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Title: Off-Off-Broadway  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of musicals: M to Z, List of musicals: A to L, Tony n' Tina's Wedding, The Talking Band, Dames at Sea
Collection: 1958 Establishments in New York, Off-Off Broadway, Theatre in New York City
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Caffe Cino, July 1965

Off-Off-Broadway theatrical productions in New York City are those in theatres that are smaller than Broadway and Off-Broadway theatres. Off-Off-Broadway theatres are usually theatres that have fewer than 100 seats,[1] though the term can be used for any show in the New York City area that employs union actors but is not under an Off-Broadway, Broadway, or League of Resident Theatres contract. It is often used as a term relating to any show with non-union actors. The shows range from professional productions by established artists to small amateur performances.


  • History 1
  • See also 2
  • References 3
    • Notes 3.1
    • Bibliography 3.2
  • External links 4


The Off-Off-Broadway movement began in 1958 as a reaction to Off-Broadway, and a "complete rejection of commercial theatre".[2] Michael Smith gives credit for the term's coinage to Jerry Tallmer in 1960.[3] Among the first venues for what would soon be called "Off-Off-Broadway" were coffeehouses in Greenwich Village, particularly the Caffe Cino at 31 Cornelia Street, operated by the eccentric Joe Cino, who early on took a liking to actors and playwrights and agreed to let them stage plays there without bothering to read the plays first, or to even find out much about the content. This DIY aesthetic also led to creative acts of object repurposing by playwrights and directors, who cobbled together sets from materials scavenged from local streets.[4] Also integral to the rise of Off-Off-Broadway were Ellen Stewart at La MaMa, and Al Carmines at the Judson Poets' Theater, located at Judson Memorial Church. Other theaters of note that presented many plays were Theatre Genesis, New York Theatre Ensemble,[5] The Old Reliable,[6][7] The Dove Company.[8] The Playwrights Workshop,[9] and Workshop of the Players Art (WPA).[10]

An Off-Off-Broadway production that features members of Actors Equity is, of necessity, called an Equity Showcase production; not all Off-Off-Broadway shows are Equity Showcases. The union maintains very strict rules about working in such productions, including restrictions on price, the length of the run and rehearsal times. Professional actors' participation in showcase productions is frequent and comprises the bulk of stage work for the majority of New York actors. There has been an ongoing movement to revise the Equity Showcase rules, which many in the community find overly restrictive and detrimental to the creation of New York theatre.[11][12]

In 1964, Off-Off-Broadway productions were made eligible for Obie Awards, and in 1974, the Drama Desk Awards began evaluating Off-Off with the same criteria as it used for Broadway and Off-Broadway.[13]

The term indie theatre, or independent theatre, coined by playwright Kirk Bromley, has been adopted by many as a replacement for the term Off-Off-Broadway, and is used by groups such as The League of Independent Theater and the website[14]

Since 2005 La MaMa has been presenting Coffeehouse Chronicles featuring personal oral accounts from artists of the day as well as conversations with present-day artists who continue to work in the same bold, daring manner. In keeping with tradition, a basket is passed.[15]

See also



  1. ^ "Off-Off-Broadway, Way Back When". Theater mania. Retrieved 2007-12-13. 
  2. ^ Viagas 2004, p. 72.
  3. ^ "LD Hosts - Site Inactive" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-03-28. 
  4. ^ Raymond Malewitz. "The Practice of Misuse: Rugged Consumerism in Contemporary American Culture | Raymond Malewitz". Retrieved 2015-03-28. 
  5. ^ New York Magazine - Google Books. 1970-03-02. Retrieved 2015-03-28. 
  6. ^ [2]
  7. ^ Playing Underground: A Critical History of the 1960s Off-off-Broadway Movement - Stephen James Bottoms - Google Books. Retrieved 2015-03-28. 
  8. ^ "Robert Patrick Papers : ca. 1940-1984" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-03-28. 
  9. ^ "ROBERT PATRICK BIO by Wendell Stone | Quit". 2010-02-22. Retrieved 2015-03-28. 
  10. ^ Ortega, Tony (2011-05-03). "Christopher Lloyd! Stacy Keach! Jessica Tandy! It's the 1973 Obies! | Village Voice". Retrieved 2015-03-28. 
  11. ^ Garrett Eisler (2007-08-21). "Breaking the Code?". Retrieved 2015-03-28. 
  12. ^ "Cracking the Code, New York equity showcase code renewed". Retrieved 2015-03-28. 
  13. ^ "About the Drama Desk Awards". Retrieved 2015-03-28. 
  14. ^ Bromley, Kirk, Interview,, retrieved 2015-03-28 
  15. ^ "Coffeehouse #118: Liz Swados". 2014-06-23. Retrieved 2015-03-28. 


  • Bottoms, Stephen J (2004), Playing Underground: A Critical History of the 1960s Off-Off-Broadway Movement, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, .  
  • Curley, Mallory (2013), Tales of Off Off Broadway, Randy Press .
  • Viagas, Robert (2004), The Back Stage Guide to Broadway, New York: Back Stage, .  
  • Malewitz, Raymond (2014), The Practice of Misuse, Stanford: Stanford University Press, ..  

External links

  • New York Innovative Theatre Award, an awards and advocacy group for independent theater
  • NY theatre, a review site specializing in indie theater
  • League of Independent Theater
  • Off off online.
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