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Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem

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Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem

Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem
Kudüs-i Şerif Mutasarrıflığı
Mutasarrifate of the Ottoman Empire

1872–1917

Flag of Southern Syria

Flag

Location of Southern Syria
Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem in 1900
Capital Jerusalem
History
 •  Established 1872
 •  British conquest 1917
Area
 •  1862[1] 12,486 km2 (4,821 sq mi)
Population
 •  1897[2] 298,653 
Today part of  Israel
 Jordan
 Egypt
 Palestine

The Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem (Ottoman Turkish: Kudüs-i Şerif Mutasarrıflığı‎; Arabic: متصرفية القدس الشريف‎), also known as the Sanjak of Jerusalem was an Ottoman district with special administrative status established in 1872.[3][4][5] The district encompassed Jerusalem as well as Gaza, Jaffa, Hebron, Bethlehem and Beersheba.[6] During the late Ottoman period, the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem, together with the Sanjak of Nablus and Sanjak of Acre, formed the region that was commonly referred to as "Southern Syria"[7] or "Palestine".[3][nb 1]

The district was separated from Damascus and placed directly under Constantinople in 1841,[4] and formally created as an independent province in 1872 by Grand Vizier Mahmud Nedim Pasha.[4] Scholars provide a variety of reasons for the separation, including increased European interest in the region, and strengthening of the southern border of the Empire against the Khedivate of Egypt.[4] Initially, the Mutasarrifate of Acre and Mutasarrifate of Nablus were combined with the province of Jerusalem, with the combined province being referred to in the register of the court of Jerusalem as the "Jerusalem Eyalet",[8] and referred to by the British consul as creation of "Palestine into a separate eyalet".[9] However, after less than two months,[9] the sanjaks of Nablus and Acre were separated and added to the Vilayet of Beirut, leaving just the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem.[10] In 1906, the Kaza of Nazareth was added to the Jerusalem Mutasarrifate, as an exclave,[11] primarily in order to allow the issuance of a single tourist permit to Christian travellers.[12] The area was conquered by the Allied Forces in 1917 during World War I[6] and a military Occupied Enemy Territory Administration (OETA South) set up to replace the Ottoman administration. OETA South consisted of the Ottoman sanjaks of Jerusalem, Nablus and Acre. The military administration was replaced by a British civilian administration in 1920 and the area of OETA South became the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine in 1923, with some border adjustments with Lebanon and Syria.

The political status of the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem was unique to other Ottoman province since it came under the direct authority of the Ottoman capital Constantinople.[5] The inhabitants identified themselves primarily on religious terms.[7] The district's villages were normally inhabited by farmers while its towns were populated by merchants, artisans, landowners and money-lenders. The elite consisted of the religious leadership, wealthy landlords and high-ranking civil servants.[7]

History

In 1841, the district was separated from Damascus and placed directly under Constantinople [4] and formally created as an independent Mutasarrifate in 1872. Before 1872, the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem was officially a sanjak within the Syria Vilayet (created in 1864, following the Tanzimat reforms).

The southern border of the Mutasarifate of Jerusalem was redrawn in 1906, at the instigation of the British, who were interested in safeguarding their imperial interests and in making the border as short and patrollable as possible.[13]

Towards the end of the 19th century, the idea that the region of Palestine or the Mutasarifate of Jerusalem formed a separate political entity became widespread among the district's educated Arab classes. In 1904, former Jerusalem official Najib Azuri formed in Paris, France the Ligue de la Patrie Arabe ("Arab Fatherland League") whose goal was to free Ottoman Syria and Iraq from Turkish domination. In 1908, Azuri proposed the elevation of the mutassarifate to the status of vilayet to the Ottoman Parliament[5] after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution.

The area was conquered by the Allied Forces in 1917 during World War I[6] and a military Occupied Enemy Territory Administration (OETA South) set up to replace the Ottoman administration. OETA South consisted of the Ottoman sanjaks of Jerusalem, Nablus and Acre. The military administration was replaced by a British civilian administration in 1920 and the area of OETA South became the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine in 1923, with some border adjustments with Lebanon and Syria.

Boundaries

Four contemporary Ottoman maps showing the "Quds Al-Sharif Sancağı" or "Quds Al-Sharif Mutasarrıflığı". The fourthmap shows the 1860 borders between Ottoman Syria and the Khedivate of Egypt, although the border was moved to the current Israel-Egypt border in 1906, and the area north of the Negev Desert is labelled "Filastin" (Palestine).
Vital Cuinet's 1896 map of Syria, including the "Mutessariflik de Jerusalem"

The division was bounded on the west by the Mediterranean, on the east by the River Jordan and the Dead Sea, on the north by a line from the mouth of the river Auja to the bridge over the Jordan near Jericho, and on the south by a line from midway between Gaza and Arish to Aqaba.[14]

Administrative divisions

Administrative divisions of the Mutasarrifate (1872-1909):

  1. Beersheba Kaza (; Turkish: Birüsseb' kazası; Arabic: قضاء بئر السبع‎), which included two sub-districts and a municipality:
    • a-Hafir (; Turkish: Hafır nahiyesı; Arabic: ناحية عوجة الحفير‎), created in 1908 as a middle point between Beersheba and Aqaba, close to the newly agreed border with Sinai[15]
    • al-Mulayha, created in 1908 as a midway point between Hafir and Aqaba[15]
    • Beersheba (; Turkish: Birüsseb' belediyesı; Arabic: بلدية بئر السبع‎), created in 1901
  2. Gaza Kaza (; Turkish: Gazze kazası ; Arabic: قضاء غزة‎), which included three sub-districts and a municipality:
  3. Hebron Kaza (; Turkish: Halilü'r Rahman kazası; Arabic: قضاء الخليل‎), which included two sub-districts and a municipality:
  4. Jaffa Kaza (; Turkish: Yafa kazası ; Arabic: قضاء يَافَا‎), which included two sub-districts and a municipality:
    • Ni'lin (; Turkish: Na’leyn nahiyesı; Arabic: ناحية نعلين‎),created in 1903
    • Ramla (; Turkish: Remle nahiyesı; Arabic: ناحية الرملة‎), created in 1880, became municipality before 1888 and re-established as sub-district in 1889
    • Lydda (; Turkish: Lod belediyesı ; Arabic: ... بلدية‎)
  5. Jerusalem Kaza (; Turkish: Kudüs-i Şerif kazası; Arabic: قضاء القدس الشريف‎), which included four sub-districts and two municipalities:
    • Abwein (; Turkish: Abaveyn nahiyesı; Arabic: ناحية عبوين‎), created in 1903;
    • Bethlehem (; Turkish: Beytü'l lahim nahiyesı; Arabic: ناحية بيت لحم‎), created in 1883 and became a municipality in 1894;
    • Ramallah (; Turkish: Ramallah nahiyesı; Arabic: ناحية رام الله‎), created in 1903 and became a municipality in 1911,
    • Saffa (; Turkish: Safa nahiyesı; Arabic: ناحية صفّا‎),
    • Jerusalem (; Turkish: Kudüs-i Şerif belediyesı; Arabic: بلدية القدس الشريف‎), created in 1867 and
    • Beit Jala (; Turkish: ... belediyesı; Arabic: بلدية بيت جالا‎),created in 1912.
  6. Nazareth Kaza (; Turkish: Nasra kazası; Arabic: قضاء الْنَاصِرَة‎), established 1906.

Mutasarrıfs of Jerusalem

The Mutasarrıfs of Jerusalem were appointed by the Porte to govern the district. They were usually experienced civil servants who spoke little or no Arabic, but knew a European language - most commonly French - in addition to Ottoman Turkish.[16]

Pre-separation from Damascus

  • Sureyya Pasha 1857–63
  • Izzet Pasha 1864–67
  • Nazif Pasha 1867–69
  • Kamil Pasha 1869–71
  • Ali Bey 1871–72

Post-separation from Damascus

  • Nazlf Pasha (same as above) 1872–73
  • Kamil Pasha (same as above) 1873–75
  • Ali Bey (same as above) 1874–76
  • Faik Bey 1876–77
  • Sharif Mehmed Rauf Pasha 1877–89
  • Resad Pasha 1889–90
  • Ibrahim Hakki Pasha 1890–97
  • Mehmet Tevfik Biren 1897–01
  • Mehmet Cavit Bey 1901–02
  • Osman Kazim Bey 1902–04
  • Ahmed Resid Bey 1904–06
  • Ali Ekrem Bolayır 1906–08

Post Young Turk Revolution

List of mutasarrıfs after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution:

  • Subhi Bey 1908–09
  • Nazim Bey 1909–10
  • Azmi Bey 1910–11
  • Cevdet Bey 1911–12
  • Muhdi Bey 1912
  • Tahir Hayreddin Bey 1912–13
  • Ahmed Macid Bey 1913–15

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The 1915 Filastin Risalesi ("Palestine Document"), an Ottoman army (VIII Corps (Ottoman Empire)) country survey which formally identified Palestine as including the sanjaqs of Akka (the Galilee), the Sanjaq of Nablus, and the Sanjaq of Jerusalem (Kudus Sherif), see Shifting Ottoman Conceptions of Palestine-Part 2: Ethnography and Cartography, Salim Tamari

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ Corrected population for Mortality Level=8.
  3. ^ a b
  4. ^ a b c d e Abu-Manneh 1999, p. 36.
  5. ^ a b c
  6. ^ a b c
  7. ^ a b c
  8. ^ Abu-Manneh 1999, p. 43.
  9. ^ a b Abu-Manneh 1999, p. 39.
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^ , pp. 369–370
  14. ^ Abu-Manneh 1999, p. 43–44.
  15. ^ a b
  16. ^

Bibliography

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