Journal of record

Newspaper of record is a term that typically refers to a major newspaper that has a large circulation and whose editorial and news-gathering functions are considered professional and typically authoritative. It may also be used to refer to a publicly available newspaper that has been authorized or maintained by a government to publish public or legal notices, and therefore serves as a "newspaper of public record".[1]

Newspapers of public record

A "newspaper of public record", sometimes referred to as an "official newspaper", refers to a publicly available newspaper that has been authorised by a government to publish public or legal notices.[2] It is often established by statute or official action and publication of notices within it, whether by the government or a private party, is usually considered sufficient to comply with legal requirements for public notice.[3]

A variation of this type are those newspapers controlled by governments or political parties that serve as official newspapers of record reflecting the positions of their controlling bodies. State organs such as the Soviet-era Izvestia (the name of which translates to "delivered messages", derived from the verb izveshchat which means "to inform", "to notify")[4] and the People's Daily in China[5][6][7][8][9] are examples of this type.

Publication within privately owned periodicals

In some jurisdictions, privately owned newspapers may register with the public authorities to publish public and legal notices.[10][11][12] Likewise, a private newspaper may be designated by the courts for publication of legal notices, such as notices of fictitious business names. These are referred to as "legally adjudicated newspapers".[13]

Newspapers of record (by reputation)

The most common definition of a "newspaper of record" (also known as a "journal of record", or by the French terms Presse de référence and de référence) is not defined by any formal criteria and its characteristics can be variable. The category typically consists of those newspapers that are considered to meet higher standards of journalism than most print media, including editorial independence and attention to accuracy, and are usually renowned internationally.[14][15] Despite changes in society, such newspapers have historically tended to maintain a similar tone, coverage, style and traditions.[14]

Origin of the term

The term is believed to have originated among librarians, who began referring to The New York Times as the "newspaper of record" when, in 1913, it became the first newspaper in the United States to publish an index of the subjects covered in its pages.[16] In recognition of the usage, The Times held an essay contest in 1927 in which entrants had to demonstrate "The Value of The New York Times Index and Files as a Newspaper of Record".[17] Over time, historians began to rely on The Times and similar titles as an archival chronicle of past events and a gauge of societal opinions at the time of printing.[16]

Examples

Country Logo Newspaper City of publication Founded Language Source(s)
Argentina La Nación Buenos Aires 1870 Spanish [18]
Brazil O Estado de S. Paulo São Paulo 1875 Portuguese [19][20]
Belgium De Standaard Groot-Bijgaarden 1918
Incorporated in 1914, but publication delayed due to the First World War.
Dutch [21]
Canada The Globe and Mail Toronto 1844 English [22][23][24][25][26][27][28]
Canada 150px La Presse Montreal 1884 French [29][30]
Chile El Mercurio Santiago 1827
Valparaiso edition, Santiago edition founded 1900.
Spanish [31]
China
(Hong Kong)
The South China Morning Post Hong Kong 1903 English [32]
Egypt Al-Ahram Cairo 1875 Arabic [33][34]
France 150px Le Monde Paris 1944
Founded as a successor to the discredited collaborationist Le Temps (founded 1861).
French [35]
France Le Figaro Paris 1826 French [36]
Germany Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung Frankfurt 1949
Considered successor to the Frankfurter Zeitung (founded 1856), banned in 1943 by the Nazis
German [37][38]
Hungary Népszabadság Budapest 1956 Hungarian [39]
India The Times of India Mumbai 1838
Named The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce until mergers in 1860-1.
English [40]
Indonesia Kompas Jakarta 1965 Indonesian [41][42]
Iran Ettela'at Tehran 1926 Persian [43][44]
Ireland The Irish Times Dublin 1859 English [45][46]
Italy Corriere della Sera Milan 1876 Italian [47][48]
Kenya The Daily Nation Nairobi 1960
Originated as the Swahili Taifa in 1958.
English [49][50]
Maylasia 150px The New Straits Times Kuala Lumpur 1965
Spun off from the Straits Times (founded 1845) upon Singapore's independence.
English [51]
Netherlands NRC Handelsblad Amsterdam 1970
Merger of Algemeen Handelsblad (founded 1828) and Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant (1844).
Dutch [52]
Norway Aftenposten Oslo 1860 Riksmål [53]
Peru El Peruano Lima 1825 Spanish [54]
Portugal 150px Diário de Notícias Lisbon 1864 Portuguese [55]
Serbia Politika Belgrade 1904 Serbian [56]
Singapore The Straits Times Singapore 1845 English [51]
South Korea Chosun Ilbo Seoul 1920
Suspended between 1940 and 1945 by the Japanese imperial authorities.
Korean [57]
Spain El País Madrid 1976 Spanish [58]
Sweden Dagens Nyheter Stockholm 1864 Swedish [59][60]
Switzerland Neue Zürcher Zeitung Zurich 1780 German [61]
Turkey Hürriyet Istanbul 1948 Turkish [62]
United Kingdom The Times London 1785
Named The Daily Universal Register until 1788.
English [63][64]
United Kingdom The Daily Telegraph London 1855 English [64]
United States The New York Times New York City 1851 English [65]

References

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