World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

National Education Association

Article Id: WHEBN0000527385
Reproduction Date:

Title: National Education Association  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Florida Education Association, Dennis Van Roekel, Political positions of Joe Biden, Education in the United States, Joe Biden
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

National Education Association

National Education Association (NEA)
NEA headquarters in Washington, DC
Founded 1857
Members 3.2 million (2006) [1]
Affiliation EI
Key people Lily Eskelsen García, president
Office location Washington, D.C.
Country United States

The National Education Association (NEA) is the largest Lily Eskelsen García is the NEA's current president.

NEA, which describes itself as a professional employee organization,[2] is incorporated as a professional association in a few states and as a labor union in most. The group holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code. It is not a member of the AFL–CIO, but is part of Education International, the global federation of teachers' unions. The NEA is a factor in modern liberalism, and typically supports the Democratic Party.[4] Conservatives, libertarians, parents' rights groups, and others criticize it for opposing types of education reform designed to weaken unions, as well as provide what they claim to be a better learning experience for students.[5]

The stated mission of the National Education Association is "to advocate for education professionals and to unite our members and the nation to fulfill the promise of public education to prepare every student to succeed in a diverse and interdependent world,"[6] as well as concerning itself with the wage and working condition issues common to other labor unions.

The NEA is a [2]

At the local level, affiliates perform a variety of activities (as determined by the local members), which may range from raising funds for scholarship programs to conducting professional workshops on issues that affect faculty and school support staff to bargaining contracts for school district employees.[7]

The activities of NEA state affiliates are equally wide-ranging. State affiliates regularly lobby state legislators for funding and other resources; they seek to influence education policy; they campaign for higher professional standards for educators and support professionals; and, they file legal actions to protect academic freedom and the rights of school employees.[7] The extent to which the NEA and its state and local affiliates engage in political activities, especially during election cycles has, however, been a source of controversy.[8][9][10] From 1989 to 2010 the NEA has spent approximately 36 million dollars on lobbying efforts according to the Center for Responsive Politics.[11]

At the national level, the NEA lobbies the [7]

Structure and governance

NEA's 3.2 million members are served by 14,000 local affiliates (including some 800 higher education affiliates), 51 state-level affiliates (50 state associations and the Federal Education Association), and roughly 555 staff members working at its headquarters in Washington, D.C., and in regional offices.[12]

Representative Assembly

NEA members themselves set Association policy, most notably through the Representative Assembly or "RA." The RA—a delegation comprising elected representatives from each local and state affiliate, coalitions of student members and retired members, and other segments of the united education profession—is the primary legislative and policymaking body of the Association. The RA meets annually the first week of July to adopt a strategic plan and budget, make resolutions, and develop other policies that guide the work of the Association. Those delegates with full voting rights also elect the executive officers, Executive Committee members, and at-large members of the NEA Board of Directors as appropriate. The RA is the largest democratic deliberative assembly in the world and adheres to Roberts Rules of Order.[13]

Executive Officers, Board of Directors and Executive Committee

The executive officers of the Association are Lily Eskelsen García,President; Rebecca Pringle, Vice President; and, Princess Moss, Secretary-Treasurer. These three posts are elected by the Representative Assembly.[13]

The Board of Directors and Executive Committee are responsible for the general policies and interests of the Association, and are subject to policies established by the Representative Assembly. The Board of Directors consists of one director from each state affiliate (plus an additional director for every 20,000 active members in the state), six directors for the Retired members, and three directors for the Student members. The Board also includes at-large representatives of ethnic minorities, administrators, classroom teachers in higher education, and active members employed in educational support positions. The Executive Committee consists of nine members: the three executive officers and six members elected at large by delegates to the Representative Assembly. The executive officers and other members of the Executive Committee are ex officio members of the Board of Directors.[14]


Early history

Prior to the NEA's founding, teachers had formed professional associations in 15 individual states, but there was no cohesive national association uniting them. That changed in 1857 when Thomas W. Valentine, president of the [16] Initial membership was close to 100.[17]

Even though minority educators were able to join the Association from the start, women were barred from joining until 1866.[18] Over the ensuing decades the Association became a leading voice in the national movement for women's rights. It elected its first female president, Ella Flagg Young, in 1910, a decade before Congress granted voting rights to women.[19]

NTA became the National Education Association (NEA) in 1870 when it merged with the American Normal School Association, the National Association of School Superintendents, and the Central College Association.[20]

In 1898, the NEA backed the English spelling reform movement and adopted a list of 12 reformed spellings to be used immediately. These were: though→tho, although→altho, thorough→thoro, thoroughfare→thorofare, through→thru, throughout→thruout, catalogue→catalog, decalogue→decalog, demagogue→demagog, pedagogue→pedagog, prologue→prolog, programme→program.[21]

It was chartered by Congress in 1906.

On its 100th birthday in 1957, NEA had over 700,000 members.[22]

NEA-ATA merger

NEA merged officially with the [23]

In 1926 the two organizations formed a Joint Committee of members of both organizations that was tasked with studying the lack of accreditation of Black high schools, which blocked Black students from acceptance in many colleges and universities.[22] Eventually, the Committee garnered evaluation and accreditation for Black high schools. It also advocated for equal school funding, collected data on the status of Black education, and promoted fair treatment of Blacks in textbooks while pressuring publishers to do so.[24]

Although [25]

Finally, in 1966, after more than 20 years of collaboration, cooperation and planning, NEA and ATA agreed to a merger at the RA in Miami Beach, Fla.

NEA-AFT partnership

In 1998, a tentative agreement to merge was reached between NEA and American Federation of Teachers negotiators, but ratification failed soundly in the NEA's Representative Assembly meeting in New Orleans in early July 1998.[26] However, five NEA state affiliates have merged with their AFT counterparts. Mergers occurred in Florida (the Florida Education Association formed in 1998); Minnesota (Education Minnesota formed in 1998), Montana (MEA-MFT formed in 2000), New York (New York State United Teachers formed in 2006) and North Dakota. North Dakota United formed in 2013.

Further, NEA and AFT continue to cooperate and work towards common goals through the "NEAFT Partnership." This Partnership leaves each organization free to differ and to conduct work separately and independently, but enables the two groups to collaborate at every level of each organization.[27]

Membership trends

Before the 1960s, only a small portion of public school teachers were unionized.[28] But that began to change when, in 1959, Wisconsin became the first state to pass a collective bargaining law for public employees. Over the next 20 years, most other states adopted similar laws. The passage of these laws had a significant impact on NEA, which began to serve members as a labor union, in addition to serving members as a professional association. Passage of these new labor laws, along with NEA's new role as a labor union, helped NEA membership grow from 766,000 in 1961 [28] to roughly 3.2 million today.

In the 1960s, the NEA's demographics were changing. This was due to the merger with ATA and the decision to become a true labor union, among other factors.[29] In 1967, the NEA elected its first Hispanic president Braulio Alonso. In 1968, NEA elected its first Black president, Elizabeth Duncan Koontz.[30]

In 2006, the NEA and the AFL–CIO also announced that, for the first time, stand-alone NEA locals as well as those that had merged with the AFT would be allowed to join state and local labor federations affiliated with the AFL-CIO.[31]

In 2007, at the 150th anniversary of its founding, NEA membership had grown to 3.2 million. However, five years later, USA Today reported that NEA had lost more than 100,000 members since 2010.[32]

Presidents since 1983


Most NEA funding comes from dues paid by its members ($295 million in dues from a $341 million total budget in 2005).[34] Typically, local chapters negotiate a contract with automatic deduction of dues from members' paychecks. Part of the dues remain with the local affiliate (the district association), part will go to the state association, and part will move on to the national association. Although dues moves through the state and national associations, a large portion typically comes back to the local chapters through grants.

Federal law prohibits unions from using dues money or other assets to contribute to or otherwise assist federal candidates or political parties, in accordance with their tax-exempt status. The NEA Fund for Children and Public Education is a special fund for voluntary contributions from NEA members which can legally be used to assist candidates and political parties. Critics have repeatedly questioned the NEA's actual compliance with such laws, and a number of legal actions focusing on the union's use of money and union personnel in partisan contexts have ensued.[35]

Leading issues

  • Reforming No Child Left Behind (NCLB) /Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)[36]
  • Increasing education funding[37]
  • Professional pay [38]
  • Minority Community Outreach[39]
  • Dropout prevention[40]
  • Lowering the achievement gap[41]
  • Priority Schools Campaign[42]
  • Reforming Social Security Offsets (GPO/WEP)[43]
  • Discouraging school vouchers and all forms of competition with public schools[44]
  • Reforming laws governing charter schools[45]

Political activities

The National Education Association headquarters located at 1201 16th Street, N.W., in downtown Washington, D.C.

NEA has played a role in politics since its founding, as it has sought to influence state and federal laws that would have an impact on public education. Every political position adopted by NEA was brought by one of its members to the annual Representative Assembly, where it was considered on the floor, debated, and voted on by elected delegates.

The organization tracks legislation related to education and the teaching profession and encourages members to get involved in politics through a comprehensive Legislative Action Center on its website.

  • 1912: NEA endorses Women's Suffrage
  • 1919: NEA members in New Jersey lead the way to the nation's first state pension; by 1945, every state had a pension plan in effect
  • 1941: NEA successfully lobbied Congress for special funding for public schools near military bases
  • 1945: NEA lobbied for the G.I. Bill of Rights to help returning soldiers continue their education
  • 1958: NEA helps gain passage of the National Defense Education Act
  • 1964: NEA lobbies to pass the Civil Rights Act
  • 1968: NEA leads an effort to establish the Bilingual Education Act
  • 1974: NEA backs a case heard before the U.S. Supreme Court that proposes to make unlawful the firing of pregnant teachers or forced maternity leave
  • 1984: NEA fights for and wins passage of a federal retirement equity law that provides the means to end sex discrimination against women in retirement funds
  • 2000s: NEA has lobbied for changes to the No Child Left Behind Act
  • 2009: NEA delegates to the Representative Assembly pass a resolution that opposes the discriminatory treatment of same-sex couples.[46]

In recent decades the NEA has increased its visibility in party politics, endorsing more Democratic Party candidates and contributing funds and other assistance to political campaigns. The NEA asserts itself as "non-partisan", but critics point out that the NEA has endorsed and provided support for every Democratic Party presidential nominee from Jimmy Carter to Barack Obama and has never endorsed any Republican or third party candidate for the presidency.[47][48] However, NEA has endorsed and supported Republican political candidates for Congressional and Gubernatorial offices. In 2006, NEA funded over 300 candidates, a list which included Democrats, Republicans and Independents, such as Mike Simpson, Richard Lugar, Olympia Snowe, Jim Gerlach, John M. McHugh and Bernard Sanders, among others.

Based on required filings with the federal government, it is estimated that between 1990 and 2002 eighty percent of the NEA's substantial political contributions went to Democratic Party candidates and ninety five percent of contributions went to Democrats in 2012.[49] Although this has been questioned as being out of balance with the more diverse political views of the broader membership,[50] the NEA maintains that it bases support for candidates primarily on the organization's interpretation of candidates' support for public education and educators. Every Presidential candidate endorsed by NEA must be approved by majority vote among the members themselves at NEA's annual Representative Assembly.

Others benefitting from NEA funding, according to the most recent filings, include ACORN,[51] and AIDS Walk Washington.[10]

The NEA is a leading member of the U.S. Global Leadership Coalition, a Washington D.C.-based coalition of over 400 major companies and NGOs that advocates for a larger International Affairs Budget, which funds American diplomatic and development efforts abroad.[52]

Legislation opposed and supported

  • In September 2013, the NEA wrote an open letter to the [53]
  • In October 2013, the NEA came to the support of illegal immigrants protesting on the National Mall and federal legislation that would grant legal status to illegal immigrants and double legal immigration. In voicing his support for the bill, NEA executive director John Stocks explained, "Every day in America, thousands of students are denied the American dream because of their legal status. Every day in America thousands of students don’t know if they will come home to find their parents. This is a moral tragedy, an injustice to the more than 3 million members of my union, the National Education Association."[54]


Substantial criticism has been leveled against the NEA and other teachers unions for allegedly putting the interests of teachers ahead of students and for consistently opposing changes that critics claim would help students but harm union interests.[28] The NEA has often opposed measures such as merit pay, school vouchers, weakening of teacher tenure, certain curricular changes, the No Child Left Behind Act, and many accountability reforms. In a 1999 interview, conservative commentator Pat Buchanan said that "ever since the judges have gotten heavily into education, and the National Education Association has gotten into control of that Department of Education, test scores go down, there’s violence in classroom, things are going wrong". David Frum has correlated the drop in student achievement since the 1960s with a simultaneous increase in teacher pay and recruitment of less-qualified teachers, beginning in the 1970s.[55] Frum writes: "The inept and lazy gained a huge new increment of job security. Assignments would be distributed by seniority, rather than skill."[55]

With the recent scrutiny placed on teacher misconduct, regarding specifically sexual abuse, the NEA has been criticized for its failure to crack down on abusive teachers. From an AP investigation, former NEA President Reg Weaver commented, "Students must be protected from sexual predators and abuse, and teachers must be protected from false accusations." He then refused to be interviewed.[56] The Associated Press reported that much of the resistance to report the problem comes from "where fellow teachers look away," and "School administrators make behind-the-scenes deals."[56]

Also criticized is the NEA's alleged "goal of changing public opinion on homosexuality, starting with the youngest generation,"[57] according to a former chairman of the NEA Ex-Gay Educators Caucus.[58][59][60] Some critics believe the NEA promotes a gay rights agenda, especially since the U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals 2005 case Fields v. Palmdale School District. The court in that case ruled that parents' fundamental right to control the upbringing of their children "does not extend beyond the threshold of the school door,"( a line specifically stricken from the record, 447 F.3d 1187)and that a public school has the right to provide its students with "whatever information it wishes to provide, sexual or otherwise."[61] NEA states that it does not “encourage schools to teach students to become gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgendered (GLBT),” but the Association does believe that schools should be safe for all students and advocates that schools should raise awareness of homophobia and intervene when GLBT students are harassed."[12]

NEA has come under fire for taking advantage of laws in some states that compel, under certain conditions, membership in the association. In a case brought before the U.S. Supreme Court (Davenport v. Washington Education Association) on behalf of 4,000 Washington State teachers who are not NEA members but are nonetheless forced to pay NEA dues, the Court partially addressed the issue of collection and use of dues by unions such as the NEA.[62]

A leading critic of NEA from the left is Dr Rich Gibson, whose article on the NEA-AFT merger convention in Cultural Logic outlines a critique of unionism itself.[63]

Steve Jobs opposition to teacher's unions

Apple Inc. CEO Steve Jobs criticized the NEA and other teacher unions for their lack of support for voucher programs, merit pay, and the removal of bad teachers. On February 17, 2007 at an education reform conference in Texas, Jobs said, "What kind of person could you get to run a small business if you told them that when they came in they couldn’t get rid of people that they thought weren’t any good?”[64] And, in a meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama in October of 2010, Jobs said that teacher union work rules were crippling America's education system. To improve the nation's educational outcomes Jobs recommended giving principals the power to hire and fire teachers based on merit, increasing the length of each school day and of each school year, and using interactive teaching technologies in schoolrooms that would provide personalized feedback to students.[65]


The Association's Florida affiliate, FEA, has seen a number of scandals. In March 2001, a secretary in the [66]

The NEA was criticized in August 2002 for the appearance of a lesson plan on the website, originally reported by the Washington Times, that encouraged teachers to remove all references to Muslim terrorists in lesson plans for [67] The American Federation of Teachers spokesperson commented on the plan saying, "[The AFT] disagrees with the lesson plans found on the NEA Website. The AFT does not support a blame-America approach in particular and wishes to distance itself from the entire document." [67] Critics cited the controversy as an example of a political agenda and indoctrination by the NEA until it was ultimately removed from the website.[68]

On October 1, 2008 the Virginia NEA affiliate president Kitty Boitnott was accused of emailing teachers encouraging them to dress up on "Obama Blue Day" and "to sway John McCain supporters."[69] Republicans criticized the move saying, "They should teach students how to think, not what to think."[70] while Virginian Republicans criticized the attempt to sway students of voting age saying, "[schools] are a completely inappropriate place for teachers or education staff to be politicking on behalf of any candidate. Parents send their kids to school to get a bipartisan education."[71] Boitnott later admitted the letter was inappropriate.[70]

See also


  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ a b c "Home". NEA. 2010-02-06. Retrieved 2011-03-31. 
  3. ^ "National Education Association (NEA)". Retrieved 2011-03-31. 
  4. ^ J. Richard Piper (1997). Ideologies and Institutions: American Conservative and Liberal Governance Prescriptions Since 1933. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 131. 
  5. ^ Bryan C. Hassel (1999). The Charter School Challenge: Avoiding the Pitfalls, Fulfilling the Promise. Brookings Institution Press. p. 50. 
  6. ^ National Education Association (2007). "NEA Handbook 2006-2007". NEA Professional Library. pp. p7.  
  7. ^ a b c NEA: About NEA
  8. ^ Post. "The Wall Street Journal Online - Leisure & Arts". Retrieved 2011-03-31. 
  9. ^ "Human Events". Human Events. 2006-01-23. Retrieved 2011-03-31. 
  10. ^ a b "The Wall Street Journal Online - Featured Article". Retrieved 2011-03-31. 
  11. ^; Center for Responsive Politics
  12. ^ a b NEA: A Response to Critics
  13. ^ a b NEA (2007) p15
  14. ^ NEA (2007) p15-16
  15. ^ NEA: Gallery, NEA History, The Call
  16. ^ Wilson, J. Ormond (1900). "Zalmon Richards". Addresses and Proceedings - National Education Association of the United States 39: 713-15. Retrieved October 29, 2014. 
  17. ^ NEA: Gallery, NEA History, The Call
  18. ^ "NEA Today". 1911-03-25. Retrieved 2011-03-31. 
  19. ^ [2]
  20. ^ NEA: Timeline, 1857-1965, Historical Events in NEA's History
  21. ^ Handbook of Simplified Spelling, Simplified Spelling Board, 1920. p.14
  22. ^ a b "March 2006 NEA Today - Answering the Call Part 3". NEA. 1911-03-25. Retrieved 2011-03-31. 
  23. ^ "April 2006 NEA Today - Answering the Call: The History of the". NEA. 1911-03-25. Retrieved 2011-03-31. 
  24. ^ NEA: ATA's Story, Joint Committee
  25. ^ NEA: Timeline, ATA History
  26. ^ Wayne J. Urban, "Teacher Politics," In Teacher Unions and Education Policy: Retrenchment or Reform? (eds. Ronald D. Henderson, Wayne J. Urban, and Paul Wolman), Emerald Group, 2004. p. 113-116.
  27. ^ NEA: NEAFT Partnership
  28. ^ a b c [3]
  29. ^ Gender, Race, and the National Education Association: Professionalism and Its Limitations. By Wayne J. Urban. New York: Routledge, 2000.
  30. ^ Saxon, Wolfgang (January 8, 1989). "Elizabeth Koontz, 69, Dies; Led Teachers' Union". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 October 2012. 
  31. ^ Tuesday, February 14, 2006 (2006-02-14). "Teachers local allowed to join AFL-CIO". Washington Times. Retrieved 2011-03-31. 
  32. ^ Greg Toppo (3 July 2012). "USA’s top teachers union losing members". USA Today. Retrieved 19 September 2012. 
  33. ^ (for a full list from 1857 on, see https:/
  34. ^ "Secretary of Labor Elaine Chao – A Lady of Achievement::By Paul Weyrich". Retrieved 2011-03-31. 
  35. ^ "Landmark Legal Foundation". Retrieved 2011-03-31. 
  36. ^ "More on Our Positions". NEA. 2008-08-20. Retrieved 2012-10-18. 
  37. ^ "TEF". NEA. 2009-10-21. Retrieved 2012-10-18. 
  38. ^ "Professional Pay". NEA. 2008-08-18. Retrieved 2012-10-18. 
  39. ^ "Minority Community Outreach". NEA. 2008-08-18. Retrieved 2012-10-18. 
  40. ^ "NEA's 12-Point Action Plan for Reducing the School Dropout Rate". NEA. 2008-11-07. Retrieved 2012-10-18. 
  41. ^ "Achievement Gaps". NEA. 2008-08-18. Retrieved 2012-10-18. 
  42. ^ "Priority Schools Campaign". Retrieved 2012-10-18. 
  43. ^ "Our Position & Actions". NEA. 2008-10-31. Retrieved 2012-10-18. 
  44. ^ "Vouchers". NEA. 2008-10-30. Retrieved 2012-10-18. 
  45. ^ "Charter Schools". NEA. 2008-10-30. Retrieved 2012-10-18. 
  46. ^ "New Business Items". NEA. 2009-06-26. Retrieved 2012-10-18. 
  47. ^ "NEA endorses Kerry for president". USA Today. 2004-07-06. 
  48. ^ "Opinion & Commentary - Wall Street Journal -". Retrieved 2012-10-18. 
  49. ^ Open Secrets Database
  50. ^ The Wall Street Journal Online - Featured Article
  51. ^
  52. ^ U.S. Global Leadership Coalition, Global Trust members
  53. ^ a b c Kusler, Mary. "Letter to the House Opposing the Continuing Resolution H. J. Res. 59". National Education Association. Retrieved 23 September 2013. 
  54. ^ Matthew Boyle, "Union Boss: Enforcing Law, Deporting Illegal Immigrants a 'Moral Tragedy'", Breitbart News, Oct. 9, 2013.
  55. ^ a b  
  56. ^ a b Irvine, Martha; Tanner, Robert (October 20, 2007). "Thousands of teachers cited for sex misconduct". USA Today. Retrieved May 19, 2010. 
  57. ^ News from Agape Press
  58. ^ NEA Ex-Gay Educators Caucus
  59. ^ "". Retrieved 2012-10-18. 
  60. ^ [4]
  61. ^ [5]
  62. ^ [6]
  63. ^ Gibson: "NEA-AFT-AFL-CIO?..."
  64. ^ Apple’s Steve Jobs: Education Won’t Improve Until Bad Teachers Can Be Fired - Say Anything
  65. ^  
  66. ^ Tornillo was eventually convicted, forced to sell most of his homes, and reimburse his local union. He is now serving a prison term. The financial problems stemming from his actions nearly bankrupted UTD. Bell, "Union Chief Faces Battle," Ft. Lauderdale Sun-Sentinel, May 19, 2003; Eckhart, "Lawsuit Accuses Ex-Worker of Theft," Sarasota Herald-Tribune, March 29, 2001; Hirschman, "Teachers Union President Resigns," Ft. Lauderdale Sun-Sentinel, October 4, 2001; "Teachers' Union Missing $40,000," Vero Beach Press Journal, January 22, 2003.
  67. ^ a b Sorokin, Ellen (2002). "NEA blames America for 9/11; critics say National Education Association lesson plans on Sept. 11 are anti-American and anti-Western civilization". Insight on the News. 
  68. ^ "NEA 9/11 Lesson Plan Draws Critics". Fox News. August 20, 2002. 
  69. ^ [7]
  70. ^ a b Washington, The (2008-10-02). "Teachers union e-mail touting Obama scorned". Washington Times. Retrieved 2012-10-18. 
  71. ^ "Elections". Fox News. 

Further reading

  • Moe, Terry M. Special Interest: Teachers Unions and America's Public Schools (Brookings Institution Press; 2011) 513 pages; argues that teachers' unions cause serious problems with education in the U.S. and contribute to the slowness of reform.
  • Murphy, Marjorie. Blackboard Unions: The AFT and the NEA, 1900-1980. (Cornell University Press, 1991). ISBN 0-8014-2365-1

External links

  • National Education Association Web site
  • National Education Association Finding Aids, Special Collections Research Center, Estelle and Melvin Gelman Library, The George Washington University
  • NEA Fund for Children and the Public
  • National Education Association influence profile from Influence Explorer by the Sunlight Foundation
  • "National Education Association." Infoplease. Based on Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed., 2007.
  • NEA Accountability Project. Landmark Legal Foundation. No date.
  • Mike Antonucci's education blog
  • Learning for a Cause, non-profit Canadian educational organization promoting the arts in education.
  • American Federation of Teachers Web site
  • One Hat for Labor? by David Moberg, The Nation, April 29, 2009
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.