World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0000293341
Reproduction Date:

Title: Kihwa  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Bhūmi (Buddhism), Essence-Function
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


School Seon
Nationality Korean
Born 1376
Died 1433
Senior posting
Title Zen Master
Religious career
Teacher Muhak

Gihwa (hangul: 기화 hanja: 己和, 1376–1433), also known as Hamheo Teuktong was a Buddhist monk of the Seon order and leading Buddhist figure during the late Goryeo to early Joseon period. He was originally a Confucian scholar of high reputation, but converted to Buddhism at the age of 21 upon the death of a close friend. He wandered among the Korean mountain monasteries, until he had the fortune of becoming the disciple of the last Korean National Teacher Muhak.

Gihwa's writings showed a distinctive mixture between iconoclastic and suddenistic Chán language, and a strong appreciation for the scriptural tradition. Thus, he took up from Jinul the tradition of unification of Seon and Gyo Buddhism. Among his writings, there are four works in particular that made a deep impact on the subsequent Seon tradition in Korea. These are:

  1. A commentary on the Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment, the Weongak gyeong hae seorui.
  2. A redaction and subcommentary to five famous earlier commentaries on the Diamond Sutra, the Geumgang banyabaramilgyeong ogahae seorui.
  3. A subcommentary and redaction of the Collection of Yongjia, the Yonggajip gwaju seorui and
  4. The Hyeonjeong non. As a result of his fourth major work (the Hyeonjeong non) Gihwa distinguished himself as the primary Buddhist respondent to the rising Neo-Confucian polemic of his period, as he responded with vigor to the Neo-Confucian criticisms of Buddhism.

Gihwa died while residing at Jeongsusa, at the southern tip of Ganghwa Island, where his tomb can still be visited. Gihwa's commentary on the Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment was translated by A. Charles Muller, in 1999.

Essence-Function (體用) is a key concept in East Asian Buddhism and particularly that of Korean Buddhism. Essence-Function takes a particular form in the philosophy and writings of Kihwa.[1]


See also

External links

  • Digital Dictionary of Buddhism

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.