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Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine

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Title: Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine  
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Subject: Civilian casualties in the Second Intifada, List of Israeli civilian casualties in the Second Intifada, Violence in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict 2005, Violence in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict 2004, List of Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel, 2007
Collection: Anti-Zionism in the Palestinian Territories, Designated Terrorist Organizations Associated with Islam, European Union Designated Terrorist Organizations, Government of Canada Designated Terrorist Organizations, Government of New Zealand Designated Terrorist Organizations, Irregular Military, Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine, Islamist Groups, Jihadist Groups, Jihadist Organizations, Organizations Designated as Terrorist, Organizations Designated as Terrorist by the United States Government, Palestinian Militant Groups, Palestinian Political Parties, Palestinian Terrorism, Sunni Islamic Political Parties, Sunni Organizations, United Kingdom Home Office Designated Terrorist Groups
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine

Islamic Jihad Movement
حركة الجهاد الإسلامي في فلسطين
Leader(s) Fathi Shaqaqi (1981–1995)
Ramadan Shalah (1995–)
Abd Al Aziz Awda (1981–)
Dates of operation 1987–present
Active region(s) Gaza Strip
Ideology Palestinian nationalism
Islamic nationalism
Political position Far-Right
Status Designated as terrorist organization by Australia, Canada, the European Union, Japan, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Size 8,000[1]

The Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine (United States,[3] the European Union,[4] the United Kingdom,[5] Japan,[6] Canada,[7] Australia,[8] New Zealand[9][10] and Israel. Iran is a major financial supporter of the PIJ.[11][12][13][14] Following the Israeli and Egyptian squeeze on Hamas in early 2014, PIJ has seen its power steadily increase with the backing of funds from Iran.[15] Its financial backing is believed to also come from Syria. The Islamic Jihad Movement has sent "its gratitude to the brothers in Hezbollah, the Islamic resistance in South Lebanon. Particularly Hassan Nasrallah, for their stance and support, be it financial, military or moral support".[16]

The armed wing of PIJ is Al-Quds Brigades, formed in 1981, which is active in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, with its main strongholds in the West Bank being the cities of Hebron and Jenin. Its operations have included suicide bombings, attacks on Israeli civilians, as well as the firing of rockets into Israel. PIJ has much in common with Hamas, with both fighting against the existence of the State of Israel. Both groups were formed as offshoots of the Muslim Brotherhood and receive a large amount of funding from Iran. With similar goals, Hamas and PIJ have worked together on a number of projects.


  • History and background 1
  • Ideology, motives and beliefs 2
  • Activities 3
    • Militant activities 3.1
      • List of attacks 3.1.1
    • Social services 3.2
  • Notable members 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7

History and background

Flag of the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine. The organization's banner leads from a verse in the Qur'an "And those who do jihad for Us, we shall guide them to our paths. And God is with those who do good."[17]

PIJ was formally established in Gaza in 1981 by two Palestinian activists: Dr Fathi abd al-Aziz Shaqaqi, a Rafah-based physician, and Shaykh Abd al-Aziz Awda, an Islamic preacher from the Jabaliyya refugee camp, as well as Ramadan Shalah, Bashir Moussa and three other Palestinian radicals. Based in Egypt, Shaqaqi and Awda were originally members of the Muslim Brotherhood. Their views on the destruction of Israel, however, led them in 1979 to establish Islamic Jihad-Shaqaqi Faction, a branch of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad.[18] and conducted operations out of Egypt. The Shaqaqi Faction was expelled from Egypt in 1981 following the assassination of Egypt’s President Anwar Sadat by the Egyptian Islamic Jihad. Shaqaqi and Awda returned to Gaza where they formally established PIJ,[19][20] from where it continued its operations.

The aim of the organization was the establishment of a sovereign,

  • Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine official website
  • BBC: Israel and the Palestinians
  • Hatina, Meir (2001). Islam and Salvation in Palestine: The Islamic Jihad Movement. Syracuse University Press.  
  • Fletcher, Holly (10 April 2008). "Palestinian Islamic Jihad". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  • Quartet to Syria: Block 'Jihad' 5 December 2005

Further reading

  1. ^ Ben Gedalyahu, Ben (7 November 2011). "Iran Backs Islamic Jihad's 8,000-Man Army in Gaza". Israel National News. Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 7 November 2011. 
  2. ^ a b BBC Who are Islamic Jihad? 9 June 2003
  3. ^ US - Office of Counterterrorism
  4. ^ List of organisations recognized as terrorist groups
  5. ^ UK home office
  6. ^ MoFA Japan
  7. ^ Public safety Canada
  8. ^ "Palestinian Islamic Jihad". Australian National Security. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  9. ^ "Lists associated with Resolution 1373". New Zealand Police. 20 July 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
  11. ^ Mannes, Aaron (2004). Profiles in Terror: The Guide to Middle East Terrorist Organizations.  
  13. ^ Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ). NCTC.
  14. ^ Government: Listing of Terrorism Organisations
  15. ^ The Gaza Strip: Who's in charge?
  16. ^ Sunni Palestinian Islamic Jihad Thanks Iran and Hezbollah (English Subtitles). YouTube. 13 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2015. 
  17. ^ Qur'an Soorah al-Ankaboot 29:69 وَالَّذِينَ جَاهَدُوا فِينَا لَنَهْدِيَنَّهُمْ سُبُلَنَا ۚ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمَعَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ(Arabic text)
  18. ^ Quintan Wiktorowicz (2004). Islamic Activism: A Social Movement Theory Approach. Indiana University Press. p. 122.  
  20. ^ Marlowe, Lara (6 February 1995). "Interview with a Fanatic".  
  21. ^ Fletcher, Holly (10 April 2008). "Palestinian Islamic Jihad".  
  22. ^ a b c d "Palestinian Islamic Jihad". Retrieved 7 March 2009. 
  23. ^ "Palestinians swear revenge for assassination". Herald Journal (Gaza City). 28 October 1995. Retrieved 15 December 2012. 
  24. ^ "Fathi Shiqaqi". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  25. ^ Reich, Bernard; Goldberg, David H. (2008). Historical Dictionary of Israel. Scarecrow Press. pp. 373–375.  
  26. ^ Fisk, Robert (30 January 1995). "The doctor who finds death a laughing matter".  
  27. ^ Shay, Shaul. The Axis Of Evil: Iran, Hizballah, And The Palestinian Terror. Transaction Publishers. pp. 76–77.  
  28. ^ St. Petersberg Times, 23 April 2006.
  29. ^ "Details and Statements On Federal Court Dismissing All Charges Against Sami Al-Arian," Jadaliyya, 27 June 2014.
  30. ^ "Brother slams Palestinian militants for luring teenager into suicide mission". Yahoo News. AFP. 30 March 2004. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  31. ^ "FBI — ABD AL AZIZ AWDA". FBI. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  32. ^ Ilan Ben Zion (14 March 2012). "The eye of the Islamic Jihad storm". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  33. ^ Marc Tracy (12 March 2012). "Terrorist Killing Prompts Gaza Rocket Exchange". Tablet Magazine. Retrieved 31 March 2012. 
  34. ^ Elhanan Miller (26 May 2015). "Iran said to pull Islamic Jihad's funding over group's neutrality on Yemen". Times of Israel. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  35. ^ "Interview with Ramadan Shallah, Secretary General, Palestinian Islamic Jihad (Damascus, Syria, December 15, 2009)" (PDF). Perspectives on Terrorism IV (2). 23 July 2010. 
  36. ^ "Palestinian Islamic Jihad". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 7 March 2009. 
  37. ^ Kurz, Robert W.; Charles K. Bartles (2007). "Chechen suicide bombers" (PDF). Journal of Slavic Military Studies (Routledge) 20: 529–547.  
  38. ^ "Hamas Caught Using Human Shields in Gaza". Israel Defense Forces. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  39. ^ Erlanger, Steven; Akram, Fares. "Israel Warns Gaza Targets by Phone and Leaflet". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  40. ^ "Protection of the civilian population". Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977. International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  41. ^ "Palestinian accused in bus crash". Rome News-Tribune. AP. 7 July 1989. p. 6-A. Retrieved 18 June 2009. 
  42. ^ Patterns of Global Terrorism: 1990 Middle East Overview
  43. ^ a b c "The Listing of Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ)" (PDF). Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 8 March 2009. 
  44. ^ "'"Hebron ambush scene dubbed 'Death Alley. Haaretz. 17 November 2002. 
  45. ^ a b Press slams gunmen for using TV jeep | Jerusalem Post
  46. ^ "Gaza: Armed Palestinian Groups Commit Grave Crimes". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 17 July 2015. 
  47. ^ "Journalists slam use of 'press vehicle' by Gaza militants". Retrieved 17 July 2015. 
  48. ^ Stoil, Rebecca Anna. "Two Islamic Jihad conspirators jailed." Jerusalem Post. 26 March 2009. Retrieved 27 March 2009.
  49. ^ "Rockets hit near Tel Aviv as Gaza death toll rises". Reuters. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  50. ^ "6 Gaza rockets hit south; IDF retaliates". ynet. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  51. ^ "Six rockets fired from Gaza towards Israel's South". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  52. ^ "Six rockets fired from Gaza explode in southern Israel". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  53. ^ Isabel Kershner, "Rocket Fire From Gaza Shakes Cease-Fire With Israel", New York Times, 25 June 2013.
  54. ^ a b Palestinian civil society: foreign donors and the power to promote and exclude. Benoît Challand. p. 67-69.
  55. ^ Levy, Elior (12 June 2012). "'"Gaza kindergartners want to 'blow up Zionists. Yedioth Ahronot. Retrieved 9 July 2012. 
  56. ^ "سرايا القدس الاعلام الحربي". Saraya. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  57. ^ "Jihad summer camp: Sand, soccer and the Zionist enemy". Haaretz. 27 August 2006. 
  58. ^ "Samtal med en terrorist". Stockholms Fria. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  59. ^ Blast kills senior Gaza militant BBC News
  60. ^ Senior Jihad man, 14 others die in IDF strikes, Ynet, 29 December 2008
  61. ^ IAF kills senior Islamic Jihad commander, JPost, 3 April 2009


See also

Notable members

We teach the children the truth. How the Jews persecuted the prophets and tortured them. We stress that the Jews killed and slaughtered Arabs and Palestinians every chance they got. Most important, the children understand that the conflict with the Jews is not over land, but rather over religion. As long as Jews remain here, between the [Jordan] river and the sea, they will be our enemy and we will continue to pursue and kill them. When they leave we won't hurt them."[57]

Islamic Jihad also operates dozens of summer camps for children. They have opened up 51 summer camps which attracted approximately 10,000 children in 2010.

Islamic Jihad also control dozens of religious organizations in the Palestinian territories that are registered as NGOs and operate mosques, schools, and medical facilities that offer free services.[54] Like other Islamic associations, these are heavily scrutinized by the Palestinian National Authority who have shut some of them down.[54] In one Islamic Jihad kindergarten graduation, children dressed up in military uniforms, waved guns, shouted anti-Israel slogans, and spoke of blowing themselves up to kill "Zionists".[55][56]

Social services

Islamic Jihad has also deployed its own rocket, similar to the Qassam rocket used by Hamas, called the al-Quds rocket.

  • August 1987: The PIJ claimed responsibility for a shooting that killed the commander of the Israeli military police in the Gaza Strip.[2]
  • July 1989: Attack of Egged bus 405 along the Jerusalem–Tel Aviv highway, at least 14 people killed (including two Canadians and one American) and dozens more wounded. Though intended to be a suicide attack, the perpetrator survived.[41]
  • 4 February 1990: A bus carrying Israeli tourists in Egypt was attacked. The attack left 11 people, including 9 Israelis dead and 17 others injured.[42]
  • December 1993: Killed an Israeli reservist, David Mashrati, during a public bus shooting.
  • April 1994: A car bomb aboard a public bus killed 9 people and injured 50.
  • January 1995: Bomb attack near Netanya killing eighteen soldiers and one civilian.[22]
  • April 1995: Bomb Attack in Netzarim and Kfar Darom. The first bomb killed 8 people including American student, Alisa Flatow, and injured over 30 on an Israel bus; the second attack was a car bomb that injured 12 people.
  • March 1996: A Tel Aviv shopping mall is the site of another bombing killing 20 and injuring 75.
  • November 2000: A car bomb in Jerusalem at an outdoor market killed 2 people and injured 10.[43]
  • March 2002: A bomb killed seven people and injured approximately thirty aboard a bus travelling from Tel Aviv to Nazareth.[43]
  • June 2002: Eighteen people are killed and fifty injured in an attack at the Megiddo Junction.[22]
  • July 2002: A double attack in Tel Aviv killed five people and injured 40.
  • November 2002: 12 soldiers and security personnel killed in an ambush in Hebron.[44]
  • May 2003: Three people killed and eighty-three injured in a suicide bombing at a shopping mall in Afula.
  • August 2003: A bomber killed 21 people and injured more than 100 people on a bus in Jerusalem.[43]
  • October 2003: A bomb killed 22 and injured 60 at a Haifa restaurant.
  • October 2005: A bomb detonated in a Hadera market was responsible for killing seven people and injuring 55, five of them severely.
  • April 2006: A bomb in a Tel Aviv eatery killed eleven and injured 70.
  • January 2007: Both the al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades and the PIJ claim responsibility for a suicide bombing at an Eilat bakery that killed three.[22]
  • June 2007, in a failed assault on an IDF position at the Human Rights Watch Sarah Leah Whitsonn responded, "Using a vehicle with press markings to carry out a military attack is a serious violation of the laws of war, and it also puts journalists at risk."[46] The FPA responded by saying,
    "Armored vehicles marked with TV are an invaluable protection for genuine journalists working in hostile environments. The FPA has long campaigned for the continued availability of armored vehicles for its members, despite official opposition in some quarters. The abuse of this recognized protection for the working journalist is a grave development and we condemn those that carried it out. Such an incident will reduce the protection offered by marked vehicles."[45]
    During a press conference, an Islamic Jihad spokesperson Abu Ahmed denied that they had put press markings on the jeep used in the attack and said, "The Al-Quds Brigades used an armoured jeep resembling military armoured jeeps used by the Zionist intelligence services."[47]
  • On 26 March 2009, two Islamic Jihad members were imprisoned for a conspiracy "to murder Israeli pilots and scientists using booby-trapped toy cars".[48]
  • On 15 November 2012, Islamic Jihad fired two Fajr-5's at Tel Aviv from Gaza, one landing in an uninhabited area of the suburbs and the other in the sea.[49]
  • On 24 June 2013, Six rockets were fired into Israel; major news outlets reported that the Islamic Jihad were behind the attacks.[50][51][52][53]

List of attacks

The Palestinian Islamic Jihad have claimed responsibility for the following attacks:

The Palestinian Islamic Jihad has claimed responsibility for many militant activities over the years. The organization is responsible for a number of attacks including more than 30 suicide bombings; indeed, on 22 December 2001, PIJ vowed to continue its campaign despite Hamas' decision to halt suicide bombings inside Israel in response to an alleged crackdown by Yasser Arafat. PIJ's representative in Lebanon, Abu Imad Al-Rifai noted, "Our position is to continue. We have no other choice. We are not willing to compromise."[36] The international community considers the use of indiscriminate attacks on civilian populations[37] and the use of human shields[38][39] as illegal under international law.[40]

Militant activities


[...] We are the indigenous people of the land. I was born in Gaza. My family, brothers and sisters, live in Gaza. But I am not allowed to visit them. But any American or Siberian Jew is allowed to take our land. There is no possibility today of a two-state solution. That idea is dead. And there is no real prospect of a one-state solution. [...] [...] I will never, under any conditions, accept the existence of the state of Israel. I have no problem living with the Jewish people. [...] [...] We have lived together in peace for centuries. And if Netanyahu were to ask if we can live together in one state, I would say to him: "If we have exactly the same rights as Jews to come to all of Palestine. If Khaled Meshaal and Ramadan Shalah can come whenever they want, and visit Haifa, and buy a home in Herzliyah if they want, then we can have a new language, and dialogue is possible." [...][35]

Ramadan Shalah was interviewed by a delegation from the World Federation of Scientists in Damascus, Syria, 15 December 2009. In this interview he argues, that the Israelis will accept neither a two state nor a one state solution and that the only choice is to continue the armed struggle until Israel's defeat.

Ideology, motives and beliefs

London-based Arabic newspaper Asharq al-Awsat reported in May 2015 that Iran had stopped funding PIJ due to the group's neutrality over the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, throwing PIJ into a severe financial crisis. Iran had expected PIJ to condemn the intervention led by Saudi Arabia, Iran's chief regional rival. Palestinian newspaper al-Quds reported that Iran is now supporting an offshoot of PIJ called as-Sabirin (Arabic for "the patient ones"), headed by Islamic Jihad veteran Hisham Salem.[34]

In February 2012, the Hamas government in the Gaza Strip distanced itself from PIJ. During the March 2012 Gaza–Israel clashes, which followed the Israeli assassination of Popular Resistance Committees leader, Zuhir al-Qaisi, who bragged of kidnapping Gilad Shalit, PIJ and PRC opened attacks on Israel. Hamas refrained from joining PIJ and PRC in attacking Israel.[32] Over a hundred Palestinians were killed or injured in the ensuing violence, but Israel did not attack any Hamas targets at the time.[33] The eventual ceasefire was negotiated between Israel and the militant groups, not Hamas.

Following further terrorist attacks on civilians in Israel, Shalah and Awda were indicted under United States law and added in 2006 to the United States FBI Most Wanted Terrorists list.[31]

PIJ is alleged to have used minors. On 29 March 2004, 15-year-old Tamer Khuweir of Rifidia, a suburb of Palestinian city Nablus in the West Bank, was captured by Israeli forces as he planned to carry out a suicide mission. His older brother claimed he was brainwashed and demanded the Palestinian Authority investigate the incident and arrest those responsible for it.[30]

On 20 February 2003, University of South Florida computer engineering professor Sami Al-Arian was arrested after being indicted on a terrorism-related charge. U.S. Attorney General John Ashcroft alleged at a press conference that Al-Arian was the North American head of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad. On 6 December 2006, Sami Al-Arian was sentenced to 57 months in prison, pursuant to a plea bargain.[28] In November 2006 he was found guilty of civil contempt for refusing to testify before a federal grand jury and served 21 months in prison on that conviction. On 27 June 2014, the US Federal Government dropped all charges against Al-Arian.[29]

[27] PIJ masterminded several

PIJ began its armed operations against Israel in 1984. In 1988, its leaders were exiled by Israel to Syrian capital, Damascus, where it continues to be based, with offices in Beirut, Tehran, and Khartoum.


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