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M1 Garand

Rifle, Caliber .30, M1
M1 Garand rifle. From the collections of the Swedish Army Museum, Stockholm, Sweden.
Type Semi-automatic rifle
Place of origin United States
Service history
In service

1936–57 (as the standard U.S. service rifle)

1957-1970's (other countries)
Used by See Users
Wars World War II
Korean War
1948 Arab–Israeli War
Hukbalahap Rebellion
First Indochina War
Suez Crisis
Cuban Revolution
Vietnam War
Cambodian Civil War
Angolan Civil War
Iran–Iraq War
Northern Ireland Troubles[1]
Numerous other conflicts
Production history
Designer John C. Garand
Designed 1928
Manufacturer Springfield Armory
Harrington & Richardson
International Harvester
Springfield Armory, Inc. (civilian)
Unit cost $85 (during World War II)
Produced 1936–57, early 1980s
Number built Approx. 6.25 million[3]
Variants M1C, M1D
Weight 9.5 lb (4.31 kg) to 11.6 lb (5.3 kg)
Length 43.5 in (1,100 mm)
Barrel length 24 in (609.6 mm)

Cartridge .30-06 Springfield (7.62×63mm)
7.62×51mm NATO (.308 Winchester) (Used by the U.S. Navy and some commercial companies to modernize the M1 and increase performance)
Action Gas-operated, rotating bolt
Rate of fire 40−50 rounds/min
Muzzle velocity 2,800 ft/s (853 m/s)
Effective firing range 500 yd (457 m)[4]
Feed system 8-round en-bloc clip, internal magazine
Sights •Rear: adjustable aperture
•front: wing protected post
M1 Garand with en bloc clips.

The M1 Garand (officially designated as U. S. rifle, caliber .30, M1, later simply called Rifle, Caliber .30, M1, also called US Rifle, Cal. .30, M1) is a

  • He Invented the World's Deadliest Rifle, October 1940, Popular Science
  • The Garand Collectors Association (GCA) – USA Association, with members world wide, dedicated to the research and documentation of the M1 Garand.
  • The short film "Rifle Marksmanship with the M1 Rifle (1942)" is available for free download at the Internet Archive
  • The short film "Rifle - U.S. Cal. .30 M1 - Principles of Operation (1943)" is available for free download at the Internet Archive
  • "How to Shoot the U.S. Army Rifle (1943)" on Internet Archive
  • M1 Garand History
  • Fulton Armory list of M1 Garand Serial Numbers By Month and Year
  • Springfield Armory Museum - Collection Record

External links

  1. ^
  2. ^ Small Arms Review article on Italian-made Garands
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ Hogg, Ian V., & Weeks, John. Military Small-Arms of the 20th century (London: Arms & Armour Press, 1977), p.183, "US Rifle, Caliber .30in ('Garand'), M1-M1E9, MiC, M1D, T26".
  6. ^ HISTORY OF THE SPRINGFIELD ARMORY Springfield Armory National Historic Site
  7. ^ U.S. Army Field Manual FM 23.5 (May 1965) U.S. Rifle, Caliber .30, M1, p.3
  8. ^ Hatcher, Julian. (1983). Book of the Garand. Gun Room Pr. ISBN 0-88227-014-1. Retrieved 2006-03-28.
  9. ^
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j
  11. ^ a b c Fitzsimons, Bernard, editor. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Weapons and Warfare. (London: Phoebus, 1978), Volume 10, p. 1088, "Garand".
  12. ^ Fitzsimons, op. cit., Volume 19, p. 2092, "Pedersen", describes the ammunition as "lubricated".
  13. ^ a b c Julian S. Hatcher, Hatcher's Notebook, MSPC 1947, pp.44–46, 155–156, 165–166.
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ Canfield, Bruce N. The First Garands in September, 2011 American Rifleman pp.68–75 & 93
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^ .
  23. ^ .
  24. ^ a b
  25. ^ a b .
  26. ^ a b c d e George, John (Lt. Col.). (1948). Shots Fired In Anger. The Samworth Press. ISBN 0-935998-42-X.
  27. ^ a b
  28. ^ a b
  29. ^
  30. ^ Canfield, Bruce (1998). "The Complete Guide to the M1 Garand and the M1 Carbine", p.70. Andrew Mowbray Publishers, Lincoln, RI 02865 USA. ISBN 0-917218-83-3.
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^ a b c
  35. ^ a b c
  36. ^ "FM 23-100" Department of the Army (1943) Retrieved 2008-29-09.
  37. ^
  38. ^ "Fitting the Army's Modern Garand Rifle." Popular Science, March 1944, p. 74, bottom of page.
  39. ^
  40. ^ a b c d e f
  41. ^
  42. ^ Hutchison, Kevin, World War II in the North Pacific: Chronology and Fact Book, Greenwood Press (1994), p. 247: Col. Alexander had served as General Buckner's naval liaison officer, and was appointed to the Pacific Warfare Board following the General's death on Okinawa in June 1945.
  43. ^ a b Weeks, John, World War II Small Arms, New York: Galahad Books (1979), ISBN 0-88365-403-2, pp. 122-123.
  44. ^ Fact Sheet #5: The M1 'Tanker' Modification, Springfield Armory National Historic Site, National Park Service, [1].
  45. ^ a b Walter, John, Rifles of the World, Krause Publications (2006), ISBN 0-89689-241-7, ISBN 978-0-89689-241-5, p. 144.
  46. ^ Duff, Scott A., The M1 Garand, World War II: History of Development and Production, 1900 Through 2 September 1945, Scott A. Duff Publications (1996), ISBN 978-1-888722-01-7, ISBN 1-888722-01-0, p. 101: As a major, Alexander had been a proponent of the 18" 'Tanker' Garand ever since testing his own ordnance-modified version on Noemfoor Island, New Guinea.
  47. ^ Fact Sheet #5: The M1 'Tanker' Modification, Springfield Armory National Historic Site, National Park Service.
  48. ^ a b Duff, Scott A., The M1 Garand, World War II: History of Development and Production, 1900 Through 2 September 1945, Scott A. Duff Publications (1996), ISBN 978-1-888722-01-7, ISBN 1-888722-01-0, p. 101.
  49. ^
  50. ^
  51. ^ Pub.L. 104–106, 36 Stat. 5502, enacted February 10, 1996
  52. ^ a b Obama Administration Reverses Course, Forbids Sale of 850,000 Antique Rifles
  53. ^ a b
  54. ^
  55. ^
  56. ^
  57. ^ a b c d
  58. ^
  59. ^ Canadian Army EME Manuals; photographic evidence; book "Without Warning" by Clive Law
  60. ^
  61. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s
  62. ^ a b Beretta's BM 59. Retrieved on October 5, 2008.
  63. ^
  64. ^
  65. ^
  66. ^
  67. ^ a b Gander, Terry J.; Hogg, Ian V. Jane's Infantry Weapons 1995/1996. Jane's Information Group; 21 edition (May 1995). ISBN 978-0-7106-1241-0.
  68. ^
  69. ^
  70. ^
  71. ^
  72. ^
  73. ^
  74. ^ Leroy Thompson, The M1 Garand, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 178096434X, under section "Introduction"


  1. ^ Additional trials in 1930 found Bostonian Joseph White's rifles insufficiently robust. Walter, p. 143


See also

  • Moro National Liberation Front: Used by MNLF fighters.[61]

Non-state actors

  •  Argentina: Received about 30,000 M1s from the U.S. government before 1964. Some were converted to accept BM59 magazines in the 1960s.[57]
  •  Brazil: Received large numbers of M1s from the U.S. government in the early 1950s. Some were converted to the 7.62x51mm NATO cartridge and modified to accept FN FAL magazines.[57]
  •  Cambodia: Received M1 rifles from the U.S. government.[58]
  •  Canada A small, but unknown, number of M1, M1C (with infra-red night vision equipment)and M1D rifles were owned by Canada. There were enough to equip a brigade and Garands were issued to certain Canadian Army near the end of WWII and to some army and Royal Canadian Air Force personnel into the 1950s.[59]
  •  Cuba[60]
  •  Denmark: Received 69,810 M1 rifles (designated "Gevær m/50") from the U.S. government prior to 1964. Some were converted to the 7.62x51mm NATO cartridge.[61] Also purchased 20,000 M1s from Italy.[62] The rifle has now been phased out of service.
  •  Ethiopian Empire: Received 20,700 M1 rifles from the U.S. government in the 1960s.[61]
  •  France: Used by the Foreign Legion and Free French Forces.[63][64] France also received 232,500 M1 rifles from the U.S. government in 1950–1964.[61]
  •  West Germany: Received 46,750 M1 rifles from the U.S. government prior to 1965.[61]
  •  Greece: Received 186,090 M1 and 1880 M1C/M1D rifles from the U.S. government prior to 1975.[61] Still in use for ceremonial duties by the Presidential Guard.
  •  Indonesia: Received between 55,000 and 78,000 M1s and a minor number of M1Cs from the U.S. government prior to 1971; some rifles also supplied from Italy.[57]
  •  Iran: Received 165,490 M1 rifles from the U.S. government prior to 1964.[61]
  •  Israel: Received up to 60,000 M1 rifles from the U.S. government prior to 1975.[61]
  •  Italy: Used by the army from 1945. Beretta license-built 100,000 M1s from 1950 until the adoption of the BM59 in 1959.[62] Also received 232,000 M1s from the U.S. government between 1950 and 1970.[57]
  •  Japan: Issued to the National Police Reserve. Still used by the JSDF as a ceremonial weapon.[65]
  •  Jordan: Received an estimated 25,000-30,000 M1 rifles from the U.S. government prior to 1974.[61]
  •  Republic of Korea: Received 296,450 M1 rifles from the U.S. government in 1950~1953/1964–1974.[61] Currently, most of the M1 rifles were scrapped or sold back to the U.S. for civilian use. Only very small numbers are used for reserve force and ceremonial duties.
  •  Laos: Received 36,270 M1 rifles from the U.S. government in 1950–1975.[61]
  •  Liberia[66]
  •  Norway: Received 72,800 M1 rifles from the U.S. government prior to 1964.[61] Still used by the drill team of the Hans Majestet Kongens Garde.
  •  Pakistan: Received possibly 150,000 M1 rifles from the U.S. government prior to 1975.[61]
  •  Panama[67]
  •  Paraguay: Received 30,750 M1 rifles from the U.S. government prior to 1975.[61]
  •  Philippines: Received 34,300 M1 and 2630 M1D rifles. from the U.S. government in 1950–1975. Retired from active Philippine Marine Corp service.[68][69] Used by CAFGU units.[70]
  •  Republic of China:The Chinese Nationalist Army got the M1 Garand after the Nationalist Party Government had been in Taiwan during the 1950s. They used the M1 Garand until 1968 and it was replaced by M14. Currently, the M1 Garand is still the main rifle of the ROC Army honor guard.
  •  Saudi Arabia: Received 34,530 M1 rifles from the U.S. government prior to 1975.[61]
  •  South Vietnam: Received 220,300 M1 and 520 M1C/M1D rifles from the U.S. government in 1950–1975.[61]
  •  Thailand: Received about 40,000 M1 rifles from the U.S. government prior to 1965.[61]
  •  Turkey: Received 312,430 M1 rifles from the U.S. government in 1953–1970,[61] saw action in Korean War[71] and 1974 Cyprus War[72][73]
  •  United States: Standard issue rifle of the U.S. Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force (upon 1947 establishment) from 1936 to 1957.[74] Still in use for official military ceremonies, ROTC units, and the Civil Air Patrol. Additionally, it remains the standard rifle of the United States Marine Corps Silent Drill Platoon.
  •  Uruguay[67]
  •  Venezuela: Received 55,670 M1 rifles from the U.S. government prior to 1975.[61]
An ROC honor guard soldier and his M1 Garand
Evzones of the Presidential Guard in front of the Greek Parliament holding M1 Garands.
The M1 in the Pacific War: Guam, 1944


Military surplus Garands and post-war copies made for the civilian market are popular among enthusiasts around the world.[55] In 2013, President John F. Kennedy's personal M1 Garand was auctioned by Rock Island Auction Company. This rifle was acquired by Kennedy in 1959 from the Director of Civilian Marksmanship and has the serial number 6086970.[56]

In 2009, an effort by the South Korean government to export about 850,000 firearms to the United States, including 87,000 M1 rifles, for eventual sale to civilians, was initially approved by the Obama administration, but it later blocked the sale in March 2010.[52] A State Department spokesman said the administration's decision was based on concerns that the guns could fall into the wrong hands and be used for criminal activity.[52] However, in January 2012, the U.S. and South Korea agreed on the sale of 87,000 M1 Garand rifles, and the South Korean government entered into discussion with U.S. civilian arms dealers.[53] Korea has a record of selling tens of thousands of M1 Garand rifles to the U.S. civilian market between 1986 to 1994.[53] In August 2013, the Obama administration banned future private importation of all U.S. made weapons, including the M1 Garand [54] Note that this action did not preclude the return of surplus U.S. weapons, including M1 Garands, previously loaned by the U.S. to friendly nations, to the custody of the U.S. Government; in recent years, the CMP has received most of its surplus weapons through such returns from foreign countries.

United States citizens meeting certain qualifications may purchase U.S. military surplus M1 rifles through the Civilian Marksmanship Program (CMP). The CMP is run by the Corporation for the Promotion of Rifle Practice and Firearms Safety (CPRPFS), a not-for-profit corporation chartered by the United States Congress in 1996 to instruct citizens in marksmanship and promote practice and safety in the use of firearms.[51] The group holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code. From 1903 to 1996, the CMP was sponsored by the Office of the Director of Civilian Marksmanship (DCM), a position first within the Department of War and later in the Department of the Army. The DCM was normally an active-duty Army colonel.

A United States Coast Guardsman competes in a marksmanship championship with a National Match M1.

Civilian use

Despite similarities in naming, there is no relationship between the M1 rifle and the M1 carbine, other than a similar rotating bolt design. Additional confusion can arise from the development of several other weapon systems, "M" being an abbreviation for Model, such as the M1 submachine gun and M1 tank.

The M1 Garand was the direct predecessor of the M14 rifle, which replaced it. The Japanese began development of a modified copy of the Garand, the Type 5 Rifle, near the end of World War II, though it never reached production status.[49] During the 1950s, Beretta developed the BM59 series of rifles, which would also be produced under license in Indonesia as the "SP-1" series. Ruger produced the Mini-14 rifle, which utilizes a reduced-size operating system and a different gas system. The Mini-14 looks like the M14, but is chambered for the smaller .223 cartridge.[50]


During the 1950s, Beretta produced Garands in Italy at the behest of NATO, by having the tooling used by Winchester during World War II shipped to them by the U.S. government. These rifles were designated Model 1952 in Italy, and eventually led to variants of their own, the best known of these being the BM59 series.

Beretta production

The T26 arose from requests by various Army combat commands for a shortened version of the standard M1 rifle for use in jungle or mobile warfare. In July 1945 Col. William Alexander, former staff officer for Gen. Simon Buckner and a new member of the Pacific Warfare Board,[42] requested urgent production of 15,000 carbine-length M1 rifles for use in the Pacific theater.[43][44][45][46] To emphasize the need for rapid action, he requested the Ordnance arm of the U.S. 6th Army in the Philippines to make up 150 18" barreled M1 rifles for service trials, sending another of the rifles by special courier to U.S. Army Ordnance officials at Aberdeen as a demonstration that the M1 could be easily modified to the new configuration.[43][45][47][48] Although the T26 was never approved for production, at least one 18" barreled M1 rifle was used in action in the Philippines by troopers in the 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment (503rd PIR).[48]

Two interesting variants that never saw service were the M1E5 and T26 (popularly known as the Tanker Garand). The M1E5 is equipped with a folding buttstock, while the T26 uses the standard solid stock, and has a shorter, 18-inch barrel. The Tanker name was also used after the war as a marketing gimmick for commercially modified Garands. Another variant that never saw duty was the T20E2. This variant is a Garand modified to accept Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) magazines, and has selective-fire capability, with semi- and fully automatic modes.

The T20E2 selective-fire prototype was designed to feed from 20-round BAR magazines.

M1E5 and T26

The detachable M2 conical flash hider adopted 25 January 1945 slipped over the muzzle and was secured in place by the bayonet lug. A T37 flash hider was developed later. Flash hiders were of limited utility during low-light conditions around dawn and dusk, but were often removed as potentially detrimental to accuracy.[40]

The Vietnam War.[40] The U.S. Navy has also used the Garand, rechambered for the 7.62x51mm NATO round.

The procedure required to install the M1C-type mounts through drilling/tapping the hardened receiver reduced accuracy by warping the receiver. Improved methods to avoid reduction of accuracy were inefficient in terms of tooling and time. This resulted in the development of the M1D, which utilized a simpler, single-ring Springfield Armory mount attached to the barrel rather than the receiver. The M1C was first widely used during the Korean War. Korean War production was 4,796 M1Cs and 21,380 M1Ds; although few M1Ds were completed in time to see combat.[40]

Most variants of the Garand, save the sniper variants, never saw active duty.[27] The sniper versions were modified to accept scope mounts, and two versions (the M1C, formerly M1E7, and the M1D, formerly M1E8) were produced, although not in significant quantities during World War II.[41] The only difference between the two versions is the mounting system for the telescopic sight. In June 1944, the M1C was adopted as a standard sniper rifle by the U.S. Army to supplement the venerable M1903A4. Wartime production was 7,971 M1Cs.[40]

Rifle, Cal. 30, M1D with M84 telescope and T-37 flash suppressor.
Rifle, Cal. 30, M1C with M84 telescope and rear sight protector.

M1C and M1D sniper rifles

Demilitarized models have modifications to prevent reversion. The gas cylinder lock screw is welded to the gas lock and gas cylinder and the firing pin hole is welded closed on the bolt face. The barrel is drilled-out, plugged and welded at the chamber mouth and then welded to the receiver.

Nomenclature National Stock Number Description
Rifle, Inert,
Caliber .30, M1
1005-00-599-3289 Demilitarized and barrel plugged. Used by US Air Force for instructional use.
Rifle, Training Aid, Caliber .30, M1 1005-01-061-2456 Demilitarized and barrel plugged. Used for instructional use.
Rifle, Ceremonial, Caliber .30, M1 1005-01-095-0085 Gas cylinder lock valve is removed and the gas system has welds permanently joining the lock and gas cylinder to prevent reversion. Barrel is unplugged but is welded to the receiver. The weapon has been converted from semi-automatic to a repeater and can only fire blanks. The bolt must be cycled to eject the spent cartridge case and reload a fresh round from the internal clip. Used by American Legion and Veterans of Foreign Wars honor guards for parading and firing ceremonial salutes.
Rifle, Dummy Drill, Caliber .30, M1 1005-01-113-3767 Demilitarized. Barrel is unplugged but is welded to the receiver. Used by ROTC for instructional use.

Demilitarized Versions

U.S. Army designation U.S. Navy designation Description
T1 N/A Prototype
T1E1 N/A A single trial rifle that broke its bolt in the 1931 trial
T1E2 N/A Trial designation for gas-trap Garand. Basically a T1E1 with a new bolt.
M1 N/A Basic model. Identical to T1E2. Later change to gas port did not change designation
M1E1 N/A M1 Garand variant; modified cam angle in op-rod
M1E2 N/A M1 Garand variant; prismatic scope and mount
M1E3 N/A M1 Garand variant; roller added to bolt’s cam lug (later adapted for use in the M14)
M1E4 N/A M1 Garand variant; gas cut-off and expansion system with piston integral to op-rod
M1E5 N/A M1 Garand variant; 18-inch barrel and folding stock, for Airborne and Tank crewman use.
M1E6 N/A M1 Garand variant; sniper variant
M1E7/M1C N/A M1E6 Garand variant; M1C sniper variant with 2.2X magnification M73 scope (later modified as the M81, though the M82 or M84 scope could be used) in a Griffin & Howe mount affixed to the left side of the receiver requiring a leather cheek pad to properly position the shooter's face behind the offset scope[40]
M1E8/M1D N/A M1E7 Garand variant; M1D sniper variant with M82 scope (though the M84 scope could be used) in a Springfield Armory mount attached to the rear of the barrel allowing quick removal of the scope but similarly requiring the leather cheek pad[40]
M1E9 N/A M1 Garand variant; similar to M1E4, with piston separate from op-rod
M1E10 N/A M1 Garand variant; variant with the Ljungman direct gas system
M1E11 N/A M1 Garand variant; short-stroke Tappet gas system
M1E12 N/A M1 Garand variant; gas impingement system
M1E13 N/A M1 Garand variant; "White" gas cut-off and expansion system
M1E14 Mk 2 Mod 0 M1 Garand variant; rechambered in .30 T65/7.62x51mm NATO with press-in chamber insert
T20 N/A M1 Garand variant; select-fire conversion by John Garand, capable of using BAR magazines
T20E1 N/A T20 variant; uses its own type of magazines
T20E2 N/A T20 variant; E2 magazines will work in BAR, but not the reverse
T20E2HB N/A T20E2 variant; HBAR (heavy barrel) variant
T22 N/A M1 Garand variant; fully automatic select-fire conversion by Remington, magazine-fed
T22E1 N/A T22 variant; unknown differences
T22E2 N/A T22 variant; unknown differences
T22E3HB N/A T22 variant; stock angled upwards to reduce muzzle climb; heavy barrel; uses T27 fire control
T23 N/A M1 Garand variant; upward angled stock like T22E3HB; standard clip fed.
T26 N/A M1 Garand variant; 18-inch barrel and standard stock, for airborne and tank crewman use.
T27 N/A Remington select-fire field conversion for M1 Garand; ability to convert issue M1 Garands to select-fire rifles; fire control setup used in T22E3
T31 N/A Experimental bullpup variant
T35 Mk 2 Mod 2 M1 Garand variant; rechambered for .30 T65/7.62x51mm NATO
T36 N/A T20E2 variant; T20E2 rechambered for .30 T65/7.62x51mm NATO using T35 barrel and T25 magazine
T37 N/A T36 variant; same as T36, except in gas port location

Quick reference


The M1907 two-piece leather rifle sling was the most common type of sling used with the weapon through World War II. In 1943 a khaki canvas sling was introduced that gradually became more common.[39] Another accessory was the winter trigger, said to have been developed during the Korean War. It consisted of a small mechanism installed on the trigger guard, allowing the soldier to remotely pull the trigger by depressing a lever just behind the guard. This enabled the shooter to fire his weapon while using winter gloves, which could get "stuck" on the trigger guard or not allow for proper movement of the finger.

Also available was the M7 grenade launcher that fitted onto the end of the barrel.[37][38] It was sighted using the M15 sight, which fit just forward of the trigger. A cleaning tool, oiler and greasepots could be stored in two cylindrical compartments in the buttstock for use in the field. Because of the limitations of the Garand's clip-loading magazine, the rifle proved less than ideal for use in launching 22 mm rifle grenades, and the M1903 Springfield was retained for use in that role long after grenade launchers for the Garand became available.

Both official and aftermarket accessories were plentiful for the Garand rifle. Several different styles of bayonets fit the rifle: the M1905 and M1942, both with 16-inch (406 mm) blades; the Model 1905E1 with shortened 10-inch (254 mm) blade; the M1 with 10-inch (254 mm) blade; and the M5 bayonet with 6.75-inch (152 mm) blade.


It is recommended that very slow burning powders and heavy bullets not be used in the Garand. This is an issue especially important to handloaders, as the pressure curve of slower propellants can put too much pressure on the gas piston, bend the operating rod, and adversely affect the Garand's accuracy. The Garand is best used with bullets of about 150 grains weight, as in "Ball, Caliber 30, M2" ammunition. However, there are several adjustable gas cylinder plugs available that vent excess gas out of the gas cylinder, reducing the pressure on the operating rod.

In battle, the manual of arms called for the rifle to be fired until empty, and then recharged quickly. Due to the well-developed logistical system of the U.S. military at the time, this wastage of ammunition was generally not critical, though this could change in the case of units that came under intense fire or were flanked or surrounded by enemy forces.[26] The Garand's en-bloc clip system proved particularly cumbersome when using the rifle to launch grenades, requiring removal of an often partially loaded clip of ball ammunition and replacement with a full clip of blank cartridges.

The M1's [26][28][34] Later, special clips holding two or five rounds became available on the civilian market, as well as a single-loading device which stays in the rifle when the bolt locks back.

Once the clip is inserted, the bolt snaps forward on its own as soon as thumb pressure is released from the top round of the clip, chambering a round and leaving it ready to fire.[33][34] Although it is not absolutely necessary, the preferred method is to place the back of the right hand against the operating rod handle and press the clip home with the right thumb; this releases the bolt, but the hand restrains the bolt from slamming closed on the operator's thumb (resulting in "M1 thumb"); the hand is then quickly withdrawn, the operating rod moves forward and the bolt closes with sufficient force to go fully to battery. Thus, after the clip has been pressed into position in the magazine, the operating rod handle should be released, allowing the bolt to snap forward under pressure from the operating rod spring. The operating rod handle may be smacked with the palm to ensure the bolt is closed.[34][35]

Loading the M1.

The Garand is loaded with a full clip of eight rounds. Once all eight rounds are expended, the bolt will be automatically locked back and the clip ejected (with a distinct metallic ping), readying the rifle for the insertion of a fresh clip of ammunition.[25] Compared to contemporary detachable box magazines, the M1's "en bloc" clip is light and simple, and need only be oriented with the rounds pointing forward prior to charging the rifle, as the clips have no top or bottom.

Unloading an M1 "en bloc" clip.


M1 Garand reliability can be improved by lightly polishing the feed ramps and certain surfaces on the bolt and operating rod with Simichrome and rouge. The greatest improvement that can be made to an M1 is to glass bed the stock, which increases accuracy.[32]

The M1 Garand was one of the first self-loading rifles to use stainless steel for its gas tube, in an effort to prevent corrosion. As the stainless metal could not be [26] The M1 Garand was designed for simple assembly and disassembly to facilitate field maintenance. It can be field stripped (broken down) without tools in just a few seconds.[31]

Ejection of an empty clip created a distinctive metallic "pinging" sound.[27] In World War II, reports arose in which German and Japanese infantry were making use of this noise in combat to alert them to an empty M1 rifle in order to 'get the drop' on their American enemies. The information was taken seriously enough that U.S. Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground began experiments with clips made of various plastics in order to soften the sound, though no improved clips were ever adopted.[28] According to former German soldiers, the sound was inaudible during engagements and not particularly useful when heard, as other squad members might have been nearby ready to fire.[29] Seasoned U.S. infantry soldiers would sometimes purposely toss an empty en-bloc clip creating the same sound a Garand makes when it has fired its last shot and is empty, in an effort to draw out the enemy, with varying degrees of success.[30]

The rifle's ability to rapidly fire powerful .30-06 rifle ammunition also proved to be of considerable advantage in combat. In China, Japanese [26] The Garand's fire rate, in the hands of a trained soldier, averaged out to 40–50 accurate shots per minute at a range of 300 yards, made it the fastest-firing service rifle of World War II, until the StG 44 was adopted as the German service rifle in 1944 (in practice, the bolt-action K98k remained the German service rifle).

The weight of the M1 varies between 9.5 pounds (4.31 kg) and 10.2 pounds (4.63 kg) unloaded (depending on sling type and stock wood density)—a considerable increase over the previous M1903 Springfield. The length was 43.6 inches (1,107 mm). The rifle is fed by an [26] and the Lee–Enfield No1 and No4.

An M1 Garand en bloc clip loaded with eight .30-06 Springfield rounds.


Garand's original design for the M1 used a complicated gas system involving a special muzzle extension gas trap, later dropped in favor of a simpler drilled gas port. Because most of the older rifles were retrofitted, pre-1939 gas-trap M1s are very rare today and are prized collector's items.[24] In both systems, expanding gases from a fired cartridge were diverted into the gas cylinder. Here, the gases met a long-stroke piston attached to the operating rod, which was pushed rearward by the force of this high-pressure gas. Then, the operating rod engaged a rotating bolt inside the receiver. The bolt was attached to the receiver via two locking lugs, which rotated, unlocked, and initiated the ejection of the spent cartridge and the reloading cycle when the rifle was discharged. The operating rod (and subsequently the bolt) then returned to its original position.

Two of Garand's patents, showing the original gas trap design and revised gas port system.

Garand's rifle was originally chambered for the .276 Pedersen cartridge,[25] charged by means of 10-round clips. Later, it was chambered for the then-standard .30-06 Springfield. With this new cartridge, the M1 had a maximum effective range of 440 yards (400 m), with the capability of inflicting a casualty with armor-piercing ammunition well beyond 875 yards (800 m). Because of the larger diameter of the .30-06 cartridge, the modified clip held only eight rounds.

The M1 rifle is a gas-operated, semi-automatic, clip-fed rifle.[24] By modern standards, the M1's feeding system is archaic, relying on clips to feed ammunition, and is the principal source of criticism of the rifle. Officials in Army Ordnance circles demanded a fixed, non-protruding magazine for the new service rifle. At the time, it was believed that a detachable magazine on a general-issue service rifle would be easily lost by U.S. soldiers (a criticism made of British soldiers and the Lee–Enfield 50 years previously), would render the weapon too susceptible to clogging from dirt and debris (a belief that proved unfounded with the adoption of the M1 Carbine), and that a protruding magazine would complicate existing manual-of-arms drills. As a result, inventor John Garand developed an "en bloc" clip system that allowed ammunition to be inserted from above, clip included, into the fixed magazine. While this design provided the requisite flush-mount magazine, the clip system increased the rifle's weight and complexity, and made only single loading ammunition possible without a clip.

The M1 Garand with important parts labeled.

Design details

Some military drill teams still use the M1, including the U.S. Marine Corps Silent Drill Team, the Norwegian Royal Guards Drill Team, the Greek Presidential Guard Evzones, the United States Air Force Academy Cadet Honor Guard, the U.S. Air Force Auxiliary, almost all Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) and some Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) teams of all branches of the U.S. military. The Greek Army Evzones (presidential) Guard still uses M1s, and it was used as a training rifle in the Greek army even in the late 1990s.

The M1 proved an excellent rifle throughout its service in World War II and the Korean War. Surplus M1 rifles also armed many nations allied to the United States postwar, including West Germany, Italy, Japan, Denmark, Greece, Turkey and Iran. Following the Korean War, Garands were loaned to South Korea. Some Garands were still being used in the Vietnam War in 1963; despite the M14's official adoption in 1957, it was not until 1965 the changeover from the M1 Garand was completed in the active-duty component of the Army (with the exception of the sniper variants, which were introduced in World War II and saw action in Korea and Vietnam). In other components of the armed forces, such as the Army Reserve, Army National Guard and the Navy, Garands continued to serve into the 1970s or longer.

U.S. Army Infantryman in 1942 with M1, Fort Knox, Kentucky.

Much of the M1 inventory in the post-World War II period underwent arsenal repair or rebuilding. While U.S. forces were still engaged in the Korean War, the Department of Defense determined a need for additional production of the Garand, and two new contracts were awarded. During 1953–56, M1s were produced by International Harvester and Harrington & Richardson.[23] A final, very small lot of M1s was produced by Springfield Armory in early 1957, using finished components already on hand. Beretta also produced Garands using Winchester tooling.

The M1's semiautomatic operation gave United States forces a significant advantage in firepower and shot-to-shot recovery time over individual enemy infantrymen in battle. (German, Italian, and Japanese soldiers were usually armed with bolt-action rifles.) The semi-automatic operation and reduced recoil allowed soldiers to fire 8 rounds without having to move their hands on the rifle and therefore disrupt their firing position and point of aim.[20] [21] The impact of faster-firing infantry small arms in general soon stimulated both Allied and Axis forces to greatly augment issue of semi- and fully automatic firearms then in production, as well as to develop new types of infantry firearms.[22]

Following the outbreak of World War II in Europe, Winchester was awarded an "educational" production contract for 65,000 rifles,[10] with deliveries beginning in 1943.[10] The British Army looked at the M1 as a possible replacement for its bolt-action Lee–Enfield No.1 Mk III, but it was rejected when rigorous testing suggested that it was an unreliable weapon in muddy conditions. That was one of many situations where the British declared American hardware unacceptable before American forces used the same equipment with great success.[18][19]

John Garand points out features of the M1 to Army Generals.

Service use

Production difficulties delayed deliveries to the Army until September 1937. Machine production began at Springfield Armory that month at a rate of ten rifles per day,[16] and reached an output of 100 per day within two years. Despite going into production status, design issues were not at an end. The barrel, gas cylinder, and front sight assembly were redesigned and entered production in early 1940. Existing "gas-trap" rifles were recalled and retrofitted, mirroring problems with the earlier M1903 Springfield rifle that also had to be recalled and reworked approximately three years into production and foreshadowing rework of the M16 rifle at a similar point in its development. Production of the Garand increased in 1940 despite these difficulties,[17] reaching 600 a day by 10 January 1941,[10] and the Army was fully equipped by the end of 1941.[11]

On 3 August 1933, the T1E2 became the Semi-Automatic Rifle, Caliber 30, M1.[10] In May 1934, 75 M1s went to field trials; 50 were to infantry, 25 to cavalry units.[13]:113 Numerous problems were reported, forcing the rifle to be modified, yet again, before it could be recommended for service and cleared for procurement on 7 November 1935, then standardized 9 January 1936.[10] The first production model was successfully proof-fired, function-fired, and fired for accuracy on July 21, 1937.[15]

Twenty gas-operated .276 T3E2s Garands were made and competed with T1 Pedersen rifles in early 1931. The .276 Garand was the clear winner of these trials. The .30 caliber Garand was also tested, in the form of a single T1E1, but was withdrawn with a cracked bolt on 9 October 1931. A 4 January 1932 meeting recommended adoption of the .276 caliber and production of approximately 125 T3E2s. Meanwhile, Garand redesigned his bolt and his improved T1E2 rifle was retested. The day after the successful conclusion of this test, Army Chief of Staff General Douglas MacArthur personally disapproved any caliber change, in part because there were extensive existing stocks of .30 M1 ball ammunition.[11] On 25 February 1932, Adjutant General John B. Shuman, speaking for the Secretary of War, ordered work on the rifles and ammunition in .276 caliber cease immediately and completely and all resources be directed toward identification and correction of deficiencies in the Garand .30 caliber.[13]:111

Further tests by the SRB in July 1929, which included rifle designs by Browning, Colt–Browning, Garand, Holek, Pedersen, Rheinmetall, Thompson, and an incomplete one by White,[nb 1] led to a recommendation that work on the (dropped) .30 gas-operated Garand be resumed, and a T1E1 was ordered 14 November 1929.

In early 1928, both Infantry and Cavalry Boards ran trials with the .276 Pedersen T1 rifle, calling it "highly promising"[10] (despite its use of waxed ammunition,[12] shared by the Thompson).[13] On 13 August 1928, a Semiautomatic Rifle Board carried out joint Army, Navy, and Marine Corps trials between the .30 Thompson, both cavalry and infantry versions of the T1 Pedersen, "M1924" Garand, and .256 Bang, and on 21 September, the Board reported no clear winner. The .30 Garand, however, was dropped in favor of the .276.[14]

French Canadian-born Garand went to work at the United States Army's Springfield Armory and began working on a .30 caliber primer-operated breech. In 1924, twenty-four rifles, identified as "M1922", were built at Springfield. At Fort Benning during 1925, they were tested against models by Berthier, Hatcher-Bang, Thompson, and Pedersen, the latter two being delayed blowback types.[10] This led to a further trial of an improved "M1924" Garand against the Thompson, ultimately producing an inconclusive report.[10] As a result, the Ordnance Board ordered a .30-'06 Garand variant. In March 1927, the Cavalry Board reported trials among the Thompson, Garand, and '03 Springfield had not led to a clear winner. This led to a gas-operated .276 model (patented by Garand on 12 April 1930).[10]


Though the U.S. Army became interested in self-loading rifles with the Bang and Murphy-Manning of 1911, and there were pre-production models in 1916,[10] the M1's origin properly dates to 1919, when armies around the world were realizing that standard rifle cartridges were more powerful than necessary for typical engagement ranges, leading to heavier rifles than were really required. The Army trials in the 1920s had a .256-inch minimum caliber requirement, compared to the .30-06 then standard.[11]



  • History 1
    • Development 1.1
    • Service use 1.2
  • Design details 2
    • Features 2.1
  • Operation 3
  • Accessories 4
  • Variants 5
    • Quick reference 5.1
    • Demilitarized Versions 5.2
    • M1C and M1D sniper rifles 5.3
    • M1E5 and T26 5.4
    • Beretta production 5.5
  • Descendants 6
  • Civilian use 7
  • Users 8
    • Non-state actors 8.1
  • See also 9
  • Notes 10
  • References 11
  • External links 12

Although the name "Garand" is frequently pronounced , according to experts and people who knew John Garand, the weapon's designer, (to rhyme with errand) is preferred.[8][9] It is available for American civilian ownership through the Civilian Marksmanship Program.

The M1 was the standard-issue service rifle of the U.S. forces in World War II and the Korean War, and also saw service to a limited extent in the Vietnam War. Most M1 rifles were issued to U.S. forces, though many thousands were also lent or provided as foreign aid to American allies. The Garand is still used by drill teams and military honor guards. It is also widely sought by the civilian population as a hunting rifle, target rifle, and military collectible.

The M1 is an air-cooled, gas-operated, clip-fed, semi-automatic, shoulder-fired weapon. This means that the air cools the barrel; that the power to cock the rifle and chamber the succeeding round comes from the expanding gas of the round fired previously; that it is loaded by inserting an en-bloc (i.e., it goes into the rifle's action and functions as part of the rifle) metal clip (containing eight rounds) into the receiver; and that the rifle fires one round each time the trigger is pulled.[7] After the eight rounds have been shot, the empty clip automatically ejects with an audible "ping" noise.

. Today, the M1 remains in use for drill purposes. Springfield Armory, starting in 1957. During World War II, the M1 gave U.S. forces a distinct advantage in firefights against their Axis enemies, as their standard-issue rifles were more effective than the Axis' slower-firing bolt-action rifles. The M1 continued to be used in large numbers until 1963 and to a lesser degree until 1976. Like its predecessor, the M1 originated from the M14 selective-fire in 1936 and was subsequently replaced by the United States Armed Forces of the service rifle as the standard M1903 Springfield bolt-action the Garand officially replaced the [6]

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