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Judo

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Judo

Rank and grading
Two children training Judo techniques

Judo is a hierarchical art, where seniority of judoka is designated by what is known as the kyu ( kyū) -dan ( dan) ranking system. This system was developed by Jigoro Kano based on the ranking system in the board game Go. Beginning students progress through kyu grades towards dan grades.

A judoka's position within the kyu-dan ranking system is displayed by the color of their belt. Beginning students typically wear a white belt, progressing through descending kyu ranks until they are deemed to have achieved a level of competence sufficient to be a dan grade, at which point they wear the kuro obi (黒帯, black belt). The kyu-dan ranking system has since been widely adopted by modern martial arts.[72]

The highest grade ever awarded jūdan (tenth degree black belt) has no formal requirements and is decided by the president of the Kodokan, currently Kano Jigoro's grandson Yukimitsu Kano. As of 2011, fifteen Japanese men have been promoted to this rank by the Kodokan, three of whom are still alive;[72] the IJF and Western national federations have promoted another seven who are not recognized (at that level of rank) by the Kodokan. On July 28, 2011, the promotion board of USA Judo awarded Keiko Fukuda the rank of 10th dan, who is the first woman to be promoted to judo's highest level, albeit not a Kodokan-recognized rank.

Although dan ranks tend to be consistent between national organizations there is more variation in the kyū grades, with some countries having more kyū grades. Although initially kyū grade belt colours were uniformly white, today a variety of colours are used. The first black belts to denote a Dan rank in the 1880s, initially the wide obi was used; as practitioners trained in kimono, only white and black obi were used. It was not until the early 1900s, after the introduction of the judogi, that an expanded colored belt system of awarding rank was created.[72]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Inman (2005) p. 10
  2. ^ The first Olympic competition to award medals to women judoka was in 1992; in 1988, women competed as a demonstration sport. Inman (2005) p. 11
  3. ^ Kano (2008) pp. 46–47
  4. ^ a b Kano (2008) p. 1; Hoare (2009) p. 43
  5. ^ a b Kano (2008) p. 2
  6. ^ Hoare (2009) p. 44
  7. ^ Fukuda (2004) p. 145
  8. ^ Kano (2008) pp. 3–4; Hoare (2009) pp. 45–47; Fukuda (2004) pp. 145–152. Keiko Fukuda 9th Dan (born 1913) is the granddaughter of Fukuda Hachinosuke, and is the last surviving direct student of Kano: Davis, Simon, "Be Strong, Be Gentle, Be Beautiful - Keiko Fukuda", United States Judo Federation, retrieved March 12, 2011 
  9. ^ Kano (2008) p. 6; Hoare (2009) p. 47
  10. ^ Kano (2008) pp. 9–10
  11. ^ Kano (2008) p. 11
  12. ^ Kano (2005) p. 23
  13. ^ Hoare (2009) pp. 52–53. For location of Eisho-ji temple, see:
    "Way to Eisho-Ji Temple", Kodokan, retrieved March 14, 2011 
  14. ^ Kano (2008) p. 20
  15. ^ Lowry (2006) p. 49
  16. ^ Kano (2005) pp. 39–40
  17. ^ For Kano's opinions on the wider applicability of jita kyōei to life see for example, Kano (2008) p. 107
  18. ^ Hoare (2009) p. 56
  19. ^ Judo had been used before then, as in the case of a Jujutsu school that called itself Chokushin-ryū Jūdō (直信流柔道, Sometimes rendered as Jikishin-ryū Jūdō), but its use was rare.
  20. ^ Daigo (2005) p. 8
  21. ^ Numerous texts exist that describe the waza of judo in detail. Daigo (2005); Inokuma and Sato (1987); Kano (1994); Mifune (2004); and Ohlenkamp (2006) are some of the better examples
  22. ^ Kano (1994) pp. 45–54
  23. ^ Ishikawa and Draeger (1999) p. 179
  24. ^ Kano (1994) pp. 42–43; Mifune (2004) pp. 41–43
  25. ^ a b Kano (1994) p. 44; Mifune (2004) p. 44
  26. ^ Takahashi (2005) pp. 39–43
  27. ^ a b Daigo (2005) p. 10
  28. ^ For full coverage of katame waza techniques extant in current judo competition rules see Adams (1991), Kashiwazaki (1992) and Kashiwazaki (1997)
  29. ^ Koizumi, Gunji. "Ne-waza (Groundwork) and Atemi-waza (blows) in Judo". Judo. Budokwai Judo Quarterly Bulletin. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 
  30. ^ Adams (1991)
  31. ^ Otaki & Draeger (1983) pp. 398–405; Kano (1982) pp. 192–203
  32. ^ Daigo (2005) p. 9; Harrison (1952) pp. 162–168
  33. ^ Ishikawa and Draeger (1999) p. 84
  34. ^ Kano (1994) p. 142;Ishikawa and Draeger (1999) p. 84
  35. ^ For a review of the ten official Kodokan kata, see Jones and Hanon (2010)
  36. ^ Kano (1994) pp. 148–159; Otaki and Draeger, pp. 73–109, 139–266
  37. ^ Kano (1994) pp. 160–172; Otaki and Draeger, pp. 110–138, 267–405
  38. ^ Kano (1994) pp. 173–191
  39. ^ Kano (1994) pp. 192–203
  40. ^ Kano (1994) pp. 204–219; Fukuda (2004) pp. 1–144
  41. ^ De Crée and Jones (2009a, 2009b, 2009c)
  42. ^ Kano (1994) pp. 220–223
  43. ^ De Crée (2012) pp. 56–94
  44. ^ De Crée (2012) pp. 56–107
  45. ^ Kano (1994) pp. 224–238
  46. ^ Kano (1994) pp. 239–251
  47. ^ De Crée and Jones (2011a, 2011b, 2011c)
  48. ^ Fromm and Soames (1982) pp. 71–72, 109
  49. ^ Mifune (2004) pp. 211–220
  50. ^ Fromm and Soames (1982) pp. 71–72, 108–109
  51. ^ a b Hoare (2005) pp. 4–7
  52. ^ Hoare (2009) p. 109
  53. ^ The Contribution of judo to Education by Kano Jigoro (judoinfo.com)
  54. ^ Koizumi (1947)
  55. ^ Black Belt Vol. 2, No. 2. Active Interest Media, Inc. Mar 1964. p. 27. 
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h Takahashi (2005) pp. 18–20
  57. ^ Downey, G. (2007). "Producing pain: Techniques and technologies in no-Holds-barred fighting. Social Studies of Science, 37(2), 201-226.". 
  58. ^
  59. ^ Dure, B (June 12, 2008). "Do judo stars have MMA chops?". USA Today. 
  60. ^ http://www.jiu-jitsu.net/history.shtml
  61. ^ Cheng, M. (July 10, 2012). "For some judo Olympians, MMA could be 2nd career". Associated Press Worldstream. 
  62. ^ Kashiwazaki (1997) pp. 14–15
  63. ^ "The History of Sombo – European Judo is really Japanese Sambo?" by Brett Jacques and Scott Anderson [1] [2] [3]
  64. ^ Kano, Jigoro. "The Contribution of Judo to Education". Retrieved 10 September 2012. 
  65. ^ a b Inokuma and Sato (1987) p. 253
  66. ^ Inokuma and Sato (1987) p. 253; Lowry (2006) pp. 35–61
  67. ^ Lowry (2006) p. 39
  68. ^ Hoare (2005) p. 8
  69. ^ a b "Introduction of the Blue Judogi". International Judo Federation. 
  70. ^ "Judogi Guidace", International Judo Federation, January 2011, retrieved March 11, 2011 
  71. ^ International Judo Federation, retrieved March 13, 2011 
  72. ^ a b c Ohlenkamp, Neil (March 25, 2007). "The Judo Rank System". JudoInfo.com. Retrieved 2007-10-15. 

Bibliography

  • Adams, Neil (1991), Armlocks, Judo Masterclass Techniques, London: Ippon Books 
  • Cachia, Jeffrey (2009), Effective Judo, Sarasota, FL: Elite Publishing 
  • Daigo, Toshiro (2005), Kodokan Judo Throwing Techniques, Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha International 
  • De Crée, Carl (2012), The origin, inner essence, biomechanical fundamentals, and current teaching and performance anomalies of Kōdōkan jūdō’s esoteric sixth kata: The Itsutsu-no-kata ―"Forms of five", Rome, Italy: University of Rome 
  • De Crée, Carl; Jones, Llyr C. (2009a), "Kōdōkan Jūdō's Elusive Tenth Kata: The Gō-no-kata - "Forms of Proper Use of Force" - Part 1", Archives of Budo 5: 55–73 
  • De Crée, Carl; Jones, Llyr C. (2009b), "Kōdōkan Jūdō's Elusive Tenth Kata: The Gō-no-kata - "Forms of Proper Use of Force" - Part 2", Archives of Budo 5: 74–82 
  • De Crée, Carl; Jones, Llyr C. (2009c), "Kōdōkan Jūdō's Elusive Tenth Kata: The Gō-no-kata - "Forms of Proper Use of Force" - Part 3", Archives of Budo 5: 83–95 
  • De Crée, Carl; Jones, Llyr C. (2011a), "Kōdōkan Jūdō's Inauspicious Ninth Kata: The Joshi goshinhō - "Self-defense methods for females" - Part 1", Archives of Budo 7: 105–123 
  • De Crée, Carl; Jones, Llyr C. (2011b), "Kōdōkan Jūdō's Inauspicious Ninth Kata: The Joshi goshinhō - "Self-defense methods for females" - Part 2", Archives of Budo 7: 125–137 
  • De Crée, Carl; Jones, Llyr C. (2011c), "Kōdōkan Jūdō's Inauspicious Ninth Kata: The Joshi goshinhō - "Self-defense methods for females" - Part 3", Archives of Budo 7: 137–139 
  • Fromm, Alan; Soames, Nicolas (1982), Judo - The Gentle Way, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd 
  • Fukuda, Keiko (2004), Ju-No-Kata, Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books 
  • Harrison, E.J. (1952), Manual of Judo, London: Foulsham 
  • Hoare, Syd (2005), "Development of judo competition rules", sydhoare.com, retrieved September 16, 2012 
  • Hoare, Syd (2009), A History of Judo, London: Yamagi Books 
  • Inman, Roy (2005), The Judo Handbook, UK: Silverdale Books 
  • Inokuma, Isao; Sato, Noboyuki (1987), Best Judo, Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha International 
  • Ishikawa, Takahiko; Draeger, Donn F. (1999), Judo Training Methods, Boston, Massachusetts: Tuttle Publishing 
  • Jones, Llyr C.; Hanon, Michael J. (2010), "The way of kata in Kodokan Judo", Journal of Asian Martial Arts 19: 8–37 
  • Kano, Jigoro (1994), Kodokan Judo, Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha 
  • Kano, Jigoro (2005), Naoki, Murata, ed., Mind Over Muscle: Writings from the founder of Judo, Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha 
  • Kano, Jigoro (2008), Watson, Brian N., ed., Judo Memoirs of Jigoro Kano, Victoria, BC: Trafford Publishing 
  • Kashiwazaki, Katsuhiko (1992), Shimewaza, Judo Masterclass Techniques, London: Ippon Books 
  • Kashiwazaki, Katsuhiko (1997), Osaekomi, Judo Masterclass Techniques, London: Ippon Books 
  • Koizumi, Gunji (April 1947), "1936 Conversation with Jigoro Kano", Budokwai Bulletin 
  • Lowry, Dave (2006), In the dojo. A guide to the rituals and etiquette of the Japanese martial arts, Boston, MA: Weatherhill 
  • Mifune, Kyuzo (2004), The Canon of Judo: Classic teachings on principles and techniques, Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha 
  • Ohlenkamp, Neil (2006), Judo Unleashed: Essential Throwing & Grappling Techniques for Intermediate to Advanced Martial Artists, Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill 
  • Takahashi, Masao (2005), Mastering Judo, Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics 

External links

  • Judo at DMOZ
  • International Judo Federation (IJF)—The worldwide governing body for judo
  • All judoka profiles at Judoinside.com
  • Kodokan Judo Institute—Headquarters of judo (Kano Jigoro's school)

Research articles

Body composition and fat percentage of Thai judo athletes * [4]

Callister R. Physiological characteristics of elite judo athletes * [5]

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