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ישראלים‎ (Yiśraʾelim)
الإسرائيليين‎ (al-ʾIsrāʾīliyyin)
Regions with significant populations
 Israel 8,371,600 (August 2015)[1][2]
 United States 106,839[3] - 500,000[4][5][6]
 India 50,000[7]
 Canada 21,320[8]
 United Kingdom 11,892[9] - 50,000[9][10][11]
 Australia 15,000[12]
 Germany 10,000[13][14][15]
Hebrew, Arabic, Russian, English, French, Amharic
Predominantly Judaism, minority Islam, Christianity, Druzism, Samaritanism, Bahaism
Israeli female soldiers

Israelis (Hebrew: ישראליםYiśraʾelim, Arabic: الإسرائيليينal-ʾIsrāʾīliyyin) are citizens or permanent residents of the modern state of Israel, which is a multiethnic society that is home to people of different national backgrounds. The largest ethnic groups in Israel are Mizrahi Jews and Ashkenazi Jews[16] (see Jewish ethnic divisions), followed by Arabs (see Arabic-speaking minorities) and other minorities. However, hundreds of thousands of Israeli-born Jews are of mixed ethnicity of both Ashkenazi and Mizrahi descent.

Israel is a multicultural state which is home to a wide variety of traditions and values. Large-scale aliyah in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries from Jewish diaspora communities in Europe and Yemen and more recent large-scale aliyah from North Africa, Western Asia, North America, South America the Former Soviet Union and Ethiopia introduced many new demographic elements and have had broad impact on Israeli culture.

Israelis and people of Israeli descent live all over the world: in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and throughout Europe. As many as 750,000 Israelis, about 10 percent of the general population of Israel, are estimated to be living abroad.[17]


  • Population 1
  • Ethnic and religious groups 2
    • Jews 2.1
    • Arabic-speaking minorities 2.2
      • Palestinians 2.2.1
      • Negev Bedouin 2.2.2
      • Druze 2.2.3
      • Maronites 2.2.4
      • Copts 2.2.5
    • Other citizens 2.3
      • African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem 2.3.1
      • Argentines 2.3.2
      • Arameans 2.3.3
      • Armenians 2.3.4
      • Assyrians 2.3.5
      • Circassians 2.3.6
      • Finns 2.3.7
      • Romani 2.3.8
      • East Europeans 2.3.9
      • Samaritans 2.3.10
      • Vietnamese 2.3.11
      • Naturalized foreign workers 2.3.12
    • Non-citizens 2.4
      • African refugees 2.4.1
      • Foreign workers 2.4.2
      • Other refugees 2.4.3
    • Israeli diaspora 2.5
      • United States 2.5.1
      • Canada 2.5.2
      • United Kingdom 2.5.3
    • 2013 Supreme Court ruling on nationality 2.6
  • History 3
  • Culture 4
    • Religion in Israel 4.1
  • Languages 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8


As of 2013, Israel's population is 8 million, of which 75.3% are Jews, 20.7% non-Jewish Arabs, and 4.0% other.[18] Israel's official census includes Israeli settlers in the occupied territories[19] (referred to as "disputed" by Israel). 280,000 Israeli settlers live in settlements in the Judea and Samaria Area,[19] 190,000 in East Jerusalem,[19] and 20,000 in the Golan Heights.[20]

Among Jews, 70.3% were Sabras, mostly second- or third-generation Israelis, and the rest are olim. Of the olim, 20.5% are from Europe and the Americas, and 9.2% from Asia, Africa, and Mideastern countries.[18] Nearly half of all Israeli Jews are descended from olim from the European Jewish diaspora. Approximately the same number are descended from olim from Arabic-speaking countries, Iran, Turkey and Central Asia. Over two hundred thousand are of Ethiopian and Indian Jewish descent.[21]

The official Israel Central Bureau of Statistics estimate of the Israeli Jewish population does not include Israeli citizens, mostly Russian Jewish-descendants, who are registered as "others", as well as their immediate family members. Defined as non-Jews and non-Arabs, they make up about 3.5% of Israelis (350,000),[22] and were eligible for Israeli citizenship under the Law of Return.[23][24]

Israel's two official languages are Romanian, Polish and French.

In recent decades, between 650,000 and 1,300,000 Israelis have emigrated,[25] a phenomenon known as Yerida. The emigrants have various reasons for leaving, but they are generally a combination of economic and political concerns. Los Angeles is home to the largest community of Israelis outside Israel.

Ethnic and religious groups

The main Israeli ethnic and religious groups are as follows:


The ethnic division of the Jewish population of Israel as of 2009 is as follows.

Makeup of Jewish Population of Israel by Patrilineal Country of Origin[26]
TOTAL 5,818,000 100%
Russia/USSR 1,018,000 20.9%
Poland 400,000 8.3%
Romania 351,000 7.6%
Other Europe 168,000 3.7%
USA/Canada/Australia/NZ 165,000 2.8%
Germany/Austria 160,000 2.7%
Bulgaria/Greece 97,000 1.9%
South America 82,000 1.4%
Hungary 63,000 1.3%
Czechoslovakia 60,000 1.2%
UK/Ireland 40,000 0.4%
South Africa 20,000 0.4%
Morocco 800,000 15.2%
Iraq 404,000 7.7%
Yemen 295,000 4.9%
Iran 236,000 4.0%
Algeria/Tunisia 224,000 3.8%
France 150,000 2.5%
Other Asia 150,000 2.5%
Turkey 147,000 2.5%
Libya 136,000 2.3%
Egypt 112,000 1.9%
Other Asia 200,000 1.7%
India/Pakistan 76,000 1.3%
South America 25,000 0.4%
Other Africa 3,000 0.05%
Ethiopia 130,000 2.2%

Arabic-speaking minorities

Map of Arab population, 2000


Many Palestinians remained within Israel's borders following the state's establishment and are the largest group of Arabic-speaking and culturally Arab citizens of Israel. Most Palestinian citizens of Israel are Sunni Muslim, although there is a significant Palestinian Christian community as well.

As of 2013, the Arab population of Israel amounts to 1,658,000, about 20.7% of the population.[18] This figure include 209,000 Arabs (14% of the Israeli Arab population) in East Jerusalem, also counted in the Palestinian statistics, although 98 percent of East Jerusalem Palestinians have either Israeli residency or Israeli citizenship.[27]

Negev Bedouin

The Arab citizens of Israel also include the [30][31]


Sheikh Amin Tarif, spiritual leader of the Israeli Druze, c. 1950

There is also a significant population of Israeli Druze, estimated at about 117,500 at the end of 2006.[32] All Druze in British Mandate Palestine became Israeli citizens upon the foundation of the State of Israel.


There are about 7,000 Maronite Christian Israelis, living mostly in the Galilee but also in Haifa, Nazareth, and Jerusalem. They are mostly pro-Israeli Lebanese former militia members and their families who fled Lebanon after the 2000 withdrawal of IDF from South Lebanon. Some, however, are from local Galilean communities such as Jish.


There are about 1,000 Coptic Israeli citizens.

Other citizens

African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem

The African Hebrew Israelite Nation of Jerusalem is a small religious community whose members believe they are descended from the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. Most of the over 5,000 members live in Dimona, Israel although there are additional, smaller, groups in Arad, Mitzpe Ramon, and the Tiberias area. At least some of them consider themselves to be Jewish, but Israeli authorities do not accept them as such, nor are their religious practices consistent with "mainstream Jewish tradition."[33] The group, which consists of African Americans and their descendants, originated in Chicago in the early 1960s, moved to Liberia for a few years, and then emigrated to Israel.


Argentines in Israel are the largest immigrant group from Latin America and one of the fastest growing groups. The vast majority of Argentines in Israel are Jewish Argentines who make Aliyah but there is also an important group of non-Jewish Argentines, having, or being married to somebody who has, at least one Jewish grandparent, who choose Israel as their new home. There are about 50,000 Argentines residing in Israel although some estimates put the figure at 70,000.[34][35]

Most Jewish Argentines are Ashkenazi Jews.


In September 2014, Israel recognized the "Aramean" ethnic identity of hundreds of the Christian citizens of Israel. This recognition comes after about seven years of activity by the Aramean Christian Foundation in Israel – Aram, led by IDF Major Shadi Khalloul Risho and the Israeli Christian Recruitment Forum, headed by Father Gabriel Naddaf of the Greek-Orthodox Church and Major Ihab Shlayan. The Aramean ethnic identity will now encompass all the Christian Eastern Syriac churches in Israel, including the Maronite Church, Greek Orthodox Church, Greek Catholic Church, Syriac Catholic Church and Syriac Orthodox Church.[36][37][38]


There are about 4,000 Armenian citizens of Israel. They live mostly in Jerusalem, including the Armenian Quarter), but also in Tel Aviv, Haifa and Jaffa. Their religious activities center around the Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem as well as churches in Jerusalem, Haifa and Jaffa. Although Armenians of Old Jerusalem have Israeli identity cards, they are officially holders of Jordanian passports.[39]


There are around 1,000 Assyrians living in Israel, mostly in Jerusalem and Nazareth. Assyrians are an Aramaic speaking, Eastern Rite Christian minority who are descended from the ancient Mesopotamians. The old Syriac Orthodox monastery of Saint Mark lies in Jerusalem. Other than followers of the Syriac Orthodox Church, there are also followers of the Assyrian Church of the East and the Chaldean Catholic Church living in Israel.


Circassians in Kfar Kama

In Israel, there are also a few thousand Circassians, living mostly in Kfar Kama (2,000) and Reyhaniye (1,000). These two villages were a part of a greater group of Circassian villages around the Golan Heights. The Circassians in Israel enjoy, like Druzes, a status aparte. Male Circassians (at their leader's request) are mandated for military service, while females are not.


Although most Finns in Israel are either Finnish Jews or their decedents, a small number of Finnish Christians moved to Israel in the 1940s before the independence of the state and have since gained citizenship, for the most part the original Finnish settlers intermarried with other Israeli communities, and therefore remain very small in number. A moshav near Jerusalem named "Yad HaShmona", meaning the Memorial for the eight, was established in 1971 by a group of Finnish Christian-Israelis, though today most members are Israeli, and predominantly Hebrew-speaking.[40][41]


Some Eastern European Romani are known to have arrived in Israel in the late 1940s and early 1950s, being from the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, Poland, Bulgaria and Moldova or having intermarried with Jews in the post-WWII displaced persons camps or, in some cases, having pretended to be Jews when Zionist representatives arrived in those camps. The exact numbers of these Romani living in Israel are unknown, since such individuals tended to assimilate into the Israeli Jewish environment. According to several recent accounts in the Israeli press, some families preserve traditional Romani lullabies and a small number of Romani expressions and curse words, and pass them on to generations born in Israel who, for the most part, are Jews and speak Hebrew. The Romani community in Israel has grown since the 1990s, as some Romani immigrated there from the former Soviet Union. A community related to the Romani and living in Israel and the Palestinian territories and in neighboring countries are known as Dom people.

East Europeans

Non-Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union many of whom are ethnic Russians, Ukrainians, Moldovans and Belarusians, who were eligible to immigrate due to having, or being married to somebody who has, at least one Jewish grandparent. A very small number of these immigrants also belong to various non-Slavic ethnic groups from the Former Soviet Union such as Tatars. In addition, a certain number of former Soviet citizens, primarily women of Russian and Ukrainian ethnicity, immigrated to Israel, after marrying Muslim or Christian Arab citizens of Israel, who went to study in the former Soviet Union in the 1970s and 1980s. The total number of those primarily of Slavic ancestry people among Israeli citizens is around 300,000.


The Samaritans are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant. Ancestrally, they claim descent from a group of Israelite inhabitants who have connections to ancient Samaria from the beginning of the Babylonian captivity up to the beginning of the Common Era. 2007 population estimates show that of the 712 Samaritans, half live in Holon in Israel and half at Mount Gerizim in the West Bank. The Holon community holds Israeli citizenship, while the Gerizim community resides at an Israeli-controlled enclave (Kiryat Luza), holding dual Israeli-Palestinian citizenship.


The number of Vietnamese people in Israel is estimated at 200-400. Most of them came to Israel in between 1976–1979, after prime minister Menachem Begin authorized their admission to Israel and granted them political asylum. The Vietnamese people living in Israel are Israeli citizens who also serve in the Israel Defense Forces. Today, the majority of the community lives in the Gush Dan area in the center of Israel but also a few dozen Vietnamese-Israelis or Israelis of Vietnamese origin live in Haifa, Jerusalem and Ofakim.

Naturalized foreign workers

Some naturalized foreign workers and their Israeli born children, predominantly from the Philippines, Nepal, Nigeria, Senegal, Romania, China, Cyprus, Turkey, Thailand and Latin America.


African refugees

Meeting between Sudanese refugees and Israeli students, 2007

The number and status of African refugees in Israel is disputed and controversial, but it is estimated that at least 16,000 refugees, mainly from Eritrea, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia and the Ivory Coast, reside and work in Israel. A check in late 2011, published in Ynet reported that the number just in Tel Aviv is 40,000, which represents 10 percent of the city's population. The vast majority lives in the southern parts of the city. There is also a significant African population in the southern Israeli cities of Eilat, Arad and BeerSheva.

Foreign workers

There are around 300,000 foreign workers, residing in Israel under temporary work visas. Most of those foreign workers engage in agriculture and construction. The main groups of those foreign workers include the Chinese, Thai, Filipino, Nigerian, Romanian and Latin Americans.

Other refugees

Approximately 100-200 refugees from Bosnia, Kosovo, Kurdistan and North Korea who were absorbed in Israel as refugees, most of them were also given Israeli resident status and currently reside in Israel.[42]

Israeli diaspora

Through the years, the majority of Israelis who emigrated from Israel went to the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom.

It is currently estimated that there are 330,000 native-born Israelis, including 230,000 Jews, living abroad, or even more.[43] The number of immigrants to Israel who later returned to their home countries or moved elsewhere is more difficult to calculate.

For many years definitive data on Israeli emigration was unavailable.[44] In The Israeli Diaspora sociologist Stephen J. Gold maintains that calculation of Jewish emigration has been a contentious issue, explaining, "Since Zionism, the philosophy that underlies the existence of the Jewish state, calls for return home of the world's Jews, the opposite movement - Israelis leaving the Jewish state to reside elsewhere - clearly presents an ideological and demographic problem."[45]

Among the most common reasons for emigration of Israelis from Israel are most often due to Israel's ongoing security Issues, economic constraints, economic characteristics, disappointment in the Israeli government, as well as the excessive role of religion in the lives of Israelis.

United States

Many Israelis emigrated to the United States throughout the period of the declaration of the state of Israel and until today. Today, the descendants of these people are known as Israeli-Americans. According to the 2000 United States Census, 106,839 Americans also hold an Israeli citizenship, but the number of Americans of Israeli descent is around half a million.[4][5][6]


Many Israelis emigrated to Canada throughout the period of the declaration of the state of Israel and until today. Today, the descendants of these people are known as Israeli-Canadians. According to the Canada 2006 Census as many as 21,320 Israelis lived in Canada in 2006.[8]

United Kingdom

Many Israelis emigrated to the United Kingdom throughout and since the period of the declaration of the state of Israel. Today, the descendants of these people are known as Israeli-British. According to the United Kingdom 2001 Census, as many as 11,892 Israelis lived in the United Kingdom in 2001. The majority live in London.

2013 Supreme Court ruling on nationality

In 2013 a three-judge panel of the Supreme Court of Israel's headed by Court President Asher Grunis rejected an appeal requesting that state-issued identification cards state the nationality of citizens as “Israeli” rather than their religion of origin. In his opinion, Grunis stated that it was not within the court’s purview to determine new categories of ethnicity or nationhood. The court's decision responded to a petition by Uzzi Ornan, who refused to be identified as Jewish in 1948 at the foundation of the state of Israel, claiming instead that he was “Hebrew.” This was permitted by Israeli authorities at the time. However, by 2000, Ornan wanted to register his nationality as "Israeli". The Interior Ministry refused to allow this, prompting Ornan to file a suit. In 2007, Ornan's suit was joined by former minister Shulamit Aloni and other activists.[46] In the ruling, Justice Hanan Melcer noted Israel currently considers “citizenship and nationality [to be] separate.”[47]


The ancient Kingdom of Israel at its greatest extension
David Ben-Gurion publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948

The first account of an Israeli nation is a state which dominated the modern land of Israel, the Kingdom of Israel; its latest capital was known as the Davidian city (Jerusalem). According to the biblical account, the United Monarchy was formed when there was a large popular expression in favour of introducing a monarchy to rule over the previously decentralised Israelite tribal confederacy. Increasing pressure from the Philistines (originally from Greece) and other neighboring tribes is said by the Bible to have forced the Israelites to unite as a more singular state.

Palestine was part of the Ottoman Empire until it was taken by British forces in 1918. The British establishment of colonial political boundaries allowed the Jews to develop autonomous institutions such as the Histadrut and the Knesset.[48] Since the late nineteenth century, the Zionist movement encouraged Jews to immigrate to Palestine and refurbish its land area, considerable but partially uninhabitable due to an abundance of swamps and desert. The resulting influx of Jewish immigrants, as well as the creation of many new settlements, was crucial for the functioning of these new institutions in what would, on May 14, 1948, become the State of Israel.[49]


The largest cities in the country Haifa, Tel Aviv, and Jerusalem are also the major cultural centers, known for art museums, and many towns and kibbutzim have smaller high-quality museums. Israeli music is very versatile and combines elements of both western and eastern, religious and secular music. It tends to be very eclectic and contains a wide variety of influences from the Diaspora and more modern cultural importation: Hassidic songs, Asian and Arab pop, especially by Yemenite singers, and Israeli hip hop or heavy metal. Folk dancing, which draws upon the cultural heritage of many immigrant groups, is popular. There is also flourishing modern dance.

Religion in Israel

According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, at the end of 2004, 76.2% of Israelis were Jewish by religion (Judaism), 16.1% were Muslims, 2.1% Christian, 1.6% Druze and the remaining 3.9% (including Russian immigrants and some ethnic Jews) were not classified by religion.[50]

Roughly 12% of Israeli Jews defined as haredim (ultra-orthodox religious); an additional 9% are "religious"; 35% consider themselves "traditionalists" (not strictly adhering to Jewish Halakha); and 43% are "secular" (termed "hiloni"). Among the seculars, 53% believe in God. However, 78% of all Israelis (and virtually all Israeli Jews) participate in a Passover seder.[51]

Unlike North American Jews, Israelis tend not to align themselves with a movement of Judaism (such as Reform Judaism or Conservative Judaism) but instead tend to define their religious affiliation by degree of their religious practice. Israeli religious life, unlike much of North American Jewish life, does not solely revolve around synagogues or religious community centers.

Among Arab Israelis, 82.6% were Muslim (including Ahmadis[52]), 8.8% were Christian and 8.4% were Druze.[50]

The Bahá'í World Centre, which includes the Universal House of Justice, in Haifa attracts pilgrims from all over the world.[53]

Religious Makeup of Israel
Religion Population % of total
Jewish 5,435,900 76.0%
Muslim 1,142,000 15.9%
Christian 120,000 1.8%
Druze 115,200 1.7%
Unclassified by choice 302,400 4.6%

Official figures do not exist as to the number of atheists or otherwise non-affiliated individuals, who may comprise up to a quarter of the population referred to as Jewish. According to a 2004 Israel Central Bureau of Statistics study on Israelis aged over 8% of Israeli Jews define themselves as haredim (or Ultra-Orthodox); an additional 9% are "religious" (predominantly orthodox, also known in Israel as: Zionist-religious, national-religious and kippot srugot); 12% consider themselves "religious-traditionalists" (mostly adhering to Jewish Halakha); 27% are "non-religious traditionalists" (only partly respecting the Jewish Halakha), and 43% are "secular". Among the seculars, 53% say they believe in God. Due to the higher natality rate of religious and traditionalists over seculars, the share of religious and traditionalists among the overall population is even higher.


Signs in Israel in Hebrew, Arabic and English, including one which was vandalized

Due to its immigrant nature, Israel is one of the most multicultural and multilingual societies in the world. Hebrew and Arabic are the official languages in the country, while English and Russian are the two most widely spoken non official languages. Yiddish (2%) and French (2%) are among following most commonly used foreign languages in the country.[54] A certain degree of English is spoken widely, and is the language of choice for many Israeli businesses. Courses of Hebrew and English language are mandatory in the Israeli school system, and most schools offer either Arabic, Spanish, German or French. The Israeli government also offers free intensive Hebrew-language courses, known as ulpan for new olim in order to help integration into the country.

See also


  1. ^ This figure includes Israelis living in East Jerusalem and the Israeli-occupied territories
  2. ^
  3. ^ Ancestry: 2000
  4. ^ a b "Israeli Americans - History, Modern era, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns". Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  5. ^ a b PINI HERMAN (April 25, 2012). "Rumors of mass Israeli emigration are much exaggerated".  
  6. ^ a b Gallya Lahav; Asher Arian (2005). 'Israelis in a Jewish diaspora: The multiple dilemmas of a globalized group' in International Migration and the Globalization of Domestic Politics ed. Rey Koslowski. London: Routledge. p. 89.  
  7. ^ A. Craig Copetas (December 19, 2007). "Karma Kosher Conscripts in New-Age Diaspora Seek Refuge in Goa".  
  8. ^ a b Immigrant population by place of birth and period of immigration (2006 Census), Statistics Canada
  9. ^ a b "Israelis in London prefer their own". Retrieved 2008-12-23. 
  10. ^ HAVIV RETTIG GUR (04/06/2008). "Officials to US to bring Israelis home".  
  11. ^ "Country-of-birth database".  
  12. ^ Dan Goldberg (July 3, 2012). "Jews Down Under are on the rise, but for how long?". Haaretz. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  13. ^ Hagin, Adi (Sep 16, 2011). "Why are Israelis moving to Germany?". Haaretz. Retrieved March 18, 2013. 
  14. ^ Assaf Uni (September 3, 2012). "Israelis in Berlin buying their strudel with welfare". Times of Israel. Retrieved March 18, 2013. 
  15. ^ Doron Halutz (January 21, 2011). "Unkosher Nightlife and Holocaust Humor: Israelis Learn to Love the New Berlin". Spiegel Online. Retrieved March 18, 2013. 
  16. ^ My Promised Land, by Ari Shavit, (London 2014), page 288
  17. ^ Eric, Gold; Moav, Omer (2006), Brain Drain From Israel (Brichat Mochot M'Yisrael) (in Hebrew), Jerusalem: Mercaz Shalem - The Shalem Center, The Social-Economic Institute, p. 26 .
  18. ^ a b c [2], Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, CBS
  19. ^ a b c "Palestinians shun Israeli settlement restriction plan". BBC. 25 November 2009. Retrieved 23 December 2010. 
  20. ^ United Nations (1 October 2007). Yearbook of the United Nations 2005. United Nations Publications. p. 524.  
  21. ^
  22. ^ Yoram Ettinger (April 5, 2013). "Defying demographic projections".  
  23. ^ "Jewish Demographic Policies" (PDF). The Jewish People Policy Institute. 2011. 
  24. ^ "Israel (people)". 2007. 
  25. ^ Andrew I. Killgore."Facts on the Ground: A Jewish Exodus from Israel" Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, March 2004, pp.18-20
  26. ^  
  27. ^ "Selected Statistics on Jerusalem Day 2007 (Hebrew)".  
  28. ^ The Bedouin in Israel: Demography Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1 July 1999
  29. ^ "Arrests at protest over Israel's Bedouin plan".  
  30. ^
  31. ^ "Behind the Headlines: The Bedouin in the Negev and the Begin Plan".  
  32. ^ Table 2.2, Statistical Abstract of Israel 2007, No. 58.
  33. ^ Martina Könighofer (2008). The New Ship of Zion: Dynamic Diaspora Dimensions of the African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 12.  
  34. ^ Prensa Judía. "Los judíos argentinos son los que más emigran a Israel" (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 January 2014. 
  35. ^ Para ti. "Argentinos en Israel" (in Spanish). 
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^ Joyce M. Davis. Jerusalem’s Armenian Quarter. Catholic Near East Welfare Association.
  40. ^ "Front page Current Affairs Embassy Honorary Consulates Services Team Finland Finland in Israel History Finnish associations About Finland Links Feedback Contact Front page > Finland in Israel > Finnish associations Finnish Associations". Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  41. ^ Landers, Ann (February 7, 1997). "Readers Recall Heroic War Efforts". NYT. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  42. ^ Eichner, Itamar. "North Korean couple gets refugee status in Israel". Ynet. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  44. ^ Henry Kamm. "Israeli emigration inspires anger and fear;" New York Times January 4, 1981
  45. ^ Stephen J. Gold. The Israeli Diaspora; Routledge 2002, p.8
  46. ^ "Supreme Court rules against ‘Israeli’ ethnicity on ID".  
  47. ^ "High court rules: It is impossible to be Israeli". Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  48. ^ Migdal, p. 135
  49. ^ Migdal, p. 136
  50. ^ a b Central Bureau of Statistics, Government of Israel. "Population, by religion and population group" (PDF). Retrieved 2006-04-08. 
  51. ^ Religion in Israel: A Consensus for Jewish Tradition by Daniel J. Elazar (JCPA)
  52. ^ Ori Stendel. The Arabs in Israel. Sussex Academic Press. p. 45.  
  53. ^ "The Bahá'í World Centre: Focal Point for a Global Community". The Bahá'í International Community. Retrieved 2007-07-02. 
  54. ^ Druckman, Yaron. "CBS: 27% of Israelis struggle with Hebrew". Ynet. Retrieved 24 January 2014. 

External links

  • BBC News | Israel's modern immigrants
  • BBC News | Israel faces Russian brain drain
  • Kehilot | Secular & Religious Jewish Communities of Israel
  • Israel Central Bureau of Statistics site (English)
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