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Media of Syria

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Title: Media of Syria  
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Subject: Syrian Armed Forces, Internet censorship in Syria, Media of the United Arab Emirates, Media of Turkmenistan, Media of Uzbekistan
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Media of Syria

The media of Syria consists primarily of television, radio, Internet, film and print. The national language of Syria is Arabic but some publications and broadcasts are also available in English and French.[1] While television is the most popular media in Syria, the Internet has become a widely utilized vehicle to disseminate content. Transcending all available media, the government seeks to control what Syrians see by restricting coverage from outside sources.[2] Publications and broadcasts are monitored by members of the government.[1] Syria is ranked as one of the most dangerous places in the world for journalists. There were 28 journalists killed in combat in 2012.[3]

Contents

  • Prohibitive measures against media 1
    • State of emergency law 1.1
    • Internet censorship 1.2
    • Press freedom 1.3
  • Media 2
    • Television 2.1
      • Satellite channels 2.1.1
      • Terrestrial channels 2.1.2
    • Newspapers 2.2
    • Film 2.3
    • Radio 2.4
    • Internet and social media 2.5
  • Pro-rebel media 3
    • Television 3.1
    • Satellite channels 3.2
    • Press 3.3
    • Film 3.4
    • Radio 3.5
    • Internet and social media 3.6
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Prohibitive measures against media

State of emergency law

The constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic guaranteed the right to a Committee to Protect Journalists,[6] and Reporters Without Borders[7] both ranking Syria as one of the top four most repressive countries in the world.

Internet censorship

There are over 5 million Internet users in Syria. Reporters Without Borders lists Syria as an “internet enemy” due to high levels of censorship. The Internet is controlled by the Syrian Computer Society (SCS) and the Syrian Telecommunications Establishment (STE).[8] The government monitors activity through the hacking of emails and social networking accounts and phishing. Simultaneously, the government releases pro-Assad propaganda and false information to support its cause.[9] The law requires Internet cafes to record all comments in the online chatrooms.[10] There was a two-day Internet blackout in 2012, which was likely orchestrated by the government.[3] Authorities have blocked journalists and bloggers from attending and reporting on events by arresting and torturing them. This is not limited to Syrian journalists as members of the Associated Press and Reuters have been arrested and expelled from the country for their reporting.[9]

Press freedom

  • News and Media of Syria at DMOZ

External links

  1. ^ a b c d
  2. ^
  3. ^ a b c d e
  4. ^ a b Syria country profile. Library of Congress Federal Research Division (April 2005). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ a b c
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^ a b
  13. ^
  14. ^ a b
  15. ^ a b

References

See also

While online and social media have the potential to break news stories, there have been issues with false information being disseminated and gaining traction. This has actually benefited the government because correctly denying news reports gives them more credibility.[14]

Internet and social media

  • Al-Madina FM: Syria's first private radio station

Radio

  • Abounaddara: Damascus-based production company founded in 2010 to broadcast Syrian films online.[15]

Recently, the Internet has offered filmmakers a new outlet to broadcast their films. One example of this is that every Friday, since April 2011, volunteers, formed by Abounaddara, have posted a short film on the Internet depicting the social side of the conflict.[15]

Film

  • Al-Ghad: opposition paper
  • Al-Ahd (The Vow)- published by the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood
  • Free Syria-weekly published in Gaziantep, Turkey. Stories tend to support pluralism, moderate Islam and democracy
  • Brigades: published by a military brigade to raise questions about the origins of extremist Muslim fighters
  • Sham-published by the Sham News Network, which is an activist news organization. It is privately financed. Each 16-page edition includes coverage of culture, translation from foreign news sources and cartoons that are critical of the Assad government.[14]
  • Pamphlets: Muslim extremist groups such as Nusra Front and Jabhet al-Nusra utilize pamphlets to disseminate their ideas

Press

Satellite channels

There are also satellite stations which broadcast outside Syria. Two of the primary satellite networks, Eutelsat and Nilesat, have recently expressed frustrations over the Syrian government preventing satellite TV transmissions broadcast from international outlets.[3]

Television

The public does have access to Western radio stations and satellite TV, and Al Jazeera has become very popular in Syria.[4] In August 2012, a media centre utilized by foreign reporters in Azaz was targeted by the Syrian airforce in an airstrike on a civilian area during Ramadan.[13]

Pro-rebel media

  • Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA)
  • Ministry of Religious Affairs site
  • General Authority for Development site
  • Government of Hama-city of heavy clashes between rebels and the government[12]

Providing hosting services is a violation of United States sanctions.[12] Some of the official Syrian government websites include:

Internet and social media

  • Syrian Arab Republic Radio

There are over 4 million radios in Syria. They tend to broadcast music, ads and stories relating to culture.[1]

Radio

The Syrian film industry is state-run by the Ministry of Culture, which controls production through the National Organization for Cinema. The industry is largely propaganda based, focusing on Syria’s successes in agriculture, health, transportation and infrastructure.[11]

Film

Newspapers

  • Channel 1 (Terrestrial, with Arabic focus)
  • Channel 2 (Terrestrial, with sport, family and health focus including regional variants)

Terrestrial channels

Satellite channels

There is one main broadcaster for both television and radio called the General Organization of Radio and Television Syria (ORTAS). It was founded in 1960 and is based in Damascus. The channel has programs in Arabic, English and French.[1] TV is the most popular media in Syria.[3]

Television

Alwatan, a private daily published by businessman Rami Makhlouf, President Assad's cousin, has started recently with a circulation that is growing steadily. Aliqtisadi and Forward Magazine are two private newsmagazines, published by businessman Abdulsalam Haykal, Assad's friend. Forward Magazine, which carries the same name as the New York Jewish weekly, addresses the American audience. A major advertising group owned by Majed Suleiman, son of a former senior intelligence officer, runs the non-political daily Baladna. The only other political publication Abyad wa Aswad (White and Black) is owned by Bilal Turkmani, son of the former defense minister, Hasan Turkmani. Other government-friendly businesspeople started a satellite television channel called Addounia TV, which excludes political news.

Public media journalists practice self-censorship.[3] Public media consists of television, print, film, radio and internet and social media.

Media

[9]

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