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Mátyás Rákosi

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Title: Mátyás Rákosi  
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Subject: Hungarian Communist Party, Ernő Gerő, Collectivization in Hungary, Hungarian Working People's Party, Imre Nagy
Collection: 1892 Births, 1971 Deaths, Anti-Revisionists, Atheism Activists, Austro-Hungarian Military Personnel of World War I, Cold War Leaders, Communist Rulers, Hungarian Atheists, Hungarian Comintern People, Hungarian Communist Party Politicians, Hungarian Communists, Hungarian Expatriates in the Soviet Union, Hungarian Jews, Hungarian People's Republic, Hungarian Politicians, Hungarian Prisoners of War, Hungarians in Vojvodina, Jewish Atheists, Jewish Hungarian Politicians, Jewish Politicians, Members of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party, Members of the Hungarian Working People's Party, Members of the National Assembly of Hungary (1945–47), Members of the National Assembly of Hungary (1947–49), Members of the National Assembly of Hungary (1949–53), Members of the National Assembly of Hungary (1953–58), People from Ada, Serbia, People of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Prime Ministers of Hungary, Stalinism, World War I Prisoners of War Held by Russia
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Mátyás Rákosi

Mátyás Rákosi
General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party
In office
1945 – 18 July 1956
Succeeded by Ernő Gerő
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the People's Republic of Hungary
In office
14 August 1952 – 4 July 1953
Preceded by István Dobi
Succeeded by Imre Nagy
Personal details
Born (1892-03-09)9 March 1892
Ada, Bács-Bodrog County, Kingdom of Hungary, Austria-Hungary (now in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina in Serbia)
Died 5 February 1971(1971-02-05) (aged 78)
Gorky, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union (now Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia)
Nationality Hungarian
Political party Hungarian Communist Party,
Hungarian Working People's Party
Spouse(s) Fenia Kornilova
Military service
Allegiance  Austria-Hungary
Service/branch Austro-Hungarian Army

World War I

Mátyás Rákosi (9 March 1892[1][2] – 5 February 1971[3]) was a Hungarian communist politician. He was born Mátyás Rosenfeld in Ada (in present-day Serbia).[4] He was the leader of Hungary's Communist Party from 1945 to 1956[5] — first as General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party (1945–1948) and later holding the same post with the Hungarian Working People's Party (1948–1956). As such, from 1949 to 1956, he was the de facto ruler of Communist Hungary.[6] His rule was aligned with USSR politics during Joseph Stalin's government.[7][8] American journalist John Gunther described Rákosi as "the most malevolent character I ever met in political life."[9]


  • Early years 1
  • Leader of Hungary 2
    • Economic policy 2.1
  • Forced retirement 3
  • Footnotes 4
  • External links 5

Early years

Rákosi was born in Ada, then a village in Bács-Bodrog County[1] in Austria-Hungary), now a town in Vojvodina, Serbia. Born into a Jewish family, the fourth son of a grocer (his mother would give birth to seven more children),[1] he later repudiated religion and totally repudiated Judaism.

He served in the

Party political offices
Preceded by
General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party
1945–18 July 1956
Succeeded by
Ernő Gerő
Political offices
Preceded by
István Dobi
Prime Minister of Hungary
14 August 1952–4 July 1953
Succeeded by
Imre Nagy

External links

  1. ^ a b c Gábor Murányi
  2. ^ Mátyás Rákosi –
  3. ^ Matyas Rakosi – History of 1956
  4. ^ Lendvai, Paul (2003). The Hungarians: 1000 Years of Victory in Defeat. London: C. Hurst and Co, Ltd. p. 430.  
  5. ^ Matyas Rakosi – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  6. ^ Bertényi Iván – Gyapai Gábor: Magyarország rövid története (Maecenas, 2001, in Hungarian)
  7. ^ Hungary :: The Revolution of 1956 – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  8. ^ Gomori, George (30 November 2006). "Gyorgy Litvan". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 12 May 2010. 
  9. ^  
  10. ^ Fernbach, D. 'Introduction', In The Footsteps of Rosa Luxemburg, Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2012; pg.16
  11. ^ a b Mátyás Rákosi
  12. ^ Hungary: a country study. Library of Congress Federal Research Division, December 1989.
  13. ^ Johanna Granville,The First Domino: International Decision Making During the Hungarian Crisis of 1956, Texas A & M University Press, 2004. ISBN 1585442984.
  14. ^ Pető-Szakács: A hazai gazdaság négy évtizedének története 1945–1985. I. köt. Budapest, 1985, KJK


After his death, his ashes were privately returned to Hungary for burial in the Farkasréti Cemetery in Budapest. Only his initials are visible on the gravestone to avoid vandalism.

Rákosi was then removed as General Secretary of the Party under pressure from the Soviet Politburo in June 1956 (shortly after Nikita Khrushchev's Secret Speech), and was replaced by his former second-in-command, Ernő Gerő. To remove him from the Hungarian political scene, the Soviet Politburo forced Rákosi to move to the Soviet Union in 1956, with the official story being that he was "seeking medical attention." He spent the rest of his life in the Kirgiz Soviet Socialist Republic. Shortly before his death, in 1970 Rákosi was finally granted permission to return to Hungary if he promised not to engage in any political activities. He refused the deal, and remained in the USSR where he died in Gorky in 1971.

Rakosi's grave in Budapest

Forced retirement

The postwar Hungarian economy suffered from multiple challenges. The most important was the destruction of assets in the war (40% of national wealth, including all bridges, railways, raw materials, machinery, etc.)[14] Hungary agreed to pay war reparations approximating US$300 million, to the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia, and to support Soviet garrisons. The Hungarian National Bank in 1946 estimated the cost of reparations as "between 19 and 22 per cent of the annual national income." In spite of this, after the highest historical rate of inflation in world history, the new, stable currency was successfully introduced in August 1946 on the basis of the plans of the Communist Party and the Social Democratic Party. The low production of consumer goods and the backwardness of light industries resulted in frequent shortages, especially in the countryside, leading to discontent. In addition, the huge investments in military sectors after the outbreak of the Korean War further reduced the supply of consumer goods. Because of the shortages, forced savings (state bond sales to the population) and below-inflation wage increases were introduced.

Economic policy

Approximately 350,000 officials and intellectuals were purged under his rule, from 1948 to 1956.[13] Rákosi imposed totalitarian rule on Hungary — arresting, jailing and killing both real and imagined foes in various waves of Stalin-inspired political purges – as the country went into decline. In August 1952 he also became Prime Minister (Chairman of the Council of Ministers). However, on 13 June 1953, to appease the Soviet Politburo, he accepted the Soviet model of collective leadership. While he gave up the premiership to Imre Nagy, he retained the office of General Secretary. Rákosi led vigorous attacks on Nagy's efforts to blunt the edges of the regime. On 9 March 1955, the Central Committee of the MDP condemned Nagy for "rightist deviation". Hungarian newspapers joined the attacks and Nagy was accused of responsibility for the country's economic problems. On 18 April a unanimous vote of the National Assembly dismissed Nagy from his post. Although the Kremlin frowned on a return of Rákosi to the premiership, he and Nagy's successor, András Hegedüs, quickly put the country back on its previous Stalinist course.

Rákosi described himself as "Stalin's best Hungarian disciple" and "Stalin's best pupil". At the height of his rule, he developed a strong cult of personality around himself.

By October 1947, Rákosi had dropped all pretense of democracy. He gave the non-Communist parties an ultimatum: cooperate with a new, Communist-dominated coalition government or go into exile.[12] By the end of 1947, the opposition parties had largely shunted aside their more courageous members, leaving them in the hands of fellow travelers willing to do the Communists' bidding. In the summer of 1948, the Communists forced the Social Democrats to merge with them to form the Hungarian Working People's Party (MDP). He also pushed out the Smallholder president, Zoltán Tildy, in favour of Social Democrat-turned-Communist Árpád Szakasits, and forced Dinnyés to resign in favour of the openly pro-Communist István Dobi. A year later, elections took place with a single list of candidates; although non-Communists nominally still figured, they were actually fellow travelers. This marked the onset of undisguised Communist rule in Hungary.

Initially, Rákosi and the Communists appeared willing to work within the system. From 1947 onward, however, he and the Communists began pressuring the other parties to push out those not willing to work with the Communists on the grounds that they were "fascists" or fascist sympathizers. The process began when Smallholder Prime Minister Ferenc Nagy was forced to resign in favour of a more pliant Smallholder, Lajos Dinnyés. Later on, after the Communists won complete control, Rákosi referred to this practice as "salami tactics," saying he destroyed the non-Communist forces in the country by "cutting them off like slices of salami."

When the Red Army set up a Soviet-approved government in Hungary (1944–1945), Rákosi was appointed General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party (MKP) (1945). He was a member of the High National Council from 27 September to 7 December 1945. Rákosi was deputy prime minister from 1945 to 1949, and was acting Prime Minister from 1 to 4 February 1946 and on 31 May 1947.

Leader of Hungary


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