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Kartvelian languages

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Kartvelian languages

Kartvelian
ქართველური
Geographic
distribution:
Western Trans-Caucasus, Northeast Anatolia
Linguistic classification: One of the world's primary language families
Proto-language: Proto-Kartvelian
Subdivisions:
ISO 639-5: ccs
Glottolog: kart1248[1]
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The Kartvelian languages (Bethlehem,[7] which dates back to c. 430 AD.[8]

The only Kartvelian language with a long-standing written literature is Georgian. Other Kartvelian languages are written mostly informally, usually in the script most familiar to the author. As a result, the Turkish Republic tend to use a version of Latin script resembling that of Turkish.

Social and cultural status

Georgian is the official language of Georgia (spoken by 90% of the population) and the main language for literary and business use for all Kartvelian speakers in Georgia. It is written with an original and distinctive alphabet, and the oldest surviving literary text dates from the 5th century AD — the only Caucasian language that possesses an ancient literary tradition. The old Aramaic, with Greek influences.[9]

Mingrelian has been written with the Georgian alphabet since 1864, especially in the period from 1930 to 1938, when the Mingrelians enjoyed some cultural autonomy, and after 1989.

The Laz language was written chiefly between 1927 and 1937, and now again in Turkey, with the Latin alphabet. Laz, however, is disappearing as its speakers are integrating into mainstream Turkish society.

Classification

Part of a series on
Georgians
ქართველები
The
Kartvelian
people
Nation
Georgia
Ancient Kartvelian people
Subgroups
Culture
Languages
Religion
Symbols
History of Georgia

The Kartvelian language family consists of four closely related languages:[3][10][11][12][13][14]

Genealogical tree


 
 
 
 
 
 
Proto-Kartvelian
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Proto-Karto-Zan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Svan
 
Mingrelian
 
Laz
 
Georgian
 
 


The connection between these languages was first reported in linguistic literature by J. Güldenstädt in his 1773 classification of the languages of the Caucasus, and later proven by G. Rosen, M. Brosset, F. Bopp and others during the 1840s. Zan is the branch that contains the Mingrelian and Laz languages.

On the basis of Zan to the 8th century BC,[15] although with the reservation that such dating is very preliminary and substantial further study is required.[14]

The older name "South Caucasian" is no longer much used, as it derives from the idea that Kartvelian is related to the Northwest Caucasian and Northeast Caucasian languages, a position which is no longer maintained.

Higher-level connections

No relationship with other languages, including the two Basque, especially in the case system, have often been pointed out. However, this hypothesis, which also tend to link the Caucasian languages with other non-Indo-European and non-Semitic languages of the Near East of ancient times, are generally considered to lack conclusive evidence.[9] Any similarities to other linguistic phyla may be due to areal influences. Heavy borrowing in both directions (i.e. from North Caucasian to Kartvelian and vice versa) has been observed; therefore it is likely that certain grammatical features have been influenced as well. If the Dené–Caucasian hypothesis, which attempts to link Basque, Burushaski, the North Caucasian families and other phyla, is correct, then the similarities to Basque may also be due to these influences, however indirect. Certain Kartvelian-Indo-European lexical links are revealed at the protolanguage level,[16] which are ascribed to the early contacts between Proto-Kartvelian and Proto-Indo-European populations.[17]

Comparative grammar

Regular correspondences

Vowels[18]
Proto-Kartv. Geo. Zan Svan
*ა (*a)
[ɑ]
a
[ɑ]
o
[ɔ]
a
[ɑ]
*ე (*e)
[ɛ]
e
[ɛ]
a
[ɑ]
e
[ɛ]
*ი (*i)
[i]
i
[i]
i
[i]
i
[i]
*ო (*o)
[ɔ]
o
[ɔ]
o
[ɔ]
o
[ɔ]
*უ (*u)
[u]
u
[u]
u
[u]
u
[u]
Consonants[19]
Proto-Kartv. Geo. Zan Svan
Voiced
stops
*ბ (*b)
[b]
b
[b]
b
[b]
b
[b]
*დ (*d)
[d]
d
[d]
d
[d]
d
[d]
*გ (*g)
[ɡ]
g
[ɡ]
g
[ɡ]
g / ǯ
[ɡ] / [d͡ʒ]
Voiced
affricates
*ძ (*ʒ)
[d͡z]
ʒ
[d͡z]
ʒ
[d͡z]
ʒ / z
[d͡z] / [z]
*ძ₁ (*ʒ₁)
[d͡ʐ]
ǯ
[d͡ʒ]
ǯ / ž
[d͡ʒ] / [ʒ]
*ჯ (*ǯ)
[d͡ʒ]
ǯ
[d͡ʒ]
ǯg / ʒg
[d͡ʒɡ] / [d͡zɡ]
ǯg / sg
[d͡ʒɡ] / [sɡ]
Voiced
fricatives
*ზ (*z)
[z]
z
[z]
z
[z]
z
[z]
*ზ₁ (*z₁)
[ʐ]
ž
[ʒ]
ž
[ʒ]
*ღ (*ɣ)
[ɣ]
ɣ
[ɣ]
ɣ
[ɣ]
ɣ
[ɣ]
*უ̂ (*w)
[w]
v
[v]
v
[v]
w
[w]
Ejective
stops
*პ (*ṗ)
[pʼ]

[pʼ]

[pʼ]

[pʼ]
*ტ (*ṭ)
[tʼ]

[tʼ]

[tʼ]

[tʼ]
*კ (*ḳ)
[kʼ]

[kʼ]

[kʼ]
ḳ / č'
[kʼ] / [t͡ʃʼ]
*ყ (*qʼ)
[qʼ]

[qʼ]
qʼ / ʔ / ḳ
[qʼ] / [ʔ] / [kʼ]

[qʼ]
Ejective
affr.
*წ (*ċ)
[t͡sʼ]
ċ
[t͡sʼ]
ċ
[t͡sʼ]
ċ
[t͡sʼ]
*წ₁ (*ċ₁)
[t͡ʂʼ]
čʼ
[t͡ʃʼ]
čʼ
[t͡ʃʼ]
*ლʼ (*ɬʼ)
[t͡ɬʼ]
h
[h]
*ჭ (*čʼ)
[t͡ʃʼ]
čʼ
[t͡ʃʼ]
čʼḳ / ċḳ
[t͡ʃʼkʼ] / [t͡sʼkʼ]
čʼḳ / šḳ
[t͡ʃʼkʼ] / [ʃkʼ]
Voiceless
stops
and affr.
*ფ (*p)
[p]
p
[p]
p
[p]
p
[p]
*თ (*t)
[t]
t
[t]
t
[t]
t
[t]
*ც (*c)
[t͡s]
c
[t͡s]
c
[t͡s]
c
[t͡s]
*ც₁ (*c₁)
[t͡ʂ]
č
[t͡ʃ]
č
[t͡ʃ]
*ჩ (*č)
[t͡ʃ]
č
[t͡ʃ]
čk
[t͡ʃk]
čk / šg
[t͡ʃk] / [ʃɡ]
*ქ (*k)
[k]
k
[k]
k
[k]
k / č
[k] / [t͡ʃ]
*ჴ (*q)
[q]
x
[x]
x
[x]
q
[q]
Voiceless
fricatives
*ხ (*x)
[x]
x
[x]
*შ (*š)
[ʃ]
š
[ʃ]
šk / sk
[ʃk] / [sk]
šg / sg
[ʃɡ] / [sɡ]
*ს (*s)
[s]
s
[s]
s
[s]
s
[s]
*ს₁ (*s₁)
[ʂ]
š
[ʃ]
š
[ʃ]
*ლʿ (*lʿ)
[ɬ]
l
[l]
Liquids *ლ (*l)
[l]
l
[l]
l
[l]
*რ (*r)
[r]
r
[r]
r
[r]
r
[r]
Nasals *მ (*m)
[m]
m
[m]
m
[m]
m
[m]
*ნ (*n)
[n]
n
[n]
n
[n]
n
[n]

Noun classification

The Kartvelian languages classify objects as intelligent ("who"-class) and unintelligent ("what"-class) beings. Grammatical gender does not exist.

Noun classification scheme
Concrete Abstract
Animate Inanimate
Human and "human-like" beings (e.g. God, deities, angels) Animals Inanimate physical entities Abstract objects
Intelligent Unintelligent
"who"-class "what"-class

Declension

Grammatical case markers
Case Singular Plural
Mingrelian Laz Georgian Svan Mingrelian Laz Georgian Svan
Nominative -i -i/-e -i -i -ep-i -ep-e -eb-i -är
Ergative -k -k -ma -d -ep-k -epe-k -eb-ma -är-d
Dative -s -s -s -s -ep-s -epe-s -eb-s -är-s
Genitive - - -is - -ep-iš -epe-š(i) -eb-is -are-š
Lative -iša -iša N/A N/A -ep-iša -epe-ša N/A N/A
Ablative -iše -iše N/A N/A -ep-iše -epe-še(n) N/A N/A
Instrumental -it -ite -it -šw -ep-it -epe-te(n) -eb-it -är-šw
Adverbial -o(t)/-t -ot -ad/-d -d -ep-o(t) N/A -eb-ad -är-d
Finalis -išo(t) N/A -isad -išd -ep-išo(t) N/A -eb-isad -är-išd
Vocative N/A N/A -o (/-v) N/A N/A N/A -eb-o N/A
Example adjective declension
Stem: ǯveš- (Min.), mǯveš- (Laz), ʒvel- (Geo.), ǯwinel- (Svan) – "old"
Case Singular Plural
Mingrelian Laz Georgian Svan Mingrelian Laz Georgian Svan
Nominative ǯveš-i mǯveš-i ʒvel-i ǯwinel ǯveš-ep-i mǯveš-ep-e ʒvel-eb-i ǯwinel-är
Ergative ǯveš-k mǯveš-i-k ʒvel-ma ǯwinel-d ǯveš-ep-k mǯveš-epe-k ʒvel-eb-ma ǯwinel-är-d
Dative ǯveš-s mǯveš-i-s ʒvel-s ǯwinel-s ǯveš-ep-s mǯveš-i-epe-s ʒvel-eb-s ǯwinel-är-s
Genitive ǯveš- mǯveš- ʒvel-is ǯwinl- ǯveš-ep-iš mǯveš-epe-š ʒvel-eb-is ǯwinel-är-iš
Lative ǯveš-iša mǯveš-iša N/A N/A ǯveš-ep-iša mǯveš-epe-ša N/A N/A
Ablative ǯveš-iše mǯveš-iše N/A N/A ǯveš-ep-iše mǯveš-epe-še N/A N/A
Instrumental ǯveš-it mǯveš-ite ʒvel-it ǯwinel-šw ǯveš-ep-it mǯveš-epe-te ʒvel-eb-it ǯwinel-är-šw
Adverbial ǯveš-o mǯveš-ot ʒvel-ad ǯwinel-d ǯveš-ep-o N/A ʒvel-eb-ad ǯwinel-är-d
Finalis ǯveš-išo N/A ʒvel-isad ǯwinel-išd ǯveš-ep-išo N/A ʒvel-eb-isad ǯwinel-är-išd
Vocative N/A N/A ʒvel-o N/A N/A N/A ʒvel-eb-o N/A

Verb

Kartvelian verbs can indicate one, two, or three grammatical persons. A performer of an action is called the subject and affected persons are objects (direct or indirect). The person may be singular or plural. According to the number of persons, the verbs are classified as unipersonal, bipersonal or tripersonal.

  • Unipersonal verbs have only a subject and so are always intransitive.
  • Bipersonal verbs have a subject and one object, which can be direct or indirect. The verb is:
    • transitive when the object is direct;
    • intransitive if the object is indirect.
  • Tripersonal verbs have one subject and both, direct and indirect objects and are ditransitive.
Verb personality table
Unipersonal Bipersonal Tripersonal
intransitive transitive intransitive ditransitive
Subject + + + +
Direct object + +
Indirect object + +

Subjects and objects are indicated with special affixes.

Personal markers
Subject set
Singular Plural
Old Geo. Mod. Geo. Ming./Laz Svan Old Geo. Mod. Geo. Ming./Laz Svan
S1 v- v- v- xw- v-...-t v-...-t v-...-t xw-...-(š)d (excl.)

l-...-(š)d (incl.)

S2 x/h- ∅,(h/s)- x-/∅ x/h-...-t ∅,(h/s)-...-t ∅-...-t x/∅-...-(š)d
S3 -s,-a/o,-n,-ed -s,-a/o -s,-u,-n (l)-...-s/(a) -an,-en,-es,-ed -en,-an,-es -an,-es (l)-...-x
Object set
O1 m- m- m- m- m- (excl.)

gv- (incl.)

gv- m-...-t,-an,-es n- (excl.)

gw- (incl.)

O2 g- g- g- ǯ- g- g-...-t g-...-t,-an,-es ǯ-...-x
O3 x/h,∅- ∅,s/h/∅- ∅,x- x/h,∅- ∅,s/h/∅-...-t ∅-...-t,-an,-es ∅,x-...-x

By means of special markers Kartvelian verbs can indicate four kinds of action intentionality ("version"):

  • subjective — shows that the action is intended for oneself,
  • objective — the action is intended for another person,
  • objective-passive — the action is intended for another person and at the same time indicating the passiveness of subject,
  • neutral — neutral with respect to intention.
Version markers
Version Mingrelian Laz Georgian Svan
Subjective -i- -i- -i- -i-
Objective -u- -u- -u- -o-
Objective-passive -a- -a- -e- -e-
Neutral -o-/-a- -o- -a- -a-

Examples from inherited lexicon

Cardinal Numbers
  Proto-Kartv. form Karto-Zan Svan
Proto-form Georgian Mingrelian Laz
1. one, 2. other *s₁khwa
[ʂkhwɑ]
*s₁khwa
[ʂkhwɑ]
skhva
[skhvɑ]
(other)
škhva
[ʃkhva]
(other)
čkva / škva
[t͡ʃkvɑ] / [ʃkvɑ]
(other, one more)
e-šxu
[ɛ-ʃxu]
(one)
one n/a *erti
[ɛrti]
erti
[ɛrti]
arti
[ɑrti]
ar
[ɑr]
n/a
two *yori
[jɔri]
*yori
[jɔri]
ori
[ɔri]
žiri / žəri
[ʒiri] / [ʒəri]
žur / ǯur
[ʒur] / [d͡ʒur]
yori
[jɔri]
three *sami
[sɑmi]
*sami
[sɑmi]
sami
[sɑmi]
sumi
[sumi]
sum
[sum]
semi
[sɛmi]
four *o(s₁)tkho
[ɔ(ʂ)tkhɔ]
*otkho
[ɔtkhɔ]
otkhi
[ɔtkhi]
otkhi
[ɔtkhi]
otkho
[ɔtkhɔ]
w-oštkhw
[w-ɔʃtkhw]
five *khu(s₁)ti
[khu(ʂ)ti]
*khuti
[khuti]
khuti
[khuti]
khuti
[khuti]
khut
[khut]
wo-khušd
[wɔ-khuʃd]
six *eks₁wi
[ɛkʂwi]
*eks₁wi
[ɛkʂwi]
ekvsi
[ɛvksi]
amšvi
[ɑmʃwi]
aši
[ɑʃi]
usgwa
[usɡwɑ]
seven *šwidi
[ʃwidi]
*šwidi
[ʃwidi]
švidi
[ʃvidi]
škviti
[ʃkviti]
škvit
[ʃkvit]
i-šgwid
[i-ʃɡwid]
eight *arwa
[ɑrwɑ]
*arwa
[ɑrwɑ]
rva
[rvɑ]
ruo / bruo
[ruɔ] / [bruɔ]
ovro / orvo
[ɔvrɔ] / [ɔrvɔ]
ara
[ɑrɑ]
nine *ts₁khara
[t͡ʂkhɑrɑ]
*ts₁khara
[t͡ʂkhɑrɑ]
tskhra
[t͡sxrɑ]
čkhoro
[t͡ʃkhɔrɔ]
čkhoro
[t͡ʃkhɔrɔ]
čkhara
[t͡ʃkhɑrɑ]
ten *a(s₁)ti
[ɑ(ʂ)ti]
*ati
[ɑti]
ati
[ɑti]
viti
[viti]
vit
[vit]
ešd
[ɛʃd]
twenty n/a *ots₁i
[ɔt͡ʂi]
otsi
[ɔt͡si]
etsi
[ɛt͡ʃi]
etsi
[ɛt͡ʃi]
n/a
hundred *as₁i
[ɑʂi]
*as₁i
[ɑʂi]
asi
[ɑsi]
oši
[ɔʃi]
oši
[ɔʃi]
-ir
[ɑʃ-ir]
Pronouns
Personal Pronouns
  Proto-Kartv. Georgian Mingrelian Laz Svan
I *me
[mɛ]
me
[mɛ]
ma
[mɑ]
ma(n)
[mɑ]
mi
[mi]
You (sg.) *sen
[sɛn]
šen
[ʃɛn]
si
[si]
si(n)
[si]
si
[si]
That *e-
[ɛ-]
e-sa
[ɛ-sɑ]
e-na
[ɛ-nɑ]
(h)e-ya
[(h)ɛ-jɑ]
e-ǯa
[ɛ-d͡ʒɑ]
We *čwen
[t͡ʃwɛn]
čven
[t͡ʃvɛn]
čki(n) / čkə(n)
[t͡ʃki(n)] / [t͡ʃkə(n)]
čkin / čku / šku
[t͡ʃkin] / [t͡ʃku] / [ʃku]
You (pl.) *stkwen
[stkwɛn]
tkven
[tkvɛn]
tkva(n)
[tkvɑ(n)]
tkvan
[tkvɑn]
sgäy
[sɡæj]
Possessive Pronouns
  Proto-Kartv. Georgian Mingrelian Laz Svan
My *č(w)e-mi
[t͡ʃ(w)ɛ-mi]
če-mi
[t͡ʃɛ-mi]
čki-mi
[t͡ʃki-mi]
čki-mi / ški-mi
[t͡ʃki-mi] / [ʃki-mi]
mi-šgu
[mi-ʃɡu]
Your (sg.) *š(w)eni
[ʃ(w)ɛni]
šeni
[ʃɛni]
skani
[skɑni]
skani
[skɑni]
i-sgu
[i-sɡu]
His/her/its *m-is₁
[m-iʂ]
m-is-i
[m-is-i]
mu-š-i
[mu-ʃ-i]
(h)e-mu-š-i
[(h)ɛ-mu-ʃ-i]
m-ič-a
[m-it͡ʃ-ɑ]
Our *čweni
[t͡ʃwɛni]
čveni
[t͡ʃvɛni]
čkini / čkəni
[t͡ʃkini] / [t͡ʃkəni]
čkini / čkuni / škuni
[t͡ʃkini] / [t͡ʃkuni] / [ʃkuni]
gu-šgwey (excl.)
[ɡu-ʃɡwɛj]

ni-šgwey (incl.)
[ni-ʃɡwɛj]

Your (pl.) *stkweni
[stkwɛni]
tkveni
[tkvɛni]
tkvani
[tkvɑni]
tkvani
[tkvɑni]
i-sgwey
[i-sɡwɛj]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Kartvelian". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Caucasian languages Encyclopædia Britannica
  3. ^ a b Boeder (2002), p. 3
  4. ^ Languages of Israel
  5. ^ Ethnologue entry about the Kartvelian language family
  6. ^ Dalby (2002), p. 38
  7. ^ Lang (1966), p. 154
  8. ^ Hewitt (1995), p. 4.
  9. ^ a b c Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th edition (1986): Macropedia, "Languages of the World", see section titled "Caucasian languages".
  10. ^ Boeder (2005), p. 6
  11. ^ Gamkrelidze (1966), p. 69
  12. ^ Fähnrich & Sardzhveladze (2000)
  13. ^ Kajaia (2001)
  14. ^ a b c Klimov (1998b), p. 14
  15. ^ a b Klimov (1994), p. 91
  16. ^ Gamkrelidze & Ivanov (1995), pp. 774-776
  17. ^ Gamkrelidze & Ivanov (1995), p. 768
  18. ^ Fähnrich (2002), p. 5
  19. ^ Fähnrich (2002), p. 5-6

References

External links

  • Lazuri Nena – The Language of the Laz by Silvia Kutscher.
  • The Arnold Chikobava Institute of Linguistics, Georgian Academy of Sciences
  • Arthur Holmer, The Iberian-Caucasian Connection in a Typological Perspective
  • The rise and fall and revival of the Ibero-Caucasian hypothesis by Kevin Tuite (Université de Montréal).
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