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Title: Munafiq  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Kafir, Hypocrisy, Fasiq, People of the Book, Demolition of Masjid al-Dirar
Collection: Arabic Words and Phrases, Hypocrisy, Islam and Other Religions, Islamic Belief and Doctrine, Islamic Terminology
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


In Islam, a munāfiq (n., in Arabic: منافق, plural munāfiqūn) is a hypocrite who outwardly practices Islam while inwardly concealing his disbelief (kufr), perhaps even unknowingly. The hypocrisy itself is called nifāq (Arabic: نفاق‎).

The Quran has hundreds of ayat (verses) discussing munāfiqūn,[1] referring to them as more dangerous to Muslims than the worst non-Muslim enemies of Islam.

According to Sahih al-Bukhari,
Narrated Abu Hurairah: The prophet Muhammad said: "The signs of a hypocrite are three: 1. Whenever he speaks, he tells a lie.
2. Whenever he promises, he always breaks it (his promise).
3. If you trust him, he proves to be dishonest. (If you keep something as a trust with him, he will not return it.)"
—Sahih al-Bukhari[2]
Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Amr: The Prophet Muhammad said, "Whoever has the following four (characteristics) will be a pure hypocrite and whoever has one of the following four characteristics will have one characteristic of hypocrisy unless and until he gives it up. 1. Whenever he is entrusted, he betrays.
2. Whenever he speaks, he tells a lie.
3. Whenever he makes a covenant, he proves treacherous.
4. Whenever he quarrels, he behaves in a very imprudent, evil and insulting manner."
—Sahih al-Bukhari[3]

See also


  1. ^ For example, sura 'Al-Munafiqun', Quran 4:61, Quran 9:67, Quran 8:49, Quran 4:140, Quran 9:64, Quran 4:145
  2. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 1:2:33
  3. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 1:2:34
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