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Michael IX Palaiologos

Michael IX Palaiologos
Emperor of the Byzantine Empire
Michael IX Palaiologos
Emperor of the Byzantine Empire
Reign 1294 or 1295 – 12 October 1320
Coronation May 21, 1294 or 1295
Predecessor Andronikos II Palaiologos (alone)
Successor Andronikos II Palaiologos (alone), Andronikos III (usurper in Macedonia, from 1321-1325)
Co-monarch Andronikos II Palaiologos
Born 17 April 1277
Constantinople, Byzantine Empire
Died 12 October 1320 (aged 43)
Thessalonica, Greece
Spouse Rita of Armenia
Issue
House House of Palaiologos
Father Andronikos II Palaiologos
Mother Anna of Hungary

Michael IX Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Μιχαήλ Θ΄ Παλαιολόγος, Mikhaēl IX Palaiologos), (17 April 1277 – 12 October 1320, Thessalonica, Greece), reigned as Byzantine co-emperor with full imperial style 1294/1295–1320. Michael IX was the eldest son of Andronikos II Palaiologos and Anna of Hungary (1260-1281), daughter of Stephen V of Hungary.

Life

Michael IX Palaiologos was acclaimed co-emperor in 1281 and was crowned in 1294 or 1295. In 1300, he was sent at the head of Alanian mercenaries against the Turks in Asia Minor, and in 1304–1305 he was charged with dealing with the rebellious Catalan Company. After the murder of the Catalan commander Roger de Flor, Michael IX led the Byzantine troops (augmented by Turks and 5–8,000 Alans) against the Catalans, but was defeated and wounded.

Michael IX was also ultimately unsuccessful against Theodore Svetoslav of Bulgaria in 1307, concluding peace in 1307 and marrying his daughter to the Bulgarian emperor. In 1311, Michael IX was defeated by Osman I. Michael IX eventually retired to Thessalonica, where he died in 1320.

A brave and energetic soldier willing to make personal sacrifices to pay or encourage his troops, Michael IX was generally unable to overcome his enemies and is the only Palaiologan emperor to predecease his father. Michael IX's premature death at age 43 was attributed in part to grief over the accidental murder of his younger son Manuel Palaiologos by retainers of his older son and co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos.

Family

Michael IX Palaiologos married Rita of Armenia (renamed Maria, later nun Xene), daughter of King Leo III of Armenia and Queen Keran of Armenia on 16 January 1294. By this marriage, Michael IX

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