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The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force. It is named after Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on classical mechanics, specifically Newton's second law of motion.
In 1946, Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM) resolution 2 standardized the unit of force in the MKS system of units to be the amount needed to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at the rate of 1 metre per second squared. The 9th CGPM, held in 1948, then adopted the name "newton" for this unit in resolution 7.^{[1]} This name honors the English physicist and mathematician Isaac Newton, who laid the foundations for most of classical mechanics. The newton thus became the standard unit of force in le Système International d'Unités (SI), or International System of Units.
Newton's second law of motion states that F = ma, where F is the force applied, m is the mass of the object receiving the force, and a is the acceleration of the object. The newton is therefore:^{[2]}
where the following symbols are used for the units:
In dimensional analysis:
where
This The International System of Units, section 5.2.
Kilonewtons are often used for stating safety holding values of fasteners, anchors, and more in the building industry. They are also often used in the specifications for rock climbing equipment. The safe working loads in both tension and shear measurements can be stated in kilonewtons. Injection moulding machines, used to manufacture plastic parts, are classed by kilonewton (i.e., the amount of clamping force they apply to the mould).
On the Earth's surface, 1 kN is about 101.97162 kilogram-force of load, so multiplying the kilonewton value by 100 (i.e. using a slightly conservative and easier to calculate value) is a good rule of thumb.^{[3]}
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