World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0003910499
Reproduction Date:

Title: Javakheti  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: History of Georgia (country), Tao-Klarjeti, Abkhazia, Georgians, Jivani
Collection: Former Provinces of Georgia (Country), Historical Regions of Georgia (Country)
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Historical Region

Map highlighting the historical region of Javakheti in Georgia
Country  Georgia
Mkhare Samtskhe-Javakheti
Capital Akhalkalaki

Javakheti (Akhalkalaki and Ninotsminda municipalities. Historically, Javakheti borders in the west to the Kura River (Mtkvari), and in the north, south and east with the Shavsheti, Samsari and Nialiskuri mountains. Principal economic activities in this region are subsistence agriculture, particularly potatoes, and raising livestock.

In 1995, the Akhalkalaki and Ninotsminda districts, comprising the historical territory of Javakheti, was merged with the neighboring land of Samtskhe to form a new administrative region, Samtskhe-Javakheti. Armenians comprise the majority of Javakheti's population.


  • Etymology 1
  • History 2
    • Antiquity 2.1
    • Middle Ages 2.2
    • Russian Empire 2.3
    • Soviet era 2.4
    • Republic of Georgia 2.5
  • Current situation 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Bibliography 6


In terminology, the name Javakheti is taken from javakh core with traditional Georgian –eti suffix; commonly, Javakheti means the home of Javakhs, as for example, the word Ossetia is taken from Georgian Osi plus -eti. The -k suffix in Armenian has an identical meaning.

The earliest mention of the name was found in Urartu sources, in the notes of king Argishti I of Urartu, 785 BC, as Zabaha.[1]



In the sources, the region was recorded as Zabakha in 785 BC, by the king



  1. ^ Melkonyan, Ashot (2007). Javakhk in the 19th century and the 1st quarter of the 20th century : a historical research. Erevan: National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Institute of History. p. 36.  
  2. ^ Kartlis tskhovreba (History of Georgia), Tbilisi, 2008, p. 16
  3. ^
  4. ^ «Джавахк», Краткая армянская энциклопедия, т. 4, издательство «Армянская энциклопедия» Ереван, 2003 г., стр. 226
  5. ^ ИСТОРИЯ АРМЕНИИ [History of Armenia] (in Russian).  
  6. ^
  7. ^ a b c d Moshe Gammer (25 June 2004). The Caspian Region, Volume 2: The Caucasus. Routledge. pp. 24–.  
  8. ^ Boeschoten, Hendrik; Rentzsch, Julian (2010). Turcology in Mainz. p. 142.  
  9. ^ Migration of Armenians (Russian).
  10. ^


See also

An expected improvement is the planned construction of the highway (financed by the Kars-Gyumri-Akhalkalaki railroad line. The existing line is in working condition and could be operational within weeks, but due to the Turkish blockade of Armenia since 1993, the railroad is not operational.

Current situation

Currently Armenians form the ethnic majority in the region.[10] Since independence many Doukhobor have left for Russia.[7]

Republic of Georgia

Georgia came fully under Meskhetian Turks", were deported to Uzbekistan in 1944 during the regime of Stalin.[7]

Soviet era

After an offensive on Akhaltsikhe, the sons of Mesketian families of the 16th-17th centuries (Tsitsishvili, Avalishvili, Muskhelishvili and others) got to Ivan Paskevich and requested the return of legitimate lands on according to conservated sigheles issued by Georgian kings. Paskevich refused their request with some regrets.

The political target of Meskhetians from Imereti back to their homes in freed places of Javakheti and other southern regions.

On December 3, 1829, General Ivan Paskevich created a special committee for relocation with chairmanship of governor Piotr Zaveleisky (Russian: П. Д. Завелейский).[9] The committee was created for the act for relocation. Аccording to preliminary calculations, the committee planned to displace 8,000 families from Kars, Erzurum and Doğubeyazıt, but after a short time, the number was increased to 14,000.

, settled the region. Russian Empire sect members of Doukhobor, and Ottoman Empire in the Armenian genocide refugees from the Armenian In the early 20th century, a large number of [8].Caucasus Greeks and Armenians and Javakheti was filled with Christian Trialeti. Samtskhe-Javakheti In 1828, because of luck, the Russian army in battle with the Turks made the decision real to move people to [7] After Russian encouragement the area was resettled by Christian Ottoman Armenians.[7] In the first third of the 19th century, Russia conquered the

Russian Empire

From the 13th century, the administrative borders of the region combined in addition Imereti and Kartli. Those who remained gradually became Muslim.

From the 11th century, the center of upper Javakheti became monasteries, and royal residences (Lgivi, Ghrtila, Bozhano, Vardzia) were built. From the 12th century, the domain was ruled by representatives of the feudal family of Toreli.

Middle Ages

Historical Javakheti was divided as Upper Javakheti (Akhalkalaki plateau) and Lowland Javakheti (with the canyon on the left side of the Mtkvari River).

Javakheti was an important part of the Kingdom of Kartli. In the 11th century Akhalkalaki became the center of upper Javakheti, and Tmogvi the center of lower Javakheti. Under the Georgian Kingdom (11th-13th centuries), Javakheti bridges, churches, monasteries, and royal residences (Lgivi, Ghrtila, Bozhano, Vardzia) were constructed. From the 13th century, Javakheti included the territories of Palakatsio and part of Meskheti. In the 15th century, Javakheti was governed by Samtskhe-Saabatago.

When relating about his ancestors, 13th century Armenian historian Stepanos Orbelian states that they received many estates from the rulers of Kartli (Georgia), including the fortress of Orbeti, “settled in the borough of Orbeti and, after a long time, were called Orbuls, that is, Orbets, after the name of this fortress, since this tribe (that is, Georgians.—D.M.) had the custom of naming its princes after the place they lived, for example, Eristavs from (the region) Ereti, Javakhurs from Javakheti, Kakhetian from Kakheti … and many more.”

Armenian scientist of the 10th century Ukhtanes talks about the family tree of Kyrion, the Catholicos of Georgia. The literal translation of this text is as follows: Kyrion “came from the Georgians in terms of country and lineage, from the region of the Javakhs.”There can be no doubt that Ukhtanes believed Javakheti to be part of Georgia (Iberia), and the Javakhs to be Georgians. Z. Aleksidze examines the viewpoint of this historian and the enlightened Armenian society of the 10th century on the problem that interests us in depth.[6]

In the 5th century during the ruling of Vakhtang V (Gorgaslani) Javakheti was a province of Iberia and after his death his second wife the Byzantine princess settled in Tsunda (part of Javakheti).

One of the earliest Armenian sources, Faustus of Byzantium (the 5th century) writes: “Maskut King Sanesan, extremely angry, was filled with hate for his tribesman, Armenian King Khosrow, and gathered all of his troops—Huns, Pokhs, Tavaspars, Khechmataks, Izhmakhs, Gats, Gluars, Gugars, Shichbs, Chilbs, Balasich, and Egersvans, as well as an uncountable number of other diverse nomadic tribes, all the numerous troops he commanded. He crossed his border, the great River Kura, and invaded the Armenian country.”[5]

In the 1st century AD king of Kartli (Georgian Kingdom) Parsman I (Kveli) managed to gain control over Javakheti. [4] rule in 428 AC.Arshakid dynasty, and remained as a part of Armenia until the end of Great Armenia province of Gugark After Urartu Javakhk became a part of the [3] According to Strabo, Armenia, though a small country in earlier times, was enlarged by Artaxias and Zariadris.[2]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.