empty freeway in the middle of a city.
Highway 401 was closed during a series of propane explosions in Toronto in 2008, allowing for this rare photo of the 14-lane highway occupied by a single vehicle.

Since 2008

On August 10, 2008, following a series of explosions at a propane facility in Toronto, Highway 401 was closed between Highway 400 and Highway 404 as a precautionary measure, the largest closure of the highway in its history.[130] The highway remained closed until 8 p.m., though several exits near the blast remained closed thereafter.[131][132]

Between 2006 and 2008, Highway 401 was widened from four to six lanes between Highway 402 and Wellington Road in London. This included replacing the original Wellington Road overpass.[25] In Oshawa, Exit 416 (Park Road) was replaced by a new interchange at Exit 415 (Stevenson Road). The contract, which began September 7, 2005, included the interchange and the resurfacing of 23.4 km (14.5 mi) of the highway between Oshawa and Highway 35 / Highway 115.[133] The westbound ramps were opened in mid-September 2007[134] and the eastbound ramps in mid-2009. The resurfacing was completed mid-2010.[133]

Highway 401 was widened in 2008 between Highway 402 and Wellington Road in London

In November 2010, the widening of Highway 401 from four to six lanes between Woodstock and Kitchener was completed after many years of planning and construction.[135] The project included the installation of a tall-wall median barrier, straightening curves and adding additional interchanges on the freeway, allowing it to be easily vacated in an emergency event.[136]


In 2007 former Minister Donna Cansfield commented that the MTO intends to widen all of the remaining four-lane sections to a minimum of six.[137]

Rt. Hon. Herb Gray Parkway

In 2004, a joint announcement by the federal government of the United States and Government of Canada that a new border crossing would be constructed between Detroit and Windsor. The Detroit River International Crossing (DRIC) was formed as a bi-national committee to manage the project.[138] The MTO took advantage of this opportunity to extend Highway 401 to the international border and began an environmental assessment on the entire project in late 2005.[138] The City of Windsor also hired New York traffic consultant Sam Schwartz to design a parkway to the border. Schwartz's proposal would eventually inspire the DRIC's own design, but his route was not chosen, with the DRIC opting instead to take a northern route.[139] On February 8, 2008, the MTO announced that it had begun purchasing property south of the E.C. Row Expressway, upsetting many area residents who had purchased properties in the years prior.[140][141]

The new parkway (pictured under construction in July 2013) will extend alongside former Highway 3 and the E.C. Row Expressway to the Detroit River, where it will cross the Detroit River International Crossing to connect with I-75 in Michigan.

On March 3, 2008, the Michigan Department of Transportation and the MTO (in partnership with Transport Canada, the Federal Highway Administration of the United States and the Detroit River International Crossing group) completed a joint assessment on the soils along the Detroit River and determined that they could indeed support the weight of a new bridge; the stability of the underlying soil and clay and the impact of the nearby Windsor Salt Mine had caused concern for all parties involved in the project.[142]

Despite protest from area residents,[143] as well as a dismissed lawsuit from Ambassador Bridge owner Matty Moroun,[144][145] it was announced on May 1, 2008, that a preferred route had been selected and that the new route would be named the Windsor–Essex Parkway.[16] The new parkway will be below-grade and have six through-lanes. It will follow (but not replace) Talbot Road and Huron Church Road from a new interchange at the current end of Highway 401 to the E. C. Row Expressway, where it will run concurrently westward for 2 km (1.2 mi). From there, it will turn northwest and follow a new alignment to the border.[14] Initial construction of a noise barrier from North Talbot Road to Howard Avenue began in March 2010. Two new bridges south of the current Highway 3 / 401 junction are also under construction.[146] Full construction has begun as of August 18, 2011,[147][148] with an expected completion date of 2014 for the first phase and 2015 for the remainder of the parkway. Construction of the Detroit bridge will begin in 2015 for completion in 2019–20.[149]

On November 28, 2012, the Ministry of Transportation announced that a Federal Order-in-Council was passed to change the name of the parkway to the Rt. Hon. Herb Gray Parkway, after the long-time Windsor MP.[150]

Southwestern Ontario

In Southwestern Ontario, several improvements are under way to provide six lanes on Highway 401 from Windsor to Toronto,[137] in response to the Carnage Alley pile-up in 1999.[121][151] West of Manning Road, the highway has been widened in anticipation of the Windsor–Essex Parkway.[16][152] Between Tilbury and Highway 402, the highway remains four lanes wide with a grass median. The widening and upgrading of this section is in the planning stages, with construction possibly beginning in 2017 and lasting for several years. Several interchanges are slated to be upgraded as part of this construction.[153]

Highway 401 between Highway 4 and Highway 402 is being reconstructed and will include a new interchange with Wonderland Road. This photo was taken from the Westminster Drive overpass which was demolished on July 5, 2014, to prepare for the widening of the highway west towards Highway 4.

Within the London area, traffic volumes are expected to increase considerably, leading to poor highway conditions. The province has put in place an extensive plan to widen and reconstruct the London corridor between 2006 and 2021.[154] This includes building a new interchange with Wonderland Road to help improve access to Highway 401 westbound from the city's southwest end and involves replacing the Westminster Drive overpass to allow the highway to be widened.[155] The Westminster Drive overpass was demolished on July 5, 2014.[156] This project will coincide with reconstructing the outdated cloverleaf interchange at Colonel Talbot Road[157] and widening Highway 401 from four to six lanes between Highway 4 and Highway 402. Construction on the Wonderland Road interchange began in 2014,[158] with the rest of the projects starting in 2015 with them all planned to finish in 2016.[159] In addition, an environmental assessment is underway to examine the impact of reconstructing the three-way trumpet interchange with the Veterans Memorial Parkway into a four-way interchange in order to extend the expressway south of Highway 401.[160][161] The MTO is also planning on widening Highway 401 from six to eight lanes through part of the London corridor.[162][163]

Long term plans call for Highway 401 in the Waterloo region to be widened to eight lanes as well. The highway will be widened from six to ten lanes between Hespeler Road in Cambridge and Highway 8.[164] The interchange between Highway 401 and Highway 8 (King Street) is to be reconstructed to make it free-flowing for all directions of travel.[165]

Central Ontario

Highway 401 in the Greenbelt. The stretch of Highway 401 between Highway 8 and Highway 407 ETR is slated to be widened from six to ten lanes, including two HOV lanes.

In its 2007 plan for southern Ontario, the MTO announced long-term plans to create high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes from Mississauga Road west to Milton;[166] these plans have since been expanded in scope to as far west as Hespeler Road in Cambridge.[167]

Construction is also underway to widen Highway 401 to a collector-express system from Highway 403 and Highway 410 west to Hurontario Street, a distance of 2.8 km (1.7 mi).[168] Plans have been unveiled to lengthen the Mavis Road overpass and add ramps to the 401/403/410 interchange to prepare for the 'ultimate widening' of Highway 401 between the Credit River and Highway 410.[169]

Work is underway to widen Highway 401 from six to fourteen lanes between Highway 410 and Hurontario Street.

Within Toronto, some projects will be completed during overnight construction projects, including the widening and rehabilitation of the Hogg's Hollow bridge,[170] the replacement of the original gantries throughout the collector-express system,[171] and reconstructing the Highway 401 / 400 interchange.[172]

Current expansion plans in Durham include the construction of two new freeways north from Highway 401. The first will be directly east of Lakeridge Road,[173] while the second will lie to the east of Courtice Road.[174] Alongside the extension of Highway 407, Highway 401 will be widened to 12 lanes, forming an extension to the current collector-express system, from its current end at Brock Road in Pickering to Brock Street in Whitby. In addition, Lakeridge Road will also feature a partial interchange with westbound entrance and eastbound exit ramps, with realignment on having Highway 401 shifted north and Lakeridge Road shifting west, to accommodate a new bridge and its ramps.[175] Long term plans also call for HOV lanes to run from Brock Road to Harmony Road, though no planning has commenced.[166] However, there has been an environmental assessment on widening highway 401, extending the collector-express system east towards Salem Road in Ajax and to 10 lanes from Brock Street in Whitby, to Courtice Road in the Clarington township. The assessment will be completed by March 2015.[176]

Eastern Ontario

East of Durham, the MTO is planning to widen parts of Highway 401 to six lanes.[137] Preliminary work includes the widening of the bridge over the Trent River in Trenton,[177] as well as the realignment of some roads alongside the highway.[178] In 2012, the highway was widened to six lanes for 6 km (3.7 mi) through Kingston between exits 613 and 619.[58]


ONroute Cambridge South service station

Highway 401 features 19 service centres controlled by the MTO. These service centres were announced in 1961 following public outcry over the lack of rest stops. They provide a place to park, rest, eat and refuel 24 hours a day.[8]

The centres were originally leased to and operated by several major gasoline distributors; however, those companies have chosen not to renew their leases as the terms end. In response, the MTO put the operation of the full network of service centres out for tender, resulting in a 50-year lease with Host Kilmer Service Centres, a joint venture between hospitality company HMSHost (a subsidiary of Autogrill) and Larry Tanenbaum's investment company Kilmer van Nostrand, which operates the rest areas under the ONroute brand.[179]

Seventeen of the centres along Highway 401 have been reconstructed entirely. Two centres that were rebuilt in the late 1990s, specifically Newcastle and Ingersoll, will not be redeveloped at this time. Work on 15 of the 17 service centres to be reconstructed began in late 2009 or early 2010. The new service centres, opening in phases beginning in July 2010, feature a Canadian Tire gas station, an HMSHost-operated convenience store known as "The Market", as well as fast food brands such as Tim Hortons, A&W, Pizza Pizza, Extreme Pita, KFC, Taco Bell, Big Smoke Burger and Burger King.[180]

Service centres located along Highway 401
Location Direction(s) Nearby exits[181] Status[180]
Tilbury North
Tilbury South
56, 63[182] Reopened as of October 1, 2010[183]
West Lorne
137, 149 Reopened as of October 1, 2010[183]
Ingersoll Westbound 222, 230 Will not be redeveloped at this time. Leased by Imperial Oil.
Woodstock Eastbound 222, 230 Closed for reconstruction on March 31, 2010; reopened July 2011[184]
Cambridge North
Cambridge South
286, 295 Closed for reconstruction on September 7, 2011;[185]

Cambridge North reopened June 25, 2013; Cambridge South reopened July 23, 2013.[186]

Mississauga Eastbound 333, 336[187] Permanently closed as of September 30, 2006
Newcastle Westbound 440, 448 Will not be redeveloped at this time. Leased by Imperial Oil.
Port Hope Eastbound 448, 456 Reopened by June 2011
Trenton North Westbound 509, 522 Reopened as of October 1, 2010[183]
Trenton South Eastbound Reopened March 2011
Camden East Westbound 582, 593 Closed for reconstruction March 31, 2010;[188] reopened June 2011
Odessa Eastbound 599, 611 Open during 2010–11 reconstruction (while a new structure was built directly west of a now-demolished original facility on same property). New facility opened June 2011
Mallorytown North Westbound 675 Reopened February 1, 2011[189]
Mallorytown South Eastbound 685 Reopened June 28, 2012.[186]
Morrisburg Eastbound 750, 758 Reopened as of October 1, 2010[183]
Ingleside Westbound 758, 770 Reopened April 2011[183]
Bainsville Westbound 825 Reopened as of October 1, 2010[183]

Exit list

The following table lists the major junctions along Highway 401, as noted by the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario.[1] 
Division Location km[1] Mile Exit[13] Destinations Notes
Canada–U.S. border 0.0 0.0
Planned Detroit River International Crossing to Detroit, Michigan
Ojibway Parkway Under construction
E. C. Row Expressway Under construction; westbound exit and eastbound entrance
 Highway 3 (Huron Church Road) – Ambassador Bridge to U.S. Under construction
Todd Lane Under construction
Service Road Under construction
10.1 6.3  Highway 3 west – Ambassador Bridge to U.S. Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; interchange under construction; no exit number assigned
12.6 7.8 13 Dougall Parkway – Detroit–Windsor Tunnel to U.S. Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; formerly Highway 3B / Highway 401A
13.4 8.3 14  County Road 46 (Walker Road) – Windsor, Essex Formerly Highway 98
Essex Tecumseh 20.4 12.7 21  County Road 19 (Manning Road) – Tecumseh
27.5 17.1 28  County Road 25 (Puce Road) – Puce
33.7 20.9 34  County Road 27 (Belle River Road) – Woodslee, Belle River
40.0 24.9 40  County Road 31 (French Line Road) – St. Joachim
47.3 29.4 48  Highway 77 south – Leamington
 County Road 35 north (Comber Road) – Stoney Point
55.7 34.6 56  County Road 42 – Tilbury Formerly Highway 2
Chatham-Kent 62.8 39.0 63 County Road 2 (Queen's Line) Formerly Highway 2
80.9 50.3 81 County Road 27 (Bloomfield Road)
89.3 55.5 90  Highway 40 north
County Road 11 south (Communication Road) – Blenheim
101.0 62.8 101 County Road 15 (Kent Bridge Road) – Dresden, Ridgetown
108.3 67.3 109 County Road 17 / County Road 21 (Victoria Road) – Thamesville, Ridgetown Formerly Highway 21
116.2 72.2 117 County Road 20 (Orford Road) – Highgate
Elgin West Elgin 129.2 80.3 129 County Road 103 (Furnival Road) – Wardsville, Rodney
137.3 85.3 137 County Road 76 (Graham Road) – West Lorne Formerly Highway 76
Dutton/Dunwich 148.5 92.3 149 County Road 8 (Currie Road) – Dutton
157.4 97.8 157 County Road 14 (Iona Road) – Melbourne, Iona
164.1 102.0 164 County Road 20 (Union Road) – Port Stanley, Shedden
London 176.7 109.8 177  Highway 4 (Colonel Talbot Road) – St. Thomas Signed as Exit 177A (south) and Exit 177B (north). Reconstruction to begin in 2015, turning the cloverleaf interchange into a parclo[159]
179 Wonderland Road Construction begun in 2014, to be completed by 2016.[155][159]
183.2 113.8 183  Highway 402 west – Sarnia Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
185.9 115.5 186 Wellington Road
186.8 116.1 187 Exeter Road Westbound exit, Formerly Highway 135 west
189.1 117.5 189 Highbury AvenueSt. Thomas Formerly Highway 126
193.6 120.3 194 Veterans Memorial Parkway Formerly Highway 100. Reconstruction and expansion from a 3-way to 4-way interchange to begin in 2015[159]
Middlesex Thames Centre 195.5 121.5 195 County Road 74 (Westchester Bourne) – Nilestown, Belmont Formerly Highway 74
199.3 123.8 199 County Road 32 (Dorchester Road) – Dorchester
203.0 126.1 203 County Road 73 (Elgin Road) – Aylmer Formerly Highway 73
208.5 129.6 208 County Road 30 (Putnam Road) – Putnam, Avon
Oxford South-West Oxford,
216.0 134.2 216 County Road 10 (Culloden Road)
218.5 135.8 218  Highway 19 south
County Road 119 north (Plank Line) – Tillsonburg
South-West Oxford 222.2 138.1 222 County Road 6 – Stratford, Embro
229.8 142.8 230 County Road 12 (Sweaburg Road / Mill Street) – Sweaburg
231.9 144.1 232 County Road 59 – Delhi Formerly Highway 59
235.3 146.2 235  Highway 403 east – Hamilton, Niagara Falls, Brantford Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
236.3 146.8 236 County Road 15 (Towerline Road) – Woodstock
237.9 147.8 238 County Road 2 – Paris, Woodstock Formerly Highway 2
Blandford-Blenheim 250.1 155.4 250 County Road 29 (Drumbo Road) – Innerkip, Drumbo
Waterloo North Dumfries 267.9 166.5 268 Regional Road 97 (Cedar Creek Road) – Cambridge, Plattsville, Ayr Signed as Exit 268A (east) and Exit 268B (west) eastbound; formerly Highway 97
Kitchener, Cambridge 275.0 170.9 275 Regional Road 28 (Homer Watson Boulevard / Fountain Street)
277.9 172.7 278  Highway 8 north – Kitchener, Waterloo
Regional Road 8 south – Cambridge
Signed as Exit 278A (east) and Exit 278B (west) eastbound
Cambridge 282.5 175.5 282 Regional Road 24 (Hespeler Road) to  Highway 24 south – Brantford
284 Regional Road 36 south (Franklin Boulevard) Eastbound to southbound exit and northbound to westbound entrance
286.5 178.0 286 Regional Road 33 (Townline Road)
County Road 33 (Townline Road)
Wellington Puslinch
295.7 183.7 295  Highway 6 north – Guelph West end of Highway 6 concurrency
300.1 186.5 299  Highway 6 south – Hamilton
County Road 46 (Brock Road) – Guelph, Hamilton
East end of Highway 6 concurrency
Halton Milton 311.9 193.8 312 Regional Road 1 (Guelph Line) – Burlington, Campbellville
320.1 198.9 320 Regional Road 25 – Acton, Milton Formerly Highway 25; GO Transit bus stop on eastbound ramp.
323.8 201.2 324 Regional Road 4 (James Snow Parkway)
328.0 203.8 328 Georgetown
330.4 205.3 330  Highway 407 Signed as Exit 330 westbound; as Exit 330A (west) and Exit 330B (east) eastbound; no access from westbound Highway 407 to eastbound Highway 401 or westbound Highway 401 to eastbound Highway 407
Peel Mississauga 332.7 206.7 333 Winston Churchill Boulevard
336.1 208.8 336 Regional Road 1 (Mississauga Road / Erin Mills Parkway)
339.6 211.0 340 Mavis Road Exit opened in 1999.
341.7 212.3 342 Hurontario Street Formerly Highway 10
344.5 214.1 344   Highway 403 / Highway 410 – Hamilton, Brampton No access from eastbound 401 to westbound 403 or eastbound 403 to westbound 401
346.0 215.0 346 Regional Road 4 (Dixie Road)
348  Highway 427 / Renforth Drive – Toronto Pearson International Airport, Downtown Toronto 401–427 interchange. Exit 348 (eastbound exit and westbound entrance), Exit 350 (eastbound exit and westbound entrance), Exit 351 (westbound exit and eastbound entrance) and Exit 352 (westbound exit and eastbound entrance).
350 Eglinton Avenue
351 Carlingview Drive
352  Highway 427 south
353.5 219.7 354 Dixon Road / Martin Grove Road No access from southbound Martin Grove to eastbound 401; No access from eastbound 401 to Martin Grove
355  Highway 409 – Toronto Airport
Belfield Road
Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
356.0 221.2 356 Islington Avenue
357.4 222.1 357 Weston Road
358.9 223.0 359  Highway 400 north (south to Black Creek Drive) – Barrie Eastbound express access to Highway 400
360.5 224.0 360 Jane Street Ramps removed; access to Jane Street via Black Creek Drive
362.0 224.9 362 Keele Street
364.0 226.2 364 Dufferin Street, Yorkdale Road Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
364.8 226.7 365 Allen Road, Yorkdale Road Westbound exit is a left-hand exit from collector lanes, and right-hand exit from express lanes. Westbound access to Dufferin Street via Yorkdale Road.
366.2 227.5 366 Bathurst Street Westbound exit and eastbound entrance (access only from northbound Bathurst Street). Westbound entrance and eastbound exit ramps removed. Westbound exits to Wilson Avenue, about 200m west of Bathurst Street)
367.3 228.2 367 Avenue Road Formerly Highway 11A
369.0 229.3 369 Yonge Street Formerly Highway 11
371.0 230.5 371 Bayview Avenue
372.9 231.7 373 Leslie Street
374.9 233.0 375  Highway 404 north – Richmond Hill, Newmarket
Don Valley Parkway – Downtown Toronto
From eastbound 401, access to Sheppard Avenue via northbound 404 from 401 collector lanes only
376.3 233.8 376 Victoria Park Avenue
377.6 234.6 378 Warden Avenue
379.2 235.6 379 Kennedy Road
380.8 236.6 380 Brimley Road south, Progress Avenue Eastbound exit and westbound entrance from northbound Brimley Road; exit opened February 18, 1988[190]
381.6 237.1 381 McCowan Road
383.2 238.1 383 Markham Road Formerly Highway 48
Progress Avenue
385.0 239.2 385 Neilson Road Exit opened in 1983[191]
386.5 240.2 387 Morningside Avenue
389.0 241.7 389 Meadowvale Road
390.3 242.5 390  Highway 2 / Highway 2A (Kingston Road, Sheppard Avenue (westbound), Port Union Road (eastbound)) Signed as Exit 392 westbound
Durham Pickering 394.0 244.8 394  Regional Road 38 (Whites Road) Exit opened in 1983[191]
396.6 246.4 397  Regional Road 29 (Liverpool Road) Westbound exit and entrance
398.3 247.5 399  Regional Road 1 (Brock Road) Exit opened September 11, 1974, replacing the full-access interchange at Liverpool Road[192]
Ajax 400.3 248.7 400 Church Street Removed, exit replaced with Westney Road interchange (Exit 401) in 1986[193]
401.3 249.4 401  Regional Road 31 (Westney Road) Replaced Exit 400 (Church Street) in 1986 as part of Go Transit expansion east of Pickering[193]
402.5 250.1 403  Regional Road 44 (Harwood Avenue) Removed, exit replaced with Salem Road interchange (Exit 404) in 2003
404.3 251.2 404  Regional Road 41 (Salem Road) Replaced Exit 403 (Harwood Avenue) in December 2003
407  Regional Road 23 (Lakeridge Road) Westbound entry and eastbound exit; construction begun in 2013, to be completed by 2015.
408 West Durham Link Construction begun in 2013, to be completed by 2015.
409.6 254.5 410 Brock Street Formerly Highway 12, had a  Durham Regional Highway 12 designation, but was removed, as the regional section runs from Rossland Road to south of Highway 7.
412.1 256.1 412  Regional Road 26 (Thickson Road)
Oshawa 415.2 258.0 415  Regional Road 53 (Stevenson Road) Replaced Exit 416 (Park Road) in 2009
415.8 258.4 416  Regional Road 54 (Park Road) Removed, exit replaced with nearby Stevenson Road interchange (Exit 415) in 2009
417.6 259.5 417  Regional Road 2 (Simcoe Street) Westbound exit via Exit 418
418.5 260.0 418  Regional Road 16 (Ritson Road)
419.4 260.6 419   Regional Road 22 / Regional Road 33 (Bloor Street / Harmony Road) Access to Regional Road 56/Farewell Street
Clarington 425.4 264.3 425  Regional Road 34 (Courtice Road) – Courtice
428.4 266.2 428 Holt Road (Darlington Nuclear Generating Station) Eastbound exit and westbound entrance.
Construction to convert the section into a full interchange, will be completed by December 2015.[194]
431.3 268.0 431  Regional Road 57 (Waverley Road) – Bowmanville
432.4 268.7 432  Regional Road 14 (Liberty Street) – Bowmanville, Port Darlington
435.2 270.4 435 Bennett Road
436.3 271.1 436   Highway 35 / Highway 115 – Peterborough, Orono, Lindsay
440.1 273.5 440  Regional Road 17 (Mill Street) – Newcastle, Bond Head
448.1 278.4 448  Regional Road 18 (Newtonville Road) – Newtonville
Northumberland Port Hope 456.6 283.7 456 Wesleyville Road
461.4 286.7 461 County Road 2 – Welcome Formerly Highway 2
464.8 288.8 464 County Road 28 – Peterborough, Bewdley Formerly Highway 28
Cobourg, Hamilton 472.6 293.7 472 County Road 18 (Burnham Street) – Gores Landing
474.5 294.8 474 County Road 45 – Norwood, Baltimore Formerly Highway 45
Alnwick/Haldimand 487.0 302.6 487 County Road 23 (Lyle Street) – Centreton, Grafton
Cramahe 497.2 308.9 497 County Road 25 (Percy Street / Big Apple Drive) – Colborne, Castleton
Brighton 509.7 316.7 509 County Road 30 – Brighton, Campbellford Formerly Highway 30
Hastings Quinte West 520.4 323.4 522 County Road 40 (Wooler Road) – Trenton
525.4 326.5 525 County Road 33 – Trenton, Frankford, Batawa Formerly Highway 33
526.5 327.2 526 County Road 4 (Glen Miller Road) – Trenton, CFB Trenton
538.5 334.6 538 County Road 1 (Wallbridge-Loyalist Road) – Stirling
542.7 337.2 543  Highway 62 – Marmora, Madoc to County Road 14 Signed as Exit 543A (south) and Exit 543B (north); formerly Highway 14
543.2 337.5 544  Highway 37 – Tweed
Tyendinaga 555.7 345.3 556 County Road 7 (Shannonville Road) – Shannonville, Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory
566.4 351.9 566  Highway 49
County Road 15 (Marysville Road) – Picton, Deseronto, Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory
570.5 354.5 570 County Road 10 (Deseronto Road) – Deseronto
Lennox and Addington Greater Napanee
578.8 359.6 579 County Road 41 – Napanee, Kaladar Formerly Highway 41
582.1 361.7 582 County Road 5 (Palace Road) – Napanee, Newburgh
Loyalist 593.4 368.7 593 County Road 4 (Camden East Road) – Millhaven, Camden East Formerly Highway 133
598.8 372.1 599 County Road 6 (Wilton Road) – Yarker, Amherstview, Odessa
Kingston 610.8 379.5 611 County Road 38 – Harrowsmith, Sharbot Lake Formerly Highway 38
613.0 380.9 613 County Road 9 (Sydenham Road), Sydenham
615.3 382.3 615 Sir John A. Macdonald Boulevard
617.0 383.4 617 County Road 10 (Division Street) – Westport
619.0 384.6 619 County Road 11 (Montreal Street) – Battersea
623.0 387.1 623  Highway 15 – Smiths Falls, Ottawa
631.9 392.6 632 County Road 16 (Joyceville Road) – Joyceville
Leeds and Grenville Gananoque, Leeds and the Thousand Islands 645.1 400.8 645 County Road 32 – Crosby Formerly Highway 32
646.7 401.8 647 Thousand Islands Parkway – Ivy Lea, Rockport Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
Leeds and the Thousand Islands
647.9 402.6 648  Highway 2 – Gananoque
County Road 2
Eastbound via Exit 647
658.8 409.4 659 County Road 3 (Reynolds Road) – Ivy Lea, Lansdowne, Rockport
661.0 410.7 661  Highway 137 ( I-81 to Alexandria Bay, New York)
Front of Yonge 675.5 419.7 675 County Road 5 (Mallorytown Road) – Mallorytown, Athens, Rockport
684.7 425.5 685 Thousand Islands Parkway Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
686.7 426.7 687 County Road 2 – Brockville Formerly Highway 2
Brockville 696.2 432.6 696 County Road 29 – Brockville, Smiths Falls Formerly Highway 29 / Highway 42
698.0 433.7 698 County Road 6 (North Augusta Road) – Brockville, North Augusta
Augusta 704.8 437.9 705 County Road 15 (Maitland Road) – Merrickville, Maitland
Prescott 716.2 445.0 716 County Road 18 (Edward Street) – Prescott, Domville
720.1 447.4 721A  Highway 416 north – Ottawa, Kemptville Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; signed as Exit 721 eastbound
721.2 448.1 721B  Highway 16 (to NY 37) – Kemptville, Johnstown and Ogdensburg, New York Signed as Exit 721 westbound
730.0 453.6 730 County Road 22 (Shanly Road) – Cardinal
Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry South Dundas 737.8 458.4 738 County Road 1 (Carman Road) – Iroquois
750.2 466.2 750 County Road 31 – Ottawa, Morrisburg, Winchester Formerly Highway 31
758.2 471.1 758 Upper Canada Road
South Stormont 769.5 478.1 770 County Road 14 (Dickinson Drive) – Ingleside
777.8 483.3 778 County Road 35 (Moulinette Road) – Long Sault
786.4 488.6 786 County Road 33 (Power Dam Drive) Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
Cornwall 789.5 490.6 789  Highway 138 (Brookdale Avenue) – Ottawa, Hawkesbury, Three Nations Crossing to Massena, New York
791.8 492.0 792 McConnell Avenue
796.1 494.7 796 County Road 44 (Boundary Road)
South Glengarry
804.6 500.0 804 County Road 27 (Summerstown Road) – Summerstown
813.8 505.7 814 County Road 2 / County Road 34 – Lancaster, Alexandria, Hawkesbury Formerly Highway 2 south / Highway 34 north
825.4 512.9 825 County Road 23 (4th Line Road, Curry Hill Road)
Ontario–Quebec border 828.0 514.5
Highway 401 ends at border
A-20 continues east towards Montreal
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi
  •       Closed/former
  •       Unopened

See also


  1. ^ a b The first interchange on Highway 401 (Dougall Avenue) is numbered Exit 13, but is only 2 km (1.2 mi) from Highway 3.[1][13] The Windsor–Essex Parkway will likely incorporate the initial kilometres into exit numbers along its length.[14]
  2. ^ The Department of Highways Fiscal Report for the year ending March 31, 1952, claims "Controlled Access Highways nos. 400 and 401 were signed". However, all other sources claim July.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j  
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ministry of Transportation and Communications (1972). pp. 8–9.
  3. ^ "Appendix 3". 2009–2010 OBW/ORA Handbook for Students Coming to Ontario from watermelon. Ontario Program Office, OBW/ORA Student Exchange Programs,  
  4. ^ Allen, Paddy (July 11, 2011). "Carmageddon: the world's busiest roads". The Guardian (in English (Infographic)). Guardian News & Media Ltd. Retrieved July 11, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b Maier, Hanna (October 9, 2007). "Chapter 2". Long-Life Concrete Pavements in Europe and Canada (Report). Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved May 1, 2010. "The key high-volume highways in Ontario are the 400-series highways in the southern part of the province. The most important of these is the 401, the busiest highway in North America, with average annual daily traffic (AADT) of more than 425,000 vehicles in 2004 and daily traffic sometimes exceeding 500,000 vehicles."
  6. ^ a b c Canadian NewsWire (August 6, 2002). Ontario government investing $401 million to upgrade Highway 401 (Report). Ministry of Transportation of Ontario. "Highway 401 is one of the busiest highways in the world and represents a vital link in Ontario's transportation infrastructure, carrying more than 400,000 vehicles per day through Toronto."
  7. ^ a b c d e f Thün, Geoffrey; Velikov, Kathy. "The Post-Carbon Highway". Alphabet City. Archived from the original on July 5, 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2012. It is North America’s busiest highway, and one of the busiest in the world. The section of Highway 401 that cuts across the northern part of Toronto has been expanded to eighteen lanes, and typically carries 420,000 vehicles a day, rising to 500,000 at peak times, as compared to 380,000 on the I-405 in Los Angeles or 350,000 on the I-75 in Atlanta (Gray). 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Shragge pp. 93–94.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Highway 401 – The story". John G. Shragge. 2007. Archived from the original on March 28, 2008. Retrieved February 12, 2010. 
  10. ^ a b "Engineering Feats: 401 is the busiest highway in North America". The Midland Free Press (Sun Media). 2008. Retrieved March 5, 2010. 
  11. ^ Ministry of Transportation (2003).
  12. ^ a b c Google Inc. "Driving directions from Toronto, ON to Montreal, QC". Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc.,+ON&daddr=Montreal,+QC&hl=en&geocode=&mra=ls&sll=42.78714,-80.976825&sspn=3.377959,6.987305&ie=UTF8&ll=44.606113,-76.508789&spn=3.277071,6.987305&t=h&z=7. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Peter Heiler Ltd (2010). Ontario Back Road Atlas (Map). Cartography by MapArt. ISBN .
  14. ^ a b Detroit River International Crossing Study team (May 1, 2008). "Parkway Map" (PDF). URS Corporation. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  15. ^ Ministry of Transportation (2003), section T18–19.
  16. ^ a b c Detroit River International Crossing Study team (May 1, 2008). "The DRIC Announces Preferred Access Road" (Press release). URS Corporation. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  17. ^ Detroit River International Crossing Study team (July 2009). "Initial Construction" (PDF). URS Corporation. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  18. ^ a b c Government of Ontario (1990). Ontario Official Road Map (Map).
  19. ^ "Location and Geography of Sarnia–Lambton". Government of Ontario. Retrieved May 7, 2011. 
  20. ^ Planning Department. "Land Use History". City of Windsor. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
  21. ^ "Thames River – Fact Sheet". The Canadian Heritage Rivers System. Retrieved August 5, 2010. 
  22. ^ Butorac p. 10.
  23. ^ Hall, Joseph (October 2, 1999). "Boredom becomes a killer on 401 ; Straight and smooth, 'carnage alley' encourages a lethal lack of attention".  
  24. ^ "'"Crash area long known as 'Carnage Alley. The Toronto Star. June 8, 2000. p. A. 4. Retrieved March 24, 2010. 
  25. ^ a b c Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (March 2007). Canada and Ontario Making Improvements to Highway 401 in Essex County (Report). Canadian News Wire.
  26. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (June 26, 2006). "Canada and Ontario Improving Highway 401 in London". Transport Canada. Retrieved March 14, 2010. 
  27. ^ a b MapArt (2008). London & Area (Map). ISBN .
  28. ^ Ministry of Transportation (2003), section R23–24.
  29. ^ a b Butorac.
  30. ^ a b Carter-Whitney, Maureen; Esakin, Thomas C. (2010) (PDF). Ontario's Greenbelt in an International Context (Report). Canadian Institute for Environmental Law and Policy. p. 7. . Retrieved May 5, 2010.
  31. ^ McIlwraith p. 222.
  32. ^ a b Rand McNally 2007, p. 4.
  33. ^ "Directions". Yorkdale Shopping Centre. Retrieved March 10, 2011. 
  34. ^ "Directions". Scarborough Town Centre. Retrieved March 10, 2011. 
  35. ^ "Directions / Mall Hours". Pickering Town Centre. Retrieved March 10, 2011. 
  36. ^ a b c d e f Peter Heiler Ltd (2008). Golden Horseshoe (Map). pp. 103, 107–112, 266–267, 459, 466, section E3–K44, R8–S16, E44–F46. ISBN .
  37. ^ Lorenz, Matt; Elefteriadou, Lily (July 2000). "A Probabilistic Approach to Defining Freeway Capacity and Breakdown" (PDF). Fourth International Symposium on Highway Capacity, Proceedings (The Pennsylvania Transportation Institute): 85. Retrieved June 10, 2010. 
  38. ^ Yagar, Sam; Hui, Richard (January 26, 2007). "Systemwide Analysis of Freeway Improvements". Transportation Research Record (Transportation Research Board of the National Academies) 1554: 172–183.  
  39. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario. "About COMPASS – Systems in Operation". Government of Ontario. Retrieved March 1, 2010. 
  40. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario. "Freeway Traffic Management Systems". Government of Ontario. Retrieved March 1, 2010. 
  41. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario. "Interactive Map". Government of Ontario. Retrieved March 1, 2010. 
  42. ^ Google Inc. "Highway 401 between the Highway 403 and 410 junction and Highway 427". Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc.,-79.665046&daddr=King's+Hwy+401%2FMacDonald-Cartier+Fwy&hl=en&geocode=%3BFZxOmgIdJHxB-w&mra=dme&mrcr=0&mrsp=0&sz=18&sll=43.637966,-79.662455&sspn=0.00368,0.006523&ie=UTF8&ll=43.65595,-79.617233&spn=0.470954,0.834961&t=h&z=11. Retrieved April 28, 2009.
  43. ^ City of Toronto (1959). Toronto Transportation Plan (Map).
  44. ^ Google Inc. "Highway 401 between Highway 409 and Brock Road". Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc.'s+Hwy+401%2FMacDonald-Cartier+Fwy&daddr=43.838071,-79.072021&hl=en&geocode=FTXUmgId7v9B-w%3B&mra=dme&mrcr=0&mrsp=1&sz=18&sll=43.837553,-79.072407&sspn=0.003668,0.006523&ie=UTF8&ll=43.733399,-79.315796&spn=0.470346,0.834961&t=h&z=11. Retrieved April 28, 2009.
  45. ^ a b c d Ministry of Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Topographic Atlas – Merging of Highway 401's four carriageways into two (Map).[northarrow]_class[0]_style[0]=ANGLE%20-15.446039104962495&mapsize=750%20666&urlappend=. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
  46. ^ M.M Dillon Limited (July 1983). "Executive Summary". Don Valley Corridor Transportation Study (Report). Metropolitan Toronto Technical Transportation Planning Committee. p. iii. "nearly 52% of the vehicles entering the [study] corridor arrived via Highway 401."
  47. ^ a b Google Inc. "Reduction of through-lanes on Highway 401 near Salem Road in Ajax". Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc.,+Toronto+Division,+Ontario,+Canada&ll=43.855744,-79.010314&spn=0.004154,0.011351&t=k&z=17. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
  48. ^ Follert, Jillian (October 10, 2009). "Oshawa man frustrated by empty bridge during repatriations". Oshawa This Week (Metroland Media Group). Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved December 30, 2011. 
  49. ^ "Notice of Construction at Hwy 401 in City of Oshawa and Bowmanville". Ontario Trucking Association. May 27, 2011. Retrieved June 25, 2011. 
  50. ^ Google Inc. "Highway 401 from Highway 35 / 115 junction to Cobourg". Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc.,-78.218408&sspn=0.014112,0.027595&ie=UTF8&ll=43.944878,-78.431396&spn=0.223958,0.441513&t=h&z=11. Retrieved May 11, 2010.
  51. ^ Ministry of Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Topographic Atlas – Cobourg to Trenton near Lake Ontario (Map). Retrieved June 9, 2010.
  52. ^ Peter Heiler Ltd (2009), section C59.
  53. ^ Peter Heiler Ltd (2010), pp. 37, 50, section A59–C61.
  54. ^ Peter Heiler Ltd (2010), p. 50, section X64–Y64.
  55. ^ Peter Heiler Ltd (2010), p. 69, section S73–T74.
  56. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (2010). "Provincial Highway Traffic Volumes 1988–2010". Government of Ontario. Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  57. ^ A.A.D.T. Traffic Volumes 1955–1969 And Traffic Collision Data 1967–1969 (Report). Department of Highways. 1970. pp. 5–11.
  58. ^ a b c Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (September 13, 2008). "Contract #: 2008–4009". Government of Ontario. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  59. ^ a b Emery pp. 179–182.
  60. ^ a b Filey, Mike (November 20, 2011). "Road Pioneers of the Past". The Toronto Sun. p. 44. 
  61. ^ "Toronto–Hamilton Highway Proposed". The Toronto World 34 (12125). January 22, 1914. p. 14. Retrieved February 9, 2010. 
  62. ^ Shragge p. 55.
  63. ^ Shragge p. 55. "...the Toronto-to-Hamilton highway which, when completed in 1917, was both Ontario's first concrete highway and one of the longest such inter-city stretches in the world."
  64. ^ "Increased Volume of Traffic". Toronto World 40 (14472). June 26, 1920. p. 7. Retrieved February 12, 2010. 
  65. ^ a b Shragge pp. 79–81.
  66. ^ Filey pp. 61–62.
  67. ^ Stamp pp. 19–20.
  68. ^ "Hopes to Improve Roads". The Gazette 165 (42) (Montreal). February 18, 1936. p. 14. Retrieved February 9, 2010. 
  69. ^ English, Bob (March 16, 2006). "'"Remember that 'little four-lane freeway?. Globe And Mail (Toronto). Retrieved February 9, 2010. ...the freeway concept was promoted by Hamiltonian Thomas B. McQuesten, then the highway minister. The Queen Elizabeth Way was already under construction, but McQuesten changed it into a dual-lane divided highway, based on Germany's new autobahns. 
  70. ^ Stamp pp. 11–12.
  71. ^ "Highway Conditions In Eastern Ontario". The Ottawa Citizen 94 (127) (Southam Newspapers). November 13, 1936. p. 29. Retrieved February 16, 2010. 
  72. ^ Brown p. 105.
  73. ^ "Road Convention Dates Announced". The Gazette (Montreal). June 7, 1938. Retrieved February 10, 2010. 
  74. ^ a b "Ontario To Bar All Gas Stands On Speedways". The Gazette 167 (214) (Montreal). September 7, 1938. pp. 1, 19. Retrieved February 12, 2010. 
  75. ^ "Debts Conversion Urged By Hepburn". The Gazette 67 (296) (Montreal). September 12, 1938. p. 10. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  76. ^ Stamp p. 31.
  77. ^ "Bypassing Approved". The Gazette 167 (214) (Montreal). September 7, 1938. p. 19. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
  78. ^ Annual Report (Report). Department of Highways. April 1942. p. 9.
  79. ^ Staff (May 6, 1942). "To Open Highway Soon". The Toronto Star. p. 15. 
  80. ^ a b Shragge p. 89.
  81. ^ Woodsworth, Charles J. (October 17, 1952). "Tasteless Names For Ontario Roads". The Evening Citizen 110 (93) (Ottawa: Southam Newspapers). p. 40. Retrieved February 9, 2010. 
  82. ^ "Chronology of Storm Events". Toronto and Region Conservation. Retrieved March 18, 2010. 
  83. ^ "Speed Limit In Ontario Now At 60". The Ottawa Citizen 116 (281) (Southam Newspapers). May 29, 1959. p. 23. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  84. ^ McKendry, Jennifer (2004). "Chronology of the History of Kingston". Kingston Historical Society. Retrieved January 2, 2012. 
  85. ^ Dales, Douglas (June 20, 1954). "Across The Map".  
  86. ^ "Toll Highways considered by Ontario".  
  87. ^ "Ontario Faces Backlog Totalling 920,000,000 In Highways Building". The Ottawa Citizen 113 (206) (Southam Newspapers). March 1, 1956. p. 23. Retrieved March 31, 2010. 
  88. ^ Supertest Oil Co. (1958). Road Map of Ontario (Map). Retrieved March 26, 2012.
  89. ^ a b c Heine, William C. (July 15, 1961). "Highway For Half Canada's Population". The Ottawa Citizen 11 (28) (Southam Newspapers). pp. 1–4, 22. Retrieved April 1, 2010. 
  90. ^ "Drivers Itch To Try Out Road Link". The Ottawa Citizen 118 (632) (Southam Newspapers). July 22, 1961. p. 14. Retrieved April 1, 2010. 
  91. ^ "Freeway Alters Life in Ontario". New York Times. January 17, 1964. p. 45. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  92. ^ "401 May Be Renamed Macdonald-Cartier". The Globe and Mail 121 (35,907) (Toronto). January 9, 1965. p. 1. Premier John Robarts is expected to announce Monday at the 150th birthday dinner for Sir John A. Macdonald that Highway 401 will be renamed the Macdonald–Cartier Freeway. The naming will be in honour of Canada's first prime minister and Georges Etienne Cartier, the Quebec leader in confederation. 
  93. ^ "Chronology". Annual Report (Report). Department of Highways. March 31, 1966. p. 324.
  94. ^ "Heritage issue drives highway sign debate". The Record (Kitchener). December 23, 1997. p. B5. 
  95. ^ "Macdonald-Cartier Freeway Act". Ontario Legislative Assembly. June 11, 2003. Retrieved June 15, 2010. 
  96. ^ Annual Report 1983–1984 (Report). Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communications. March 31, 1984. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
  97. ^ Josey, Stan (February 10, 1987). "12 lanes to solve tie-ups on 401". The Toronto Star. p. E1. Retrieved April 10, 2010. 
  98. ^ Byrne, Caroline (July 4, 1989). "Highway 401 work will cause chaos for 8 more years". The Toronto Star. p. E2. Retrieved April 10, 2010. 
  99. ^ "Highway 401 Widening to Express/Collector System" (PDF). LEA Consulting. Retrieved April 6, 2010. 
  100. ^ Josey, Stan (July 4, 1989). "Diverse area faces many challenges". The Toronto Star. p. 1. Retrieved April 10, 2010. 
  101. ^ Crone, Greg (February 11, 1993). "Highway 401 from Kitchener to Toronto headed for six lanes, straight through". Kitchener–Waterloo Record. p. A1. Retrieved April 17, 2010. 
  102. ^ "Highway 401 from Kitchener to Toronto headed for six lanes, straight through". The Toronto Star. February 3, 1996. p. A3. Retrieved April 10, 2010. 
  103. ^ "Highway 401 will get major reconstruction". Kitchener–Waterloo Record. May 15, 1991. p. A1. Retrieved April 10, 2010. 
  104. ^ Malloy, Gerry (October 16, 1993). "Highway chevrons aimed at curbing crashes". The Toronto Star. p. 16. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  105. ^ Google Inc. "Chevrons on Highway 401 near Whitby. No signs indicate their use.". Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc.,+Toronto+Division,+Ontario&ll=43.864362,-78.971786&spn=0,359.97262&z=15&layer=c&cbll=43.864333,-78.971938&panoid=tW1H89_PVFDP1pN4x94Eew&cbp=12,239.8,,0,15.81. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
  106. ^ a b Crabtree, Joe (Autumn 1995). "Advantage I-75 Prepares to Cut Ribbon on Electronic Clearance" 59 (2). United States Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved March 8, 2011. 
  107. ^ ITS America (Winter 1995). "Along The Road" 59 (3) (ADVANTAGE I-75 Testing Completed ed.). United States Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved February 27, 2010. 
  108. ^ Transport Canada (November 1999). "Where is Canada Now?" (PDF). En Route to Intelligent Mobility (Report). Government of Canada. p. xiii. Retrieved March 8, 2011.
  109. ^ Seidel, Jeff (December 21, 1999). Carnage Alley': Ontario's Highway 401 was a road of death in 1999"'". Knight-Ridder Newspapers. Retrieved January 15, 2012. 
  110. ^ Scott, Cameron (December 15, 2010). "What is Lake Effect Snow". Sciences 360. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  111. ^ Annett, Doug (March 2000). "Highway Safety: A Drive in the Country". Canadian Occupational Health and Safety Magazine (Business Information Group). Retrieved August 5, 2010. 
  112. ^ a b Seidel, Jeff (December 21, 1999). Carnage Alley': Ontario's Highway 401 was a road of death in 1999."'". Knight Ridder (Tribune News Service). Retrieved August 5, 2010. 
  113. ^ "Killer highway claims ten more car smash victims". The Birmingham Post. September 4, 1999. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  114. ^ a b Robson, Dan (August 30, 2009). "Reliving the horror of the 401 fog". The Toronto Star. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  115. ^ McCann, Wendy (August 31, 1999). "Killer Highway 'Pleasant' To Drive". The Hamilton Spectator. p. 3. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  116. ^ "401 Incident – Timeline". Windsor Fire and Rescue Services. Retrieved March 21, 2010. 
  117. ^ "Cleanup continues after horrific highway crash". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. September 5, 1999. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  118. ^ "Ontario puts more money into highways than ever before".  
  119. ^ "Upgrades, extra police planned for Canada 401". The Blade (Toledo, Ohio). September 18, 1999. p. 8. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  120. ^ a b Robson, Dan (August 30, 2009). "'"Improvements made to 'Carnage Alley. The Toronto Star. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  121. ^ a b "'"Stretch of 401 to be renamed 'Highway of Heroes. CTV Toronto. August 24, 2007. Retrieved February 3, 2010. 
  122. ^ a b Office of the Premier (September 7, 2007). 'Highway of Heroes' Signs Unveiled Along Highway 401 (Report). Government of Ontario. Retrieved February 3, 2010.
  123. ^ "Hwy. 401 Will Be Renamed 'Highway of Heroes' to Honour Soldiers". City News. August 24, 2007. Retrieved February 3, 2010. 
  124. ^ Fisher, Pete (August 14, 2011). "Salute to 'Brothers'". The Toronto Sun. pp. 6–7. 
  125. ^ Warmington, Joe (June 23, 2007). "Our own Trail of Tears". The Toronto Sun. p. 3. 
  126. ^ Fisher, Pete (July 13, 2007). "Highway of Heroes: Let's make it official". Northumberland Today. Sun Media. Retrieved February 3, 2010. 
  127. ^ "Section of 401 to be renamed for fallen". The Record (Kitchener). August 24, 2007. Retrieved February 3, 2010. 
  128. ^ Cassin, J. "Highway of Heroes officially dedicated in Port Hope". Northumberland Today (Sun Media). Retrieved August 5, 2010. 
  129. ^ "Evacuees begin returning home after fireball consumes Toronto propane plant". CanWest News Service. August 10, 2010. Retrieved February 21, 2010. Ontario Provincial Police spokesman Sgt. Cam Woolley said the incident triggered the biggest closure of the 401 in the highway’s history. 
  130. ^ Taylor, Bill (August 11, 2008). "Residents return after blast". The Toronto Star. Retrieved February 21, 2010. ...a 10-kilometre stretch of Canada’s busiest highway, the 401, was shut down as was the southern end of Highway 400, which carries people to and from cottage country. The highway was re-opened at around 8 p.m., but the restricted ramps will remain closed for some time. 
  131. ^ "Highway 401 Reopens Following Propane Facility Blast". CityNews. August 10, 2010. Retrieved February 21, 2010. 
  132. ^ a b Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (September 7, 2005). "Contract #: 2005–2014". Government of Ontario. Archived from the original on October 30, 2007. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  133. ^ "Stevenson interchange open". Oshawa This Week.  
  134. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (July 14, 2008). "Contract #: 2008–3004". Government of Ontario. Retrieved March 14, 2010. 
  135. ^ Cornies, Larry (December 4, 2010). Need for speed' creates havoc on 401"'". London, Ontario, Canada: London Free Press. Retrieved June 8, 2011. Except for a few crowning touches that will wait until spring, the massive construction project on a 20-kilometre stretch of Hwy. 401 just east of Woodstock is finally finished. 
  136. ^ a b c Hertz, Barry (July 25, 2007). "Province plans to create 6-lane Highway 401". The National Post (Toronto). 
  137. ^ a b Detroit River International Crossing Study team. "DRIC Reports (Canada)". Detroit River International Crossing Project. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  138. ^ "'"Windsor's 'Garden of Eden.  
  139. ^ Pearson, Craig (February 14, 2008). "Province buying up land for 401 extension". Windsor Star. p. 1. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  140. ^ "Couple worries new parkway will surround their home". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 27, 2009. Retrieved December 14, 2011. 
  141. ^ Government of Canada (March 3, 2008). "Border transportation partnership reaches milestone". Transport Canada. Archived from the original on February 25, 2010. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  142. ^ Liltwin, Natalie (June 3, 2009). "DRIC controversy goes on". Windsor Star (Canwest Publishing). Retrieved June 16, 2010. 
  143. ^ "Ambassador Bridge boss sues Canada, U.S.". CBC News. March 25, 2010. Retrieved June 16, 2010. 
  144. ^ Kristy, Dylan (May 5, 2011). "Sierra Club, bridge lose bid to derail DRIC". The Windsor Star. Retrieved January 2, 2012. 
  145. ^ Detroit River International Crossing Study team (2010). "What's Next" (PDF). URS Corporation. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  146. ^ Doelen, Chris Vander (May 7, 2011). "Parkway work to start in August, MPP says". The Windsor Star. Retrieved January 2, 2012. 
  147. ^ Infrastructure Ontario (2011). "The Windsor–Essex Parkway". Government of Ontario. Retrieved December 28, 2011. 
  148. ^ Battagello, Dave (May 22, 2013). "Canada to start buying property in Delray for DRIC bridge". Windsor Star. Retrieved August 4, 2013. 
  149. ^ Battagello, Dave (November 28, 2012). "Gray ‘Moved’ by Tribute to Name Parkway in his Honour". The Windsor Star. Retrieved December 2, 2012. 
  150. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (2008). "Borders and Gateways". Government of Ontario. Retrieved March 15, 2010. 
  151. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (August 27, 2007). "Contract #: 2007–3043". Government of Ontario. Retrieved March 14, 2010. 
  152. ^ "401 widening won't happen for years". Chatham This Week (Sun Media). December 5, 2007. Retrieved March 15, 2010. 
  153. ^ URS Corporation (January 12, 2004). "London 401 Preliminary Design Study". City of London, Ontario, Ontario Ministry of Transportation. Retrieved July 5, 2010. Examine the Highway 401 Corridor in London 
  154. ^ a b Newstalk 1290 (May 2, 2014). "Work Starting on Wonderland and 401 Interchange". CJBK News. Retrieved May 3, 2014. Work on a new interchange that will link Highway 401 with Wonderland Road 
  155. ^ "Demolition of Westminster Drive Bridge to Close 401 Saturday Night". AM 980 News. July 5, 2014. Retrieved July 7, 2014. The demolition and replacement of the Westminster Drive Bridge 
  156. ^ "London Transportation Report- Southwest Area Plan" (PDF). City of London, Ontario. May 5, 2010. Retrieved June 10, 2010. Future Interchanges/Upgrade: Colonel Talbot at Highway 401 
  157. ^ "New Highway Interchange Improving Access to London" (Press release). Ontario Ministry of Transportation. July 25, 2014. Retrieved July 26, 2014. Ontario is building a new interchange at Highway 401 and Wonderland Road 
  158. ^ a b c d Ontario Ministry of Transportation (November 2012). "Southern Highways Program 2012–2016". Government of Ontario. Retrieved July 18, 2013. Start 2015: New interchange / interchange improvements: Colonel Talbot Rd. to Veterans Memorial Pkwy, London including Wonderland Rd. and Veterans Memorial Pkwy" 
  159. ^ Transportation Division (November 13, 2007). "Veterans Memorial Parkway, Environmental Study, Official Plan and Zoning Amendment" (PDF). City of London, Ontario. Retrieved April 26, 2010. 
  160. ^ Transportation Division (May 30, 2007). "Veterans Memorial Parkway, Interchange-class environmental assessment study" (PDF). City of London, Ontario. Retrieved April 26, 2010. Reformatting the Highway 401/VMP interchange 
  161. ^ "London Long Term Transportation Corridor Protection Study" (PDF). City of London, Ontario. April 4, 2001. Retrieved April 27, 2010. Note that the proposed widening of Highway 401 to eight lanes through London could reduce the need to widen crossing roadways along Exeter Road and Dingman Drive. 
  162. ^ Ontario Ministry of Transportation (October 2010). "Southern Highways Program 2010–2014". Government of Ontario. Retrieved October 24, 2010. Projects beyond 2014: Wellington Rd to Highbury Ave, London 
  163. ^ Record staff (September 3, 2014). "Cambridge Committee Grants Weekend Noise Exemption for Hwy. 401 Work". Waterloo Region Record (Kitchener). Retrieved November 12, 2014. During the next four years, construction crews will widen Highway 401 from six to 10 lanes and rebuild four overpasses that stretch across the highway. 
  164. ^ Planning Housing and Community Services – Transportation Planning (March 31, 2009). "Highway 8 and Highway 401 Interchange Improvements". Region of Waterloo. Retrieved January 2, 2012. 
  165. ^ a b Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (May 24, 2007). "Ontario’s High Occupancy Vehicle Lane Network: Summary of the Plan for the 400-Series Highways in the Greater Golden Horseshoe". Government of Ontario. Retrieved February 25, 2010. Figure 2 proposes a vision for "growing the corridors" by building on existing HOV lanes. This involves extending the HOV lanes on Highways 400 and 404 farther north and adding lanes to other key sections such as Highway 401 in Peel Region. 
  166. ^ Swayze, Kevin (December 4, 2011). "Highway 401 Carpool Lanes Proposed". The Record (Kitchener). Retrieved December 4, 2011. 
  167. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (August 19, 2009). "Contract #: 2009–2031". Government of Ontario. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  168. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (January 29, 2014). "Highway 401/Mavis Road Interchange and New Ramps at the Highway 401/410/403 Interchange". Government of Ontario. Retrieved January 30, 2014. 
  169. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (November 30, 2008). "Contract #: 2008–2017". Government of Ontario. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  170. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (July 22, 2009). "Contract #: 2009–2029". Government of Ontario. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  171. ^ Ontario Ministry of Transportation (August 2009). "Southern Highways Program 2008–2012". Government of Ontario. Retrieved June 11, 2010. Projects beyond 2012: Highway 401 / 400 Interchange, Toronto 
  172. ^ Totten Sims Hubicki Associates (August 17, 2009). "Appendix D – Recommended Design Plans" (PDF). Highway 407 Environmental Assessment, West Durham Link at Highway 401 (Report). Ministry of Transportation of Ontario. p. 7. Retrieved February 17, 2010.
  173. ^ Totten Sims Hubicki Associates (August 17, 2009). "Appendix D – Recommended Design Plans" (PDF). Highway 407 Environmental Assessment, East Durham Link at Highway 401 (Report). Ministry of Transportation of Ontario. p. 9. Retrieved February 17, 2010.
  174. ^ Szekely, Reka (June 30, 2009). "Highway 401 between Ajax and Whitby to be widened". Ajax-Pickering News Advertiser (Metroland Media Group). Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  175. ^ [Highway 401 Brock to Courtice]
  176. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (October 14, 2008). "Contract #: 2008–4006". Government of Ontario. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  177. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (November 9, 2009). "Contract #: 2009–4003". Government of Ontario. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  178. ^ "HMSHost Corporation and Kilmer Van Nostrand Co. Limited Ink 50-Year Agreement to Build 23 World-Class Service Centres on Major Canadian Highways". CNW Group. April 7, 2010. Retrieved June 5, 2010. 
  179. ^ a b "Ontario Finalizes Plans For Highway Service Centres". Brock News (Brockville: DCE Productions). April 7, 2010. Retrieved April 9, 2010. 
  180. ^ Ministry of Transportation (2003), section T20, S21, R23–R24, Q27–Q28, P31, O33–P34, N36.
  181. ^ "ONroute Locations". Host Kilmer Service Centres. Retrieved October 1, 2010. 
  182. ^ a b c d e f Host Kilmer Service Centres (October 1, 2010). "First Phase of Highway 401 Service Centres Complete" (Press release). CNW Group. Retrieved October 1, 2010. 
  183. ^ Wightman, Ken (March 20, 2010). "Celebrating the Doomed Domes of Woodstock Service Centre". Digital Journal. Retrieved September 26, 2010. 
  184. ^ Caldwell, Brian (May 12, 2010). "401 service centres east of Cambridge last to be spruced up".  
  185. ^ a b Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (February 18, 2010). "Ontario Service Centres FAQ". Government of Ontario. Retrieved September 4, 2013. 
  186. ^ Butorac pp. 158–159.
  187. ^ Norris, Mike (February 2010). "Centres forced to close". Whig Standard (Kingston: Sun Media). Retrieved April 9, 2010. 
  188. ^ Zajac, Ronald (January 17, 2011). "Westbound 401 Service Centre Partly Reopening". Retrieved January 25, 2012. 
  189. ^ "Committee votes to open Brimley Road". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). February 19, 1988. p. A13. 
  190. ^ a b Annual Report 1983–1984 (Report). Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communications. March 31, 1984. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
  191. ^ Public and Safety Information Branch (September 6, 1974). "Opening of New Brock Road Highway 401 Interchange, Closing of Liverpool Road Highway 401 Interchange" (Press release). Ministry of Transportation and Communications. 
  192. ^ a b Potter, Warren (December 10, 1985). "Ajax Commuters Get Partial Relief With New Ramps". The Toronto Star. p. East3. 
  193. ^ Holt Road work in Clarington paves way for Highway 407



External links

Official sites
  • Ministry of Transportation of Ontario
  • The Rt. Honourable Herb Gray Parkway (Windsor-Essex Parkway) web site
  • Live COMPASS Traffic Cameras
Photos and additional information
  • Highway 401 at OntHighways
  • Highway 401 at
  • Video of Highway 401 between Tilbury and Essex
  • Video of Highway 401 between Highway 4 and the Veterans Memorial Parkway
  • Video of Highway 401 between Highway 402 and 403
  • Video of Highway 401 between Highway 403 and 8
  • Video of Highway 401 through Greater Toronto
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