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List of culinary fruits

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List of culinary fruits

Some culinary fruits

This list of culinary fruits contains the names of some fruits that are considered edible in some cuisines. The word "fruit" is used in several different ways.[1] The definition of fruit for these lists is a culinary fruit, i.e. "Any sweet, edible part of a plant that resembles fruit, even if it does not develop from a floral ovary; also used in a technically imprecise sense for some sweet or sweetish vegetables, some of which may resemble a true fruit or are used in cookery as if they were a fruit, for example rhubarb."[2]

Note that many edible plant parts that are true fruits botanically speaking, are not considered culinary fruits. They are classified as vegetables in the culinary sense (for example: the tomato, cucumber, zucchini, and so on), and hence they do not appear in this list. Similarly, some botanical fruits are classified as nuts (e.g. Brazil nut and various almonds), or staples (e.g. breadfruit), and likewise do not appear here. There also exist many fruits which are edible and palatable but for various reasons have not become popular.

Contents

  • Alphabetical list by common name 1
    • A 1.1
    • B 1.2
    • C 1.3
    • D 1.4
    • E 1.5
    • F 1.6
    • G 1.7
    • H 1.8
    • I 1.9
    • J 1.10
    • K 1.11
    • L 1.12
    • M 1.13
    • N 1.14
    • O 1.15
    • P 1.16
    • Q 1.17
    • R 1.18
    • S 1.19
    • T 1.20
    • U 1.21
    • V 1.22
    • W 1.23
    • Y 1.24
    • Z 1.25
  • Culinary fruits by climate 2
    • Temperate fruits 2.1
      • The pome fruits 2.1.1
      • The stone fruits, drupe of genus Prunus 2.1.2
      • Other temperate fruits 2.1.3
      • Berries 2.1.4
        • Rubus 2.1.4.1
        • True berries 2.1.4.2
        • Other berries 2.1.4.3
    • Mediterranean and subtropical fruits 2.2
      • Mediterranean natives 2.2.1
      • Citrus 2.2.2
      • Other subtropical fruits 2.2.3
    • Tropical fruits 2.3
      • A 2.3.1
      • B 2.3.2
      • C 2.3.3
      • D 2.3.4
      • E 2.3.5
      • G 2.3.6
      • H 2.3.7
      • I 2.3.8
      • J 2.3.9
      • K 2.3.10
      • L 2.3.11
      • M 2.3.12
      • N 2.3.13
      • O 2.3.14
      • P 2.3.15
      • R 2.3.16
      • S 2.3.17
      • T 2.3.18
      • U 2.3.19
      • V 2.3.20
      • W 2.3.21
      • X 2.3.22
      • Y 2.3.23
      • Z 2.3.24
  • Culinary fruits by geographical origin 3
    • Fruits of African origin 3.1
    • Fruits of Asian origin 3.2
    • Fruits of Latin American origin 3.3
    • Fruits of North American origin 3.4
    • Fruits of Oceanian origin 3.5
  • Culinary fruits by type of flora 4
    • Rosaceae family 4.1
    • Berries 4.2
    • Cacti and other succulents 4.3
    • Gymnosperms with fruit-like structures 4.4
      • Podocarps 4.4.1
      • Other gymnosperms 4.4.2
    • Melons and other members of Cucurbitaceae family 4.5
    • Accessory fruits 4.6
  • See also 5
  • Notes and references 6
  • External links 7

Alphabetical list by common name

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

Y

Z

Culinary fruits by climate

Temperate fruits

Fruits of temperate climates are almost always borne on trees or woody shrubs or lianas. They will not grow adequately in the tropics, as they need a period of cold (a chilling requirement) each year before they will flower. The apple, pear, cherry, and plum are the most widely grown and eaten, owing to their adaptability. Many other fruits are important regionally but do not figure prominently in commerce. Many sorts of small fruit on this list are gathered from the wild, just as they were in Neolithic times.

The pome fruits

  • Apple and crabapple (Malus)
  • Chokeberry
  • Hawthorn
  • Loquat
  • Medlar
  • Pear
  • Quince
  • Rose hip
  • Rowan
  • Service tree
  • Serviceberry
  • Shipova

The stone fruits, drupes of genus Prunus

Other temperate fruits

Berries

In non-technical usage, berry means any small fruit that can be eaten whole and lacks objectionable seeds. The bramble fruits, compound fruits of genus Rubus (blackberries), are some of the most popular of these that are not true berries:

Rubus
True berries

The true berries are dominated by the family Ericaceae, many of which are hardy in the subarctic:

  • Bearberry
  • Bilberry
  • Blueberry
  • Crowberry
  • Cranberry
  • Falberry
  • Huckleberry
  • Lingonberry
Other berries
  • Currant
  • Elderberry
  • Gooseberry
  • Hackberry
  • Honeysuckle[6]
  • Mulberry, including black and yellow mulberry
  • Mayapple
  • Nannyberry
  • Oregon grape
  • Sea-buckthorn
  • Ugni
  • Wolfberry

Mediterranean and subtropical fruits

Fruits in this category are not hardy to extreme cold, as the preceding temperate fruits are, yet tolerate some frost and may have a modest chilling requirement. Notable among these are natives of the Mediterranean:

Mediterranean natives

  • Olives
  • Black mulberry
  • Cornelian cherry
  • Date
  • Fig
  • Grapes, Vitis vinifera and raisins
  • Jujube
  • Pomegranate
  • Sycamore fig

Citrus

In the important genus Citrus (Rutaceae), some members are tropical, tolerating no frost. All common species of commerce are somewhat hardy:

  • Blood orange
  • Citron
  • Clementine
  • Grapefruit
  • Kumquat
  • Lemon
  • Lime, including Key, Persian and kaffir lime
  • Mandarin
  • Naartjie
  • Orange (spicy or bitter)
  • Pomelo
  • Sweet lemon
  • Kabosu
  • Oroblanco
  • Tangerine
  • Hybrids of the preceding species, such as the orangelo, tangelo, rangpur and ugli fruit
See also: List of Citrus fruits

Other subtropical fruits

  • Avocado
  • Carob
  • Feijoa
  • Guava
  • Longan
  • Lúcuma
  • Lychee
  • Passion fruit
  • Peanut
  • Pond-apple
  • Strawberry guava
  • Tamarillo
  • Yangmei
  • Néré

Tropical fruits

Tropical fruits grow on plants of all habitats. The only characteristic that they share is an intolerance of frost.

A

  • Abiu
  • Açaí
  • Acerola
  • Ackee
  • African cherry orange
  • African moringa
  • Agave
  • Allspice
  • Ambarella
  • American persimmon
  • Araza
  • Atemoya
  • Avocado

B

  • Babaco
  • Bacupari
  • Bacuri
  • Bael
  • Banana
  • Barbadine
  • Barbados cherry
  • Betel nut
  • Bignay
  • Bilimbi
  • Biribi
  • Black mulberry
  • Black sapote
  • Bolivian coconut
  • Bottle gourd
  • Breadnut
  • Burmese grape

C

Caimito fruit cut in half. It is native to the lowlands of Central America and the West Indies
  • Caimito
  • Calabash tree
  • Calamansi
  • Camu camu
  • Canistel
  • Cape gooseberry
  • Capulin cherry
  • Carambola
  • Cassabanana
  • Cattley guava
  • Cawesh
  • Ceriman
  • Ceylon gooseberry
  • Chayote
  • Chempedak
  • Chenet
  • Cherimoya
  • Chilean guava
  • Chinese jujube
  • Cherry of the Rio Grande
  • Chinese olive
  • Chupa-chupa
  • Coco plum
  • Cocona
  • Double coconut
  • Coconut
  • Cola nut
  • Costa Rican guava
  • Cupuaçu
  • Curry-leaf tree
  • Cocoplum
  • Custard apple

D

  • Damson plum
  • Date plum
  • Dead man's fingers
  • Dragonfruit
  • Duku
  • Durian

E

  • Elephant apple
  • Emblica

G

  • Gambooge
  • Genip
  • Giant granadilla
  • Governor’s plum
  • Grapes
  • Grapefruit
  • Grumichama
  • Guanabana
  • Guarana
  • Guava
  • Guavaberry

H

  • Hairless rambutan
  • Hog plum
  • Horned melon
  • Huito
  • honeydew

I

  • Ice cream bean
  • Ilama
  • Imbe
  • Indian almond
  • Indian fig
  • Indian gooseberry
  • Indian jujube
  • Indian prune

J

  • Jaboticaba
  • Jackfruit
  • Jambul
  • Jatobá
  • Jelly plum
  • Jocote

K

  • Kandis
  • Kapok
  • Karonda
  • Kei apple
  • Kepel fruit
  • Key lime
  • Kitembilla
  • Kiwano
  • Kiwifruit
  • Kwai muk
  • Korlan
  • Kundong

L

  • Lakoocha
  • Langsat
  • Lanzones
  • Lemon
  • Leucaena
  • Limeberry
  • Limequat
  • Lime
  • Longan
  • Loquat
  • Louvi
  • Lucuma
  • Lychee

M

  • Mabolo
  • Macadamia
  • Madrono
  • Malabar plum
  • Malay apple
  • Mammee apple
  • Mamey
  • Mamoncillo
  • Mangaba
  • Mango
  • Mangosteen
  • Manila tamarind
  • Ma-praang
  • Mayan breadnut
  • Maypop
  • Medlar
  • Meiwa kumquat
  • Melinjo
  • Melon pear
  • Miracle fruit
  • Monstera
  • Montessa granadilla
  • Mountain soursop
  • Monkey jackfruit
  • Monkey tamarind
  • Mundu
  • Muskmelon

N

  • Nagami kumquat
  • Nance
  • Naranjilla
  • Neem
  • Noni
  • Nutmeg

O

  • Oil palm
  • Olive
  • Otaheite gooseberry
  • Orange
  • Oriental persimmon

P

  • Palmyra palm
  • Papaya
  • Passion fruit
  • Peach palm
  • Peanut butter fruit
  • Pecan
  • Pepino
  • Pequi
  • Pewa
  • Phalsa
  • Pigeon pea
  • Pili nut
  • Pindo palm
  • Pineapple
  • Pineapple guava
  • Pistachio
  • Pitaya
  • Pitomba
  • Pois doux
  • Pomegranate
  • Pommecythère
  • Pommerac
  • Pulasan
  • Pummelo
  • Pupunha
  • Purple guava
  • Purple granadilla
  • Purple mombin

R

  • Rambutan
  • Red granadilla
  • Red mombin
  • Riberry
  • Ridged gourd
  • Rollinia
  • Rose apple
  • Rough shell macadamia

S

  • Safou
  • Salak
  • Santol
  • Sapodilla
  • Sea grape
  • Soncoya
  • Soursop
  • Spanish lime
  • Star apple
  • Strawberry guava
  • Strawberry pear
  • Sugar apple
  • Summer squash
  • Surinam cherry
  • Sweet granadilla
  • Sweet orange
  • Sweet pepper
  • Sweetsop

T

  • Tahitian apple
  • Tangerine
  • Tamarind

U

  • Ugni

V

  • Vanilla
  • Velvet tamarind
  • Voavanga

W

  • Wampee
  • Water apple
  • Watermelon
  • Wax jambu
  • Wax gourd
  • White sapote
  • Winged bean
  • Wood apple

X

  • Xigua

Y

  • Yantok
  • Yellow granadilla
  • Yellow mombin
  • Youngberry

Z

Culinary fruits by geographical origin

Fruits of African origin

Fruits native to Africa or of African origin:

Fruits of Asian origin

Fruits native to Asia or of Asian origin:

  • Arhat
  • Banana
  • Batuan
  • Bignay
  • Bilimbi
  • Breadfruit
  • Buddha's Hand
  • Bael
  • Mango
  • Carambola
  • Charichuelo
  • Calamondin
  • Burmese grape
  • Button mangosteen
  • Chinese quince
  • Che
  • Durian
  • Gac
  • Goumi
  • Hardy kiwi
  • Indian gooseberry
  • Jalpai
  • Jambul
  • Jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana)
  • Kiwifruit
  • Mundu
  • Lanzones
  • Lapsi
  • Longan
  • Lychee
  • Mangosteen
  • Marang
  • Mock strawberry
  • Nungu
  • Orange
  • Peach
  • Oriental persimmon
  • Pomelo
  • Rambutan
  • Rhubarb
  • Sageretia
  • Salak
  • Santol
  • Wild mangosteen

Fruits of Latin American origin

Fruits native to Latin America or of Latin American origin. Plants are of South American origin, except as noted.

  • Açaí, Amazon basin
  • Avocado, Mesoamerica
  • Barberry
  • Cainito
  • Capuli cherry
  • Cherimoya
  • Coconut, Americas
  • Feijoa
  • Giant Columbian blackberry
  • Guarana, Brazilian Amazon
  • Guava, Mesoamerica
  • Keule
  • Lardizabala
  • Mamey sapote, Mesoamerica
  • Mammee apple
  • Maqui
  • Mora Común
  • Mortiño
  • Naranjilla
  • Papaya
  • Peumo
  • Pineapple
  • Sapote, Mesoamerica
  • Sea grape
  • Strawberry[10]
  • Soursop
  • Sugar-apple
  • Ugni[11]

Fruits of North American origin

Canada and the United States are home to a surprising number of edible plants, especially berries; however, only three are commercially grown/known on a global scale (grapes, cranberries, and blueberries.) Many of the fruits below are still eaten locally as they have been for centuries and others are generating renewed interest by eco-friendly gardeners (less need for bug control) and chefs of the region alike.

  • American chestnut
  • American black elderberry
  • American grape
  • American hazelnut
  • American mayapple
  • American persimmon
  • American plum
  • American red elderberry
  • American red raspberry
  • Beach plum
  • Black cherry
  • Black raspberry
  • Black walnut
  • Blueberry
  • Buffaloberry
  • Chokecherry
  • Coco plum
  • Cranberry
  • Eastern may hawthorn
  • False-mastic
  • Florida strangler fig
  • Ground plum
  • Huckleberry
  • Maypop
  • Muscadine
  • Pawpaw
  • Pecan
  • Prickly pear
  • Pigeon plum
  • Red mulberry
  • Salal
  • Salmonberry
  • Saskatoonberry
  • Saw palmetto
  • Southern crabapple
  • Texas persimmon
  • Thimbleberry
  • Toyon

Fruits of Oceanian origin

Fruits native to Oceania or of Oceanian origin:

  • Atherton Raspberry
  • Black apple
  • Blue tongue
  • Bolwarra
  • Broad-leaf bramble
  • Burdekin plum
  • Bush tomato
  • Cedar Bay cherry
  • Cherry ballart
  • Cluster fig
  • Cocky apple
  • Common apple-berry
  • Conkerberry
  • Davidson's plum
  • Desert banana
  • Desert fig
  • Desert lime
  • Dodder laurel
  • Doubah
  • Emu apple
  • Emu berry
  • Fibrous satinash
  • Finger lime
  • Illawarra plum
  • Kakadu lime
  • Kakadu plum
  • Karkalla
  • Kutjera
  • Lady apple
  • Lemon aspen
  • Lillypilly
  • Little gooseberry tree
  • Midyim
  • Morinda citrifolia
  • Mountain pepper
  • Muntries
  • Native currant
  • Native gooseberry
  • Native raspberry
  • Nonda plum
  • Pigface
  • Pink-flowered native raspberry
  • Purple apple-berry
  • Quandong
  • Queensland ebony
  • Riberry
  • Rose-leaf bramble
  • Rose myrtle
  • Sandpaper fig
  • Small-leaf tamarind
  • Snow berry
  • Sweet apple-berry
  • Tanjong
  • White aspen
  • Wild grape
  • Wild orange
  • Wild peach
  • Wild plum (munydjudj)
  • Wild plum
  • Wongi
  • Yellow plum
  • Zig zag vine

Culinary fruits by type of flora

Rosaceae family

The family Rosaceae dominates the temperate fruits, both in numbers and in importance. The pome fruits, stone fruits and brambles are fruits of plants in Rosaceae.

The pome fruits:

  • Apple and crabapple
  • Chokeberry
  • Hawthorn
  • Loquat
  • Medlar
  • Pear
  • Quince
  • Rose hip
  • Rowan
  • Service tree
  • Serviceberry
  • Shipova

The stone fruits, drupes of genus Prunus:

  • Apricot (Prunus armeniaca or Armeniaca vulgaris)
  • Cherry, including sweet, black, sour, and wild species
  • Chokecherry
  • Greengage
  • Peach and nectarine
  • Plum of several species
  • Hybrids of the preceding species

Berries

In non-technical usage, berry means any small fruit that can be eaten whole and lacks objectionable seeds. The bramble fruits, compound fruits of genus Rubus (blackberries), are some of the most popular of these that are not true berries:

  • Blackberry, including many species and hybrids
  • Cloudberry
  • Loganberry
  • Raspberry of several species
  • Salmonberry
  • Thimbleberry
  • Wineberry

The true berries are dominated by the family Ericaceae, many of which are hardy in the subarctic:

  • Bearberry
  • Bilberry
  • Blueberry
  • Crowberry
  • Cranberry
  • Falberry
  • Huckleberry
  • Lingonberry
  • Strawberry tree

Other berries not in Rosaceae or Ericaceae:

  • Açaí
  • Barberry
  • Currant
  • Elderberry
  • Gooseberry
  • Hackberry
  • Honeysuckle[6]
  • Mulberry, including red and white mulberry
  • Mayapple
  • Nannyberry
  • Oregon grape
  • Sea-buckthorn
  • Sea grape
  • Ugniberry
  • Wolfberry

Cacti and other succulents

Several cacti yield edible fruits, which are important traditional foods for some Native American peoples:

  • Cardón
  • Dragonfruit
  • Prickly pear
  • Saguaro
  • Cereus peruvianus
  • Numerous other cactus species

Gymnosperms with fruit-like structures

Only Angiosperms have fruit, a structure that surrounds the seed. Gymnosperms have naked seeds, but some of them have reproductive structures that resemble fruit.[12]

Podocarps

Podocarps are conifers in the family Podocarpaceae, The seed cones are highly modified and, in some, the seed is surrounded by fleshy scale tissue, resembling a drupe. These berry-like cone scales are eaten by birds which then disperse the seeds in their droppings and the cones can be eaten in many species. Podocarps are either half-hardy or frost tender, depending on species. Many genera are similar in that they have edible "fruits" and often don't have a common name.

  • Kahikatea
  • Manoao
  • Nageia
  • Podocarpus
  • Prumnopitys
  • Rimu
  • Tōtara

Other gymnosperms

  • Juniper berry (a berry-like cone)

Melons and other members of Cucurbitaceae family

Most gourds and many melons are regarded as culinary vegetables. The following are generally regarded as fruits:

  • Bitter melon
  • Cantaloupe
  • Galia
  • Honeydew
  • Horned melon
  • Muskmelon
  • Watermelon

Accessory fruits

The accessory fruits, seed organs which are not botanically berries at all:

  • Cashew apple
  • Raisin tree
  • Strawberry

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ See Vegetable#Terminology
  2. ^ See the Wiktionary definition of fruit
  3. ^ Lost Crops of the Incas, p. 223
  4. ^ Lost Crops of the Incas, p. 229
  5. ^ Lost Crops of the Incas p. 216
  6. ^ a b c The berries of some honeysuckle species (called honeyberries) are edible, others are poisonous
  7. ^ Lost Crops of the Incas, p. 217
  8. ^ Lost Crops of the Incas, p. 213
  9. ^ Lost Crops of the Incas, p. 218
  10. ^
  11. ^ Lost Crops of the Incas", p. 218
  12. ^

External links

  • Fruits of Warm Climates
  • Rare Fruit Growers of California with Common fruit names
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