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Jericho

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Jericho

f="/articles/eng/Pre-Pottery_Neolithic_A" id="whe_lnki_189" title="Pre-Pottery Neolithic A">Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (8350 – 7370 BCE); sometimes it is called [70] The identity and number of the inhabitants (some sources say 2000–3000 dwellers)[8] of Jericho during the PPN A period is still under debate, though it is known that they had domesticated emmer wheat, barley and pulses and hunted wild animals.

Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, 7220 to 5850 BCE (but carbon-14-dates are few and early). Expanded range of domesticated plants. Possible domestication of sheep. Apparent cult involving the preservation of human skulls, with facial features reconstructed from plaster and eyes set with shells in some cases.

After the PPN A settlement-phase there was a settlement hiatus of several centuries, then the PPN B settlement was founded on the eroded surface of the tell. The architecture consisted of rectilinear buildings made of mudbricks on stone foundations. The mudbricks were loaf-shaped with deep thumb prints to facilitate bounding. No building has been excavated in its entirety. Normally, several rooms cluster around a central courtyard. There is one big room (6.5 m × 4 m (21.33 ft × 13.12 ft) and 7 m × 3 m (22.97 ft × 9.84 ft)) with internal divisions, the rest are small, presumably used for storage. The rooms have red or pinkish terrazzo-floors made of lime. Some impressions of mats made of reeds or rushes have been preserved. The courtyards have clay floors.

Kathleen Kenyon interpreted one building as a shrine. It contained a niche in the wall. A chipped pillar of volcanic stone that was found nearby might have fit into this niche.

The dead were buried under the floors or in the rubble fill of abandoned buildings. There are several collective burials. Not all the skeletons are completely articulated, which may point to a time of exposure before burial. A skull cache contained seven skulls. The jaws were removed and the faces covered with plaster; cowries were used as eyes. A total of ten skulls were found. Modelled skulls were found in Tell Ramad and Beisamoun as well.

Other finds included flints, such as arrowheads (tanged or side-notched), finely denticulated sickle-blades, burins, scrapers, a few tranchet axes, obsidian, and green obsidian from an unknown source. There were also querns, hammerstones, and a few ground-stone axes made of greenstone. Other items discovered included dishes and bowls carved from soft limestone, spindle whorls made of stone and possible loom weights, spatulae and drills, stylised anthropomorphic plaster figures, almost life-size, anthropomorphic and theriomorphic clay figurines, as well as shell and malachite beads.

In the late 4th millennium BCE, Jericho was occupied during Neolithic 2 and the general character of the remains on the site link it culturally with Neolithic 2 sites in the West Syrian and Middle Euphrates groups. This link is established by the presence of rectilinear mud-brick buildings and plaster floors that are characteristic of the age.

Bronze Age

During the Middle Bronze Age Jericho was a small prominent city of the Canaan region, reaching its greatest Bronze Age extent in the period from 1700 to 1550 BCE. It seems to have reflected the greater urbanization in the area at that time, and has been linked to the rise of the Maryannu, a class of chariot-using aristocrats linked to the rise of the Mitannite state to the north. Kathleen Kenyon reported “...the Middle Bronze Age is perhaps the most prosperous in the whole history of Kna'an. ... The defenses ... belong to a fairly advanced date in that period” and there was “a massive stone revetment... part of a complex system” of defenses (pp. 213–218).[71] Bronze-age Jericho fell in the 16th century at the end of the Middle Bronze Age, the calibrated carbon remains from its City-IV destruction layer dating to 1617–1530 BCE. Notably this carbon dating c. 1573 BCE confirmed the accuracy of the stratigraphical dating c. 1550 by Kenyon.

Synagogues

Copy of Mosaic of the Shalom Al Yisrael Synagogue, 6th-7th AD

The Jericho Synagogue in the Royal Maccabean winter palace at Jericho dates from 70-50 BCE.

A synagogue dating to the late 6th or early 7th century CE was discovered in Jericho in 1936, and was named Shalom Al Yisrael Synagogue, or "peace unto Israel," after the central Hebrew motto in its mosaic floor. It was controlled by Israel after the Six Day War, but after the handover to Palestinian Authority control per the Oslo Accords, it has been a source of conflict. On the night of 12 October 2000, the synagogue was vandalized by Palestinians who burned holy books and relics and damaged the mosaic.[72][73]

The Na'aran synagogue, another Byzantine era construction, was discovered on the northern outskirts of Jericho in 1918. While less is known of it than Shalom Al Yisrael, it has a larger mosaic and is in similar condition.[74]

Sports

The sports team Hilal Areeha plays association football in the West Bank First Division. They play home games in the 15,000 spectator Jericho International Stadium.[75]

Panorama of Jericho

Twin towns — Sister cities

Jericho is twinned with:

Notable residents

See also

References

  1. ^ Elected City Council Municipality of Jericho. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
  2. ^ a b 2007 PCBS Census. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS).
  3. ^ a b c The lost Jewish presence in Jericho, Jerusalem Post
  4. ^ Palestinian farmers ordered to leave lands Al Jazeera. 29 August 2012
  5. ^ Gates, Charles (2003). "Near Eastern, Egyptian, and Aegean Cities", Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece and Rome. Routledge. p. 18.  
  6. ^ a b Murphy-O'Connor, 1998, p. 288.
  7. ^ a b c Freedman et al., 2000, p. 689–671.
  8. ^ a b "Jericho", Encyclopædia Britannica
  9. ^ Bromiley, 1995, p. 715.
  10. ^ "Strong's Bible Dictionary". Htmlbible.com. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  11. ^ Schreiber, 2003, p. 141.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Ring et al., 1994, p. 367–370.
  13. ^ Bromiley, 1995, p. 1136.
  14. ^ "Bibliotheca Sacra 132". 1975. pp. 327–42. 
  15. ^ Editors, Mandatory (24 January 2013). "travel, history, civilizations, greatest cities, largest cities, Jericho". Mandatory. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  16. ^ Mithen, Steven (2006). After the ice: a global human history, 20,000-5000 BCE (1st Harvard University Press pbk. ed. ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. p. 57.  
  17. ^ "Prehistoric Cultures". Museum of Ancient and Modern Art. 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  18. ^ "Ancient Jericho: Tell es-Sultan". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  19. ^ Mithen, Steven (2006). After the ice: a global human history, 20,000-5000 BCE (1st Harvard University Press pbk. ed. ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. p. 54.  
  20. ^ a b Akkermans, Peter M. M; Schwartz, Glenn M. (2004). The Archaeology of Syria: From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies (c.16,000-300 BCE). Cambridge University Press. p. 57.  
  21. ^ Mithen, Steven (2006). After the ice: a global human history, 20,000-5000 BCE (1st Harvard University Press pbk. ed. ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. p. 59.  
  22. ^ Janson and Janson, 2003.
  23. ^ Scneller, 1994, p. 138.
  24. ^ a b c Thomas A. Holland (1997). "Jericho". In Eric M. Meyers. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Oxford University Press. pp. 220–224. 
  25. ^ Kathleen M. Kenyon (1957). Digging up Jericho: The Results of the Jericho Excavations, 1952-1956. New York: Praeger. p. 229. 
  26. ^ Piotr Bienkowski (1986). Jericho in the Late Bronze Age. Warminster. pp. 120–125. 
  27. ^ Bryant G. Wood (1990). "Did the Israelites conquer Jericho?". Biblical Archaeology Review 16 (2): 44–59. 
  28. ^ William G. Dever (1990). "Letter". Biblical Archaeology Review 16 (5): 18. 
  29. ^ Piotr Bienkowski (1990). "Jericho was destroyed in the Middle Bronze Age, not the Late Bronze Age". Biblical Archaeology Review 16 (5): 45–46, 69. 
  30. ^ Bryant G. Wood (1990). "Dating Jericho's destruction: Bienkowski is wrong on all counts". Biblical Archaeology Review 16 (5): 45, 47–49, 68–69. 
  31. ^ Bruins, HJ and van der Plicht, J (1995). Tell es-Sultan (Jericho): Radiocarbon results of short-lived cereal and multiyear charcoal samples from the end of the Middle Bronze Age, Radiocarbon Vol. 37, pp. 213–220. A radiocarbon date of 3306±7 BP was obtained for grains probably remaining from the final few years. This corresponds to a date range (2 sigma) of 1617–1530 BCE by the 2004 calibration scale.
  32. ^ 1 Macc 9:50
  33. ^ a b c d e Murphy-O'Connor, 1998, pp. 289–291.
  34. ^ a b Jericho - (Ariha) Studium Biblicum Franciscum - Jerusalem.
  35. ^
  36. ^ "A Blind Beggar Receives His Sight Luke 18:35". Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  37. ^ "Jesus Heals Two Blind Beggars, Matthew 20:29". Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  38. ^ "The Parable of the Good Samaritan Luke 10:25". Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  39. ^ a b Losch, 2005, p. 117–118.
  40. ^ Several hadith collections: e.g. Bukhari, Sahih as translated Muḥammad Muḥsin Khân, The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih al-Bukhari (India: Kitab Bhavan, 1987) 3.39.531 and 4.53.380, and Muslim Sahih trans. Abdul Hamid Siddiqui (Lahore: Kazi Publications, 1976) 10.3763.
  41. ^ The Maronite Chronicle, written during Mu'awiya's caliphate. Note that for propaganda reasons it dates the earthquake to the wrong year: Andrew Palmer, The Seventh Century in the West-Syrian Chronicles (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1993), 30, 31, 32.
  42. ^ “The Pilgrimage of Arculf in the Holy Land”, De Locis Sanctis as translated by Rev. James Rose MacPherson (W. London: BD. 24, Hanover Square, 1895), ch. I.11.
  43. ^ Shahin, 2005, p. 285.
  44. ^ Shahin, 2005, p. 283.
  45. ^ al-Muqaddasi quoted in Le Strange, 1890, p.39.
  46. ^ Hull, 1855.
  47. ^ al-Hamawi and Abu-l Fida quoted in Le Strange, 1890, p.397.
  48. ^ Singer, 2002, p. 120.
  49. ^ Graham, Peter. A Topographical Dictionary of Palestine. London, 1836. Page 122.
  50. ^ Friling and Cummings, 2005, p. 65.
  51. ^ "Israel hit by fifth minor quake in a week".  
  52. ^ Benvenisti, 1998, pp. 27-28.
  53. ^ a b At 10th anniversary, a far poorer Palestinian Authority
  54. ^ Simons, Marlise (30 April 1994). "Gaza-Jericho Economic Accord Signed by Israel and Palestinians". Jericho (West Bank); Middle East; Gaza Strip: New York Times. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  55. ^ Ġānim, Asʻad (2010), Palestinian Politics After Arafat: A Failed National Movement, Indiana University Press, p. 35,  
  56. ^ ARIJ & LRC, 20 March 2001, The Tightening of the Siege on Jericho: Israel Employs a New Policy of Trench Digging
  57. ^ Israel holds militant after siege 14 March 2006 BBC News
  58. ^ Jerusalem Post 4 August 2008 IDF: Hilles clan won't boost terrorism Yaacov Katz And Khaled Abu Toameh
  59. ^ Training Center for Palestinian Authority Security Forces Opens in Jericho
  60. ^ a b c Holman, 2006, p. 1391.
  61. ^ Hadawi, 1970, p.57
  62. ^ Palestinian Population by Locality and Refugee Status Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS).
  63. ^ Palestinian Population by Locality, Sex and Age Groups in Years (PCBS).
  64. ^ a b Jericho: A small Christian community and their school
  65. ^ Gaza-Jericho Economic Accord Signed by Israel and Palestinians
  66. ^ Walls going up in Jericho – construction of casino-hotel Palestinians, Israelis have role in project
  67. ^ Palestinians aim to push tourism beyond Bethlehem
  68. ^ Jericho business park aims to inch Palestine towards sustainability, The Guardian
  69. ^ USAID to Renovate the Jericho Governmental Hospital
  70. ^ "Old Testament Jericho". Web.archive.org. 20 February 2008. Archived from the original on 20 February 2008. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  71. ^ Kenyon, Kathleen "Digging up Jericho"(London, 1957)
  72. ^ "The Palestinian Authority and the Jewish Holy Sites". JCPA. Retrieved 21 February 2010. 
  73. ^ "Jewish life in Jericho". Jewishjericho.org.il. Retrieved 5 May 2009. {}
  74. ^ "Jewish life in Jericho". Jewishjericho.org.il. Retrieved 5 May 2009. {}
  75. ^ World Stadiums
  76. ^ "Pisa - Official Sister Cities". Comune di Pisa, Via degli Uffizi, 1 - 56100 Pisa centralino: +39 050 910111. Retrieved 16 December 2008. 
  77. ^ "Kragujevac Twin Cities". 2009 Information service of Kragujevac City. Retrieved 21 February 2009. 
  78. ^ "Jerikó lett Eger új testvérvárosa". Index.hu. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 

Bibliography

External links

  • Jericho Municipality Official Website
  • Jericho Municipality Official Website Historical site
  • Jericho Cable Car
  • Resources on Biblical Archaeology
  • Jericho: Tel es-Sultan
  • The walls of Jericho fell in 1550 BCE
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