List of Syria-related topics

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Syria:

Syria – country in Western Asia, that borders Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south and Israel to the southwest. Civilization in Syria was one of the most ancient on earth. Syria is part of the Fertile Crescent, and from approximately 10,000 BCE it was one of the centers of Neolithic culture where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world. Over the millennia, Syria has been conquered and settled by many different peoples. A country of fertile plains, high mountains and deserts, it is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Kurds, Armenians, Assyrians, Christians, Druze, Alawite Shias and Arab Sunnis. The latter make up the majority of the population. Since March 2011, Syria has been embroiled in civil war in the wake of uprisings (considered an extension of the Arab Spring, the mass movement of revolutions and protests in the Arab world) against Assad and the neo-Ba'athist government. The opposition Syrian National Coalition selected Ghassan Hitto as prime minister of a rival provisional government on March 19, 2013 after being invited to do so by several foreign governments and the Arab League.[1]

General reference

Geography of Syria

Main article: Geography of Syria
 Turkey 822 km
 Iraq 605 km
 Jordan 375 km
 Lebanon 375 km
 Israel 76 km

Environment of Syria

Main article: Environment of Syria

Natural geographic features of Syria

Regions of Syria

Main article: Regions of Syria

Ecoregions of Syria

Main articles: List of ecoregions in Syria and Ecoregions in Syria

Administrative divisions of Syria

Provinces of Syria
Main article: Governorates of Syria
Districts of Syria
Main article: Districts of Syria
Municipalities of Syria

Demography of Syria

Main article: Demographics of Syria

Government and politics of Syria

Main article: Government of Syria and Politics of Syria

Branches of the government of Syria

Main article: Government of Syria

Executive branch of the government of Syria

Legislative branch of the government of Syria

Judicial branch of the government of Syria

Main article: Court system of Syria

Judiciary of Syria

  • High Judicial Council
  • Court system of Syria
    • Court of Cassation of Syria
    • High Constitutional Court of Syria
    • Civil and criminal courts of Syria
    • Military courts of Syria
    • Security courts of Syria
  • Supreme Court of Syria

Foreign relations of Syria

International organization membership

The Syrian Arab Republic is a member of:[2]

Syria is 1 of only 7 U.N. members which is not a member of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.

Law and order in Syria

Main article: Law of Syria

Military of Syria

Main article: Military of Syria

Local government in Syria

Main article: Local government in Syria

History of Syria

Main article: History of Syria, Timeline of Syrian history, and Current events of Syria

History of Syria, by period

  • Syria during the Stone Age
    • Levantine corridor – relatively narrow land route of migrations between the Mediterranean Sea to the northwest and deserts to the southeast that connects Africa into Eurasia. It is believed that early hominids spread from Africa to Asia and Europe via the Horn of Africa and the Levantine corridor (named after the Levant, which includes Syria).
    • Cradle of civilization &ndash term referring to locations identified as the sites of the emergence of civilization. In Western European and Middle Eastern cultures, it has frequently been applied to the Ancient Near Eastern Chalcolithic (Ubaid period, Naqada culture), especially in the Fertile Crescent (Levant and Mesopotamia).
      • Mesopotamia – area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, the northeastern section of Syria and to a lesser extent southeastern Turkey and smaller parts of southwestern Iran. Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization in the West.
    • Natufian culture – Epipaleolithic culture that existed from 13,000 to 9,800 years ago in the Levant. It was unusual in that it was sedentary, or semi-sedentary, before the introduction of agriculture.
      • Tell Abu Hureyra – archaeological site located in the Euphrates valley in modern Syria. The remains of the villages within the tell come from over 4,000 years of habitation, spanning the Epipaleolithic and Neolithic periods. The inhabitants of Abu Hureyra started out as hunter-gatherers but gradually transitioned to farming, making them the earliest known farmers in the world.
    • Tell Aswad – large prehistoric, Neolithic Tell, about 5 hectares (540,000 sq ft) in size, located around 48 kilometres (30 mi) from Damascus in Syria.
    • Tell Ramad – prehistoric, Neolithic tell at the foot of Mount Hermon, about 20 kilometres (12 mi) southwest of Damascus in Syria. The tell was the site of a small village of 2 hectares (220,000 sq ft), which was first settled in the late 8th millennium BC.
    • Halaf culture
  • Syria during the Bronze Age
    • Canaanites
    • Amorites
    • Eblaites (Ebla city-state) –
    • Ugarites
    • Akkadian Empire
    • Arameans – Northwest Semitic semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who originated in what is now modern Syria (Biblical Aram) during the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age.
    • Bronze Age collapse – sudden and culturally disruptive transition in the Aegean Region, Southwestern Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, during which the palace economy characterising the Late Bronze Age was replaced by the isolated village cultures of the Greek Dark Ages. Prior to and during the Bronze Age Collapse, Syria became a battle ground between the empires of the Hittites, Assyrians, Mitanni and Egyptians, and the coastal regions came under attack from the Sea Peoples. From the 13th Century BCE the Arameans came to prominence in Syria, and the region outside of the Phoenician coastal areas eventually became Aramaic speaking.
  • Syro-Hittite states
  • Phoenicia
  • Achaemenid Empire
  • Seleucid Empire
  • Syria (Roman province)
  • Palmyrene Empire
  • Syria in the Middle Ages
  • Early modern period
  • Modern history of Syria
    • Kingdom of Syria (8 March–24 July 1920)
    • State of Syria (1924–1930)
    • Republic of Syria (1946-1963)
    • Ba'athist Republic of Syria (1963-present)
      • 1963 Syrian coup d'état
      • 1966 Syrian coup d'état
      • 1970 Syrian Corrective Revolution
      • Islamic uprising in Syria
        • Hama massacre
      • 1999 Latakia protests
      • Damascus Spring
      • Ain es Saheb airstrike
      • Syria Accountability Act
      • 2004 Al-Qamishli riots
      • Damascus Declaration
      • Operation Orchard
      • 2008 Abu Kamal raid
      • Syrian civil war (15 March 2011 to present)
        • Casualties of the Syrian civil war
        • Cities and towns during the Syrian civil war
        • Foreign involvement in the Syrian civil war
        • Human rights violations during the Syrian civil war
        • International demonstrations and protests relating to the Syrian civil war
        • International reactions to the Syrian civil war
        • List of articles related to the Syrian civil war
        • List of bombings during the Syrian civil war
        • List of bombings during the Syrian civil war
        • List of heritage sites damaged during Syrian civil war
        • List of journalists killed during the Syrian civil war
        • Refugees of the Syrian civil war
        • Russia's role in the Syrian civil war
        • Sectarianism and minorities in the Syrian civil war
        • Syrian civil war spillover in Lebanon
        • Syrian media coverage of the Syrian civil war
        • Syrian reactions to the Syrian civil war
        • Timeline of the Syrian civil war
          • Timeline of the Syrian civil war (January–April 2011)
          • Timeline of the Syrian civil war (May–August 2011)
          • Timeline of the Syrian civil war (September–December 2011)
          • Timeline of the Syrian civil war (January–April 2012)
          • Timeline of the Syrian civil war (May–August 2012)
          • Timeline of the Syrian civil war (September–December 2012)
          • Timeline of the Syrian civil war (from January 2013)

History of Syria, by region

History of Syria, by subject

Culture of Syria

Main article: Culture of Syria

Art in Syria

People of Syria

People of Syria

Religion in Syria

Religion in Syria

Sports in Syria

Main article: Sports in Syria

Economy and infrastructure of Syria

Main article: Economy of Syria

Education in Syria

Main article: Education in Syria

Health in Syria

Main article: Health in Syria

See also

Syria portal
Southwest Asia portal
Main article: Syria
  • Cabinet of Syria (2001–2003)
  • Cabinet of Syria (2003–2011)


External links

Atlas of Syria

  • Syria Syrian search engine
  • Syria and Asyria Etymology
  • Syrian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  •, the First Complete Governmental Online Services
  • The Syrian Baath Party
  • Syrian Parliament
  • Syria:country study, Lib. of Congress
  • The Syrian National Film Organization
  • Syrian General Organization of Radio and TV
  • Al Assad National Library
  • Pictures of Syria
  • Interactive Panoramas of Syria (QuickTime required)
  • syriapath for Syrians and Syrian expats
  • Syria-Events A website which keeps track of upcoming events and activities in Syria
  • A short video song about Syria and its main landmarks
  • political news (Kurdish)
  • political news (Arabic)
  • the first complete Syrian portal
  • popular local news website
  • news agency
  • SANA Syrian Arab News Agency, government news agency
  • Syrian General Organization of Radio and TV
  • Cham Press, a complete roundup of news about Syria (Arabic) (English)
Cities & Towns
  • Mashta Al Helou Official Website
  • Safita Official Website
  • alkafroun Official Website
  • Marmarita Official Website
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